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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Les/Wood, 2020-06-20, Vol.69 (1), p.101-107
    Description: Prof. dr. Fritz Hans Schweingruber (29. 2. 1936 – 7. 1. 2020) je bil ključen lesni anatom in dendrokronolog, učitelj in organizator poletnih terenskih šol, ki je vzpostavil obsežno omrežje znanstvenic in znanstvenikov, napisal referenčne knjige, prispeval k izgradnji javno dostopnih baz podatkov, populariziral in nakazal neslutene možnosti razvoja in uporabe anatomije lesa ter dendrokronologije. Zasnoval je intelektualno zapuščino, ki bo še dolgo navdihovala njegove sledilce po vsem svetu.
    Subject(s): anatomija lesa ; poučevanje ; terenski tedni ; dendrokronologija ; knjige
    ISSN: 0024-1067
    E-ISSN: 2590-9932
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Trees (Berlin, West), 2008-12, Vol.22 (6), p.749-758
    Description: Long-term variation in tree-ring widths (1873–2006) and intra-annual dynamics of cambial activity and tree-ring formation in 2006 were studied in mature beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees at a typical forest site near Ljubljana (46°N, 14°40′E, 400 m a.s.l.) and related to leaf phenology and climate data. Tree-ring widths were negatively affected by minimum March and maximum August temperatures and favoured by May and July precipitation. Precipitation of the previous August and temperature of the previous November also had a positive effect. Leaf unfolding was affected by March and April temperatures, occurring later if they were low. Leaf yellowing was positively affected by minimum July temperatures and negatively by September precipitation. In 2006, leaf unfolding occurred on 16 April and was immediately followed by reactivation of cambium at breast height of the trees. One week later, the cambium obtained its maximum width (around 11 cell layers) and the rate of division increased until the end of May/beginning of June. By the end of June, 75% of the tree-ring was formed. Cambial cell divisions stopped from the end of July to mid-August. The average time of cambial activity was 100 days. Leaf yellowing occurred at the end of October, i.e. nearly 2 months after the cessation of cambial cell division. We discuss the usefulness of a combination of long-term (tree-ring width and phenology) and short-term (wood formation at a cellular level) data to understand better the environmental signals registered by a tree during growth.
    Subject(s): Life Sciences ; Plant Pathology ; Plant Anatomy/Development ; European beech = Fagus sylvatica ; Climate ; Tree-rings ; Phenology ; Forestry ; Plant Physiology ; Agriculture ; Wood formation ; Plant Sciences ; Rain and rainfall ; Universities and colleges
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: ProQuest Central
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Les/Wood, 2020-06-20, Vol.69 (1), p.5-19
    Description: In spring of 2020 we observed leaf phenology in mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees in Tivoli, Rožnik and Šišenski hrib Landscape Park in Ljubljana, Slovenia (46.05°N, 14.49°E, 310 m a. s. l.). A group of 11 trees was selected for daily monitoring of leaf development. We recorded seven phases from dormant buds, through leaf unfolding till development of mature leaves. At the same time, photos were taken to illustrate the leaf development. First developing leaves were observed on 4 April in one tree. General leaf unfolding, as defined by International Phenological Gardens (IPG), was observed in different trees between 7 and 25 April 2020. The occurrence and duration of individual phases of leaf development showed great variation within and between trees. General leaf unfolding of the tree included in the long-term monitoring program of the Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia (ARSO) occurred on DOY 105 (14 April 2020), which is 4 days earlier than long-term average of the same tree/location, and this is ascribed to above average temperatures in the winter of 2019/2020.
    Subject(s): slovenia ; variability ; phenology ; european beech (fagus sylvatica) ; leaf development
    ISSN: 0024-1067
    E-ISSN: 2590-9932
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Les/Wood, 2019-12-30, Vol.68 (2), p.5-17
    Description: We used the Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) Olympus LEXT OLS5000 for non-destructive observation and image analysis of wood anatomy traits in growth layers of tree species from different climatic zones. In European beech (Fagus sylvatica), where tree rings can generally be recognised, we discuss the changes in tree-ring structure due to adverse effects (insect attacks). Growth layers in Mediterranean Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) from south-eastern Spain are not always annual and contain numerous intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs). Ocote pine (Pinus oocarpa) growing at high elevation in Honduras showed growth layers with clear growth ring boundaries and IADFs. In both pines, CLSM allowed us to recognise and measure tracheid parameters to define density fluctuations. In tropical true mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) from Venezuela and cedrela (Cedrela odorata) from Costa Rica, we studied the growth layers with variable dimensions of vessels demarcated by marginal axial parenchyma.
    Subject(s): wood identification ; dendrochronology ; growth ring boundaries ; confocal laser scanning microscopy (clsm) ; tree-rings ; wood anatomy ; image analysis
    ISSN: 0024-1067
    E-ISSN: 2590-9932
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Les/Wood, 2019-12-30, Vol.68 (2), p.19-29
    Description: Exact wood identification is usually based on observation of wood features under the microscope. For this, we have to take a sample of the wood from the object and cut thin slides, possibly of all three anatomical sections. Such destructive sampling is often not possible on valuable historical objects, and therefore there is a need for non-destructive approaches. The objective of the study is to present the potential of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) using an Olympus LEXT OLS5000 for the identification of wood. We present work on an example of a gothic sculpture, “St. George Defeating the Dragon”. Conventional sampling and microscopical wood identification showed that St. George is made of Norway spruce (Picea abies), and the dragon of poplar (Populus sp.) or willow (Salix sp.). We present crucial features needed for the identification of these species and the limitations with identification if the samples are too small. Finally, we demonstrate the possibility of wood identification of the abovementioned species using CLSM on wood samples without special preparation of the surfaces. CLSM enabled us to observe all the features needed for wood identification.
    Subject(s): wood identification ; picea abies ; populus sp ; confocal laser scanning microscopy (clsm) ; wood anatomy ; salix sp
    ISSN: 0024-1067
    E-ISSN: 2590-9932
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 2021-03-11, Vol.12 (3), p.331
    Description: Climate change will affect radial growth patterns of trees, which will result in different forest productivity, wood properties, and timber quality. While many studies have been published on xylem phenology and anatomy lately, little is known about the phenology of earlywood and latewood formation, also in relation to cambial phenology. Even less information is available for phloem. Here, we examined year-to-year variability of the transition dates from earlywood to latewood and from early phloem to late phloem in Norway spruce (Picea abies) from three temperate sites, two in Slovenia and one in the Czech Republic. Data on xylem and phloem formation were collected during 2009–2011. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the specific contribution of growth rate and duration on wood and phloem production, separately for early and late formed parts. We found significant differences in the transition date from earlywood to latewood between the selected sites, but not between growth seasons in trees from the same site. It occurred in the first week of July at PAN and MEN and more than two weeks later at RAJ. The duration of earlywood formation was longer than that of latewood formation; from 31.4 days at PAN to 61.3 days at RAJ. In phloem, we found differences in transition date from early phloem to late phloem also between the analysed growth seasons; from 2.5 weeks at PAN to 4 weeks at RAJ Compared to the transition from earlywood to latewood the transition from early phloem to late phloem occurred 25–64 days earlier. There was no significant relationship between the onset of cambial cell production and the transition dates. The findings are important to better understand the inter-annual variability of these phenological events in spruce from three contrasting temperate sites, and how it is reflected in xylem and phloem anatomy.
    Subject(s): phloem formation ; tracheid ; cambium ; sieve cell ; Picea abies ; xylem formation
    ISSN: 1999-4907
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: ProQuest Central
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Climatic change, 2019-03-01, Vol.153 (1), p.181-197
    Description: Climate scenarios for Slovenia suggest an increase in the mean annual temperature by 2 °C over the next six decades, associated with changes in the seasonal distribution of precipitation. European beech is an ecologically and economically important forest species in Europe, so it is important to understand the influence of changing conditions on its phenology and productivity for the upcoming years. We hypothesise that the ongoing warming and reduction in precipitation during the growing season will shorten the period of xylem development, thus limiting beech growth in the next decades. Xylem formation was monitored weekly from 2008 to 2016 at two sites in Slovenia. Onset and cessation of cell enlargement and secondary wall formation, as well as xylem growth, are used to evaluate climate-growth relationships by means of partial least squares regression and to predict xylem formation phenology and annual xylem increments under climate change scenarios. A positive correlation of spring phenological phases with March–May temperatures is found. In contrast, autumn phenological phases show a negative correlation with August and September temperatures, while high temperatures at the beginning of the year delay growth cessation. According to the selected climate change scenarios, phenological phases may advance by 2 days decade-1 in spring and delay by 1.5 days decade-1 in autumn. The duration of the growing season may increase by 20 days over the next six decades, resulting in 38 to 83% wider xylem increments. The growth of beech is expected to increase under a warming climate in the sites characterised by abundant water availability.
    Subject(s): Earth Sciences ; Climate Change/Climate Change Impacts ; Atmospheric Sciences ; Botanical research ; Xylem ; Vegetation and climate ; Beech ; Physiological aspects ; Global warming ; Research ; Observations
    ISSN: 0165-0009
    E-ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Les/Wood, 2019-06-21, Vol.68 (1), p.5-14
    Description: A tree ring is defined as a band of xylem-cell layers produced in one year. In Mediterranean trees cambium often produces several bands of alternating early- and latewood during one calendar year, resulting in Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations (IADFs). We present some characteristics of growth layers in Pinus pinea (stone pine) growing on Vesuvius Mountain (near Naples, Italy). The trees showed uninterrupted wood production from January 2015 till the end of January 2016. The ring formed in this period contained five different layers of wood types. Therefore, the wood formed between January and March 2015 would be falsely ascribed to latewood of the tree ring 2014, and the wood formed between March 2015 and the end of January 2016 would be classified as tree ring 2015. We also showed differences in cambium activity in late autumn between years: in November 2015 and 2018 the cambium was still active and not active anymore, respectively. Furthermore, we present the structure of the wood formed in the year 2017 affected by a wildfire in July. Such cases where the growth layer cannot be exactly ascribed to a calendar year should be considered in dendrochronological studies of Pinus pinea and other Mediterranean species.
    Subject(s): stone pine=pinus pinea ; xylogenesis ; earlywood ; latewood ; intra-annual density fluctuation ; tree ring ; tree ring boundary ; italy
    ISSN: 0024-1067
    E-ISSN: 2590-9932
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Les/Wood, 2019-06-21, Vol.68 (1), p.47-60
    Description: Pri arheoloških izkopavanjih na območju rimskega Navporta (danes Vrhnika), kjer so bili v letu 2005 odkriti deli različnih lesenih konstrukcij, smo raziskali skoraj 500 vzorcev lesa. Polovico vzorcev je predstavljal les jelke (Abies alba) in hrasta (Quercus sp.). Posebej smo se osredotočili na dendrokronološko raziskavo treh sodov iz lesa jelke, ki so bili uporabljeni za utrditev sten jaškov treh vodnjakov. Najprej smo sestavili in s pomočjo telekonekcije datirali referenčno kronologijo jelke, nato pa smo datirali še sode. Datacije najmlajših branik so: sod 1 – leto 10 po Kr., sod 2 – leto 3 po Kr. in sod 3 – leto 10 po Kr. Vse datacije predstavljajo terminus post quem, po katerem so bili sodi uporabljeni za vodnjake. Časovni okvir gradnje vodnjakov dopolnjujejo datacije, ki smo jih pridobili z analizo arheoloških najdb. Izkazalo se je, da so sodi z Navporta približno sočasni nedavno raziskanim sodom iz zgodnjerimskih vodnjakov z območja Emone (danes Ljubljana). Datacije sodov so med prvimi uspešnimi dendrokronološkimi rezultati raziskav lesa v zgodnjerimskih naselbinah v Sloveniji ter bodo omogočile boljše datiranje stratigrafskih arheoloških plasti, gradbenih faz in posameznih najdb na širšem prostoru južno od Alp v obdobju kmalu po rimski zasedbi.
    Subject(s): vodnjaki ; rimska doba ; dendrokronologija ; jelka=abies alba ; arheologija ; leseni sodi
    ISSN: 0024-1067
    E-ISSN: 2590-9932
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Nature communications, 2020, Vol.11 (1), p.545-545
    Description: Severe droughts have the potential to reduce forest productivity and trigger tree mortality. Most trees face several drought events during their life and therefore resilience to dry conditions may be crucial to long-term survival. We assessed how growth resilience to severe droughts, including its components resistance and recovery, is related to the ability to survive future droughts by using a tree-ring database of surviving and now-dead trees from 118 sites (22 species, 〉3,500 trees). We found that, across the variety of regions and species sampled, trees that died during water shortages were less resilient to previous non-lethal droughts, relative to coexisting surviving trees of the same species. In angiosperms, drought-related mortality risk is associated with lower resistance (low capacity to reduce impact of the initial drought), while it is related to reduced recovery (low capacity to attain pre-drought growth rates) in gymnosperms. The different resilience strategies in these two taxonomic groups open new avenues to improve our understanding and prediction of drought-induced mortality.
    Subject(s): Kennis, Technologie and Innovatie ; Knowledge Technology and Innovation ; Leerstoelgroep Bosecologie en bosbeheer ; Bosecologie en Bosbeheer ; PE&RC ; Forest Ecology and Forest Management ; Adaptation, Physiological ; Water ; Forests ; Species Specificity ; Mortality ; Stress, Physiological ; Ecology ; Trees - growth & development ; Climate Change ; Trees - classification ; Droughts ; Soil - chemistry ; Survival Analysis ; Cycadopsida - growth & development ; Magnoliopsida - growth & development ; Index Medicus ; Biodiversity and Ecology ; Environmental Sciences ; Climate-change ecology ; Forest ecology
    ISSN: 2041-1723
    E-ISSN: 2041-1723
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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