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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    2013
    ISSN: 0036-8075 
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 07 June 2013, Vol.340(6137), pp.1234168
    Description: Morphogenesis, the development of the shape of an organism, is a dynamic process on a multitude of scales, from fast subcellular rearrangements and cell movements to slow structural changes at the whole-organism level. Live-imaging approaches based on light microscopy reveal the intricate dynamics of this process and are thus indispensable for investigating the underlying mechanisms. This Review discusses emerging imaging techniques that can record morphogenesis at temporal scales from seconds to days and at spatial scales from hundreds of nanometers to several millimeters. To unlock their full potential, these methods need to be matched with new computational approaches and physical models that help convert highly complex image data sets into biological insights.
    Subject(s): Morphogenesis ; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted -- Methods ; Microscopy -- Methods
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    2012
    ISSN: 0036-8075 
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 12 October 2012, Vol.338(6104), pp.201-3
    Description: One of the enduring mysteries of developmental and cell biology is morphogenesis, the process of how the heritable body plan, in both its general aspects and in the detailed features of the adult, is shaped at every stage from the fertilized egg. Physical analysis played a large role early in the history of its study, then was largely ignored for a time as other approaches held sway, but has recently regained a central role as attention has turned anew to solving the riddle of how tens, hundreds, or thousands of embryonic cells act in coordinated fashion in so-called "mass" or "collective" cell movements, to shape the body plan of multicellular animals. [PUBLICATION ]
    Subject(s): Biophysical Phenomena ; Cell Movement ; Morphogenesis
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    2013
    ISSN: 0036-8075 
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 07 June 2013, Vol.340(6137), pp.1175-6
    Description: Most of us use the Internet to exchange information in everyday life. The ever-increasing rate at which Internet connections transmit data requires faster and faster conversion of local information into signals that can be easily transmitted over long distances. For example, the information sent by your computer is converted from electronic signals into optical signals, which are then sent through a network of optical fibers. Without the reliable and high-speed conversion of information from electronic to optical form, modern communication would not be possible. With the emergence of quantum technologies, most notably quantum information technology, the way we communicate is about to change fundamentally. On page 1202 of this issue, Thompson et al. describe a system that has the potential to become an interface between atoms and optical signals and provide local information storage and transmission in the quantum domain. [PUBLICATION ]
    Subject(s): Internet ; Atoms & Subatomic Particles ; Information Technology ; Quantum Physics;
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 4
    Article
    Article
    2012
    ISSN: 0028-0836 
    In: Nature, 2012, Vol.483(7387), p.38
    Subject(s): Earth (Planet) ; Life ; Sunlight ; Atmosphere -- Chemistry;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 06 November 2018, Vol.115(45), pp.11414-11419
    Description: The first part of this paper reviews the basic tenets of attachment theory with respect to differences in cultural socialization strategies. In one strategy infants have the lead, and the social environment is responsive to the infant's wishes and preferences. In another strategy the caregivers-children or adults-are experts who know what is best for a baby without exploring his or her mental states. Accordingly, the definition of attachment is conceived as a negotiable emotional bond or a network of responsibilities. Attachment theory represents the Western middle-class perspective, ignoring the caregiving values and practices in the majority of the world. However, attachment theory claims universality in all its components. Since the claim of universality implies moral judgments about good and bad parenting, ethical questions need to be addressed. These issues are discussed in the second part of the paper. It is first demonstrated that sensitive responsiveness in attachment theory is...
    Subject(s): Attachment ; Culture ; Developmental Pathways ; Ethics ; Interventions
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 6
    In: Biological Psychiatry, 15 February 2012, Vol.71(4), p.387
    Subject(s): Medicine ; Biology ; Chemistry;
    ISSN: 00063223
    E-ISSN: 18732402
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Psychology, 2012, Vol.97(1), pp.225-233
    Description: A study of 644 scientists and engineers from 5 corporate research and development organizations investigated hypotheses generated from an interactionist framework of 4 individual characteristics as longitudinal predictors of performance and innovativeness. An innovative orientation predicted 1-year-later and 5-years-later supervisory job performance ratings and 5-years-later counts of patents and publications. An internal locus of control predicted 5-years-later patents and publications, and self-esteem predicted performance ratings for both times and patents. Team-level nonroutine tasks moderated the individual-level relationships between an innovative orientation and performance ratings and patents such that the relationships were stronger in a nonroutine task environment. Implications for an interactionist framework of performance and innovativeness for knowledge workers are discussed.
    Subject(s): Individual Characteristics ; Performance And Innovativeness ; Scientists And Engineers
    ISSN: 0021-9010
    E-ISSN: 1939-1854
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  • 8
    Article
    Article
    2010
    ISSN: 0028-0836 
    In: Nature, 2010, Vol.467(7318), p.914
    Description: The number of births in the United States increased between 2006 and 2007 (preliminary estimate of 4,317,119) and is the highest ever recorded. Birth rates increased among all age groups (15 to 44 years); the increase among teenagers is contrary to a long-term pattern of decline during 1991-2005. The total fertility rate increased 1% in 2007 to 2122.5 births per 1000 women. This rate was above replacement level for the second consecutive year. The proportion of all births to unmarried women increased to 39.7% in 2007, up from 38.5% in 2006, with increases noted for all race and Hispanic-origin groups and within each age group of 15 years and older. In 2007, 31.8% of all births occurred by cesarean delivery, up 2% from 2006. Increases in cesarean delivery were noted for most age groups and for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic women. Multiple-birth rates, which rose rapidly over the last several decades, did not increase during 2005-2006. The 2007 preterm birth rate was 12.7%, a decline of 1% from 2006. The low-birth-weight rate also declined in 2007 to 8.2%. The infant mortality rate was 6.77 infant deaths per 1000 live births in 2007, which is not significantly different from the 2006 rate. Non-Hispanic black infants continued to have much higher rates than non-Hispanic white and Hispanic infants. States in the southeastern United States had the highest infant and fetal mortality rates. The United States continues to rank poorly in international comparisons of infant mortality. Life expectancy at birth reached a record high of 77.9 years in 2007. Crude death rates for children aged 1 to 19 years decreased by 2.5% between 2006 and 2007. Unintentional injuries and homicide were the first and second leading causes of death, respectively, accounting for 53.7% of all deaths to children and adolescents in 2007.
    Subject(s): Medicine;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 9
    In: Nature, 2018, Vol.553(7688), p.323
    Description: The oxygenation of the deep ocean in the geological past has been associated with a rise in the partial pressure of atmospheric molecular oxygen (O) to near-present levels and the emergence of modern marine biogeochemical cycles. It has also been linked to the origination and diversification of early animals. It is generally thought that the deep ocean was largely anoxic from about 2,500 to 800 million years ago, with estimates of the occurrence of deep-ocean oxygenation and the linked increase in the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen to levels sufficient for this oxygenation ranging from about 800 to 400 million years ago. Deep-ocean dissolved oxygen concentrations over this interval are typically estimated using geochemical signatures preserved in ancient continental shelf or slope sediments, which only indirectly reflect the geochemical state of the deep ocean. Here we present a record that more directly reflects deep-ocean oxygen concentrations, based on the ratio of Fe to total Fe in hydrothermally altered basalts formed in ocean basins. Our data allow for quantitative estimates of deep-ocean dissolved oxygen concentrations from 3.5 billion years ago to 14 million years ago and suggest that deep-ocean oxygenation occurred in the Phanerozoic (541 million years ago to the present) and potentially not until the late Palaeozoic (less than 420 million years ago).
    Subject(s): Geologic Sediments -- Chemistry ; Iron -- Chemistry ; Oxygen -- Analysis ; Seawater -- Chemistry ; Silicates -- Chemistry;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2011, Vol.100(6), pp.1056-1078
    Description: Individuals tend to explain the characteristics of others with reference to an underlying essence, a tendency that has been termed psychological essentialism . Drawing on current conceptualizations of essentialism as a fundamental mode of social thinking, and on prior studies investigating belief in genetic determinism (BGD) as a component of essentialism, we argue that BGD cannot constitute the sole basis of individuals' essentialist reasoning. Accordingly, we propose belief in social determinism (BSD) as a complementary component of essentialism, which relies on the belief that a person's essential character is shaped by social factors (e.g., upbringing, social background). We developed a scale to measure this social component of essentialism. Results of five correlational studies indicate that (a) BGD and BSD are largely independent, (b) BGD and BSD are related to important correlates of essentialist thinking (e.g., dispositionism, perceived group homogeneity), (c) BGD and BSD are associated with indicators of fundamental epistemic and ideological motives, and (d) the endorsement of each lay theory is associated with vital social-cognitive consequences (particularly stereotyping and prejudice). Two experimental studies examined the idea that the relationship between BSD and prejudice is bidirectional in nature. Study 6 reveals that rendering social-deterministic explanations salient results in increased levels of ingroup favoritism in individuals who chronically endorse BSD. Results of Study 7 show that priming of prejudice enhances endorsement of social-deterministic explanations particularly in persons habitually endorsing prejudiced attitudes.
    Subject(s): Belief In Social Determinism ; Essentialism ; Lay Theories ; Prejudice ; Stereotyping
    ISSN: 0022-3514
    E-ISSN: 1939-1315
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