International journal of molecular sciences, 2019-11-01, Vol.20 (21), p.5261
GPR68 (OGR1) belongs to the proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptors that are involved in cellular adaptations to pH changes during tumour development. Although expression of GPR68 has been described in many tumour cell lines, little is known about its presence in human tumour entities. We characterised the novel rabbit monoclonal anti-human GPR68 antibody 16H23L16 using various cell lines and tissue specimens. The antibody was then applied to a large series of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded normal and neoplastic human tissue samples. Antibody specificity was demonstrated in a Western blot analysis of GPR68-expressing cells using specific siRNAs. Immunocytochemical experiments revealed pH-dependent changes in subcellular localisation of the receptor and internalisation after stimulation with lorazepam. In normal tissue, GPR68 was present in glucagon-producing islet cells, neuroendocrine cells of the intestinal tract, gastric glands, granulocytes, macrophages, muscle layers of arteries and arterioles, and capillaries. GPR68 was also expressed in neuroendocrine tumours, where it may be a positive prognostic factor, in pheochromocytomas, cervical adenocarcinomas, and endometrial cancer, as well as in paragangliomas, medullary thyroid carcinomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumours, and pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Often, tumour capillaries were also strongly GPR68-positive. The novel antibody 16H23L16 will be a valuable tool for basic research and for identifying GPR68-expressing tumours during histopathological examinations.
Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Animals ; Antibodies, Monoclonal - immunology ; antibody ; Antibody Affinity ; Biochemistry & Molecular Biology ; Biomarkers, Tumor - genetics ; Biomarkers, Tumor - immunology ; Biomarkers, Tumor - metabolism ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Chemistry ; Chemistry, Multidisciplinary ; Female ; GPR68 ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Immunoassay - methods ; Immunoassay - standards ; immunohistochemistry ; Life Sciences & Biomedicine ; Lung Neoplasms - genetics ; Lung Neoplasms - metabolism ; Lung Neoplasms - pathology ; Male ; Middle Aged ; neuroendocrine ; OGR1 ; Pancreatic Neoplasms - genetics ; Pancreatic Neoplasms - metabolism ; Pancreatic Neoplasms - pathology ; Physical Sciences ; Rabbits ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled - genetics ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled - immunology ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled - metabolism ; Science & Technology ; Sensitivity and Specificity ; tumours
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