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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Scientific reports, 2020, Vol.10 (1), p.8110-8110
    Description: The aim of this study is to present a robot-assisted therapy protocol for children with ASD based on the current state-of-the-art in both ASD intervention research and robotics research, and critically evaluate its adherence and acceptability based on child as well as parent ratings. The robot-assisted therapy was designed based on motivational components of Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT), a highly promising and feasible intervention focused at training "pivotal" (key) areas such as motivation for social interaction and self-initiations, with the goal of establishing collateral gains in untargeted areas of functioning and development, affected by autism spectrum disorders. Overall, children (3-8 y) could adhere to the robot-assisted therapy protocol (Mean percentage of treatment adherence 85.5%), showed positive affect ratings after therapy sessions (positive in 86.6% of sessions) and high robot likability scores (high in 79.4% of sessions). Positive likability ratings were mainly given by school-aged children (H(1) = 7.91, p = .005) and related to the movements, speech and game scenarios of the robot. Parent ratings on the added value of the robot were mainly positive (Mean of 84.8 on 0-100 scale), while lower parent ratings were related to inflexibility of robot behaviour.
    Subject(s): Autism ; Children ; Motivation ; Ratings & rankings ; Robots ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 2045-2322
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Mucosal immunology, 2014-11, Vol.7 (6), p.1290-1301
    Description: Intestinal infection with the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium induces a strong local Th17 response in the colon. Although this inflammatory immune response helps to clear the pathogen, it also induces inflammation-associated pathology in the gut and thus, has to be tightly controlled. In this project, we therefore studied the impact of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) on the infectious and inflammatory processes elicited by the bacterial pathogen C. rodentium. Surprisingly, we found that depletion of Treg by diphtheria toxin in the Foxp3(DTR) (DEREG) mouse model resulted in impaired bacterial clearance in the colon, exacerbated body weight loss, and increased systemic dissemination of bacteria. Consistent with the enhanced susceptibility to infection, we found that the colonic Th17-associated T-cell response was impaired in Treg-depleted mice, suggesting that the presence of Treg is crucial for the establishment of a functional Th17 response after the infection in the gut. As a consequence of the impaired Th17 response, we also observed less inflammation-associated pathology in the colons of Treg-depleted mice. Interestingly, anti-interleukin (IL)-2 treatment of infected Treg-depleted mice restored Th17 induction, indicating that Treg support the induction of a protective Th17 response during intestinal bacterial infection by consumption of local IL-2.
    Subject(s): Citrobacter rodentium - immunology ; Colon - pathology ; Immunity, Mucosal ; Colon - immunology ; Enterobacteriaceae Infections - pathology ; T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory - pathology ; T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory - immunology ; Enterobacteriaceae Infections - immunology ; Animals ; Th17 Cells - immunology ; Colon - microbiology ; Mice ; Th17 Cells - pathology ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 1933-0219
    E-ISSN: 1935-3456
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Nature Journals Online
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Autism : the international journal of research and practice, 2018, Vol.22 (8), p.1018-1024
    Description: The importance of early detection of autism spectrum disorder followed by early intervention is increasingly recognized. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the long-term effects of a program for the early detection of autism spectrum disorder (consisting of training of professionals and use of a referral protocol and screening instrument), to determine whether the positive effects on the age at referral were sustained after the program ended while controlling for overall changes in the number of referrals. Before, during, and after the program, the proportion of children referred before 3 years (versus 3–6 years) of age was calculated for children subsequently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (N = 513) or another, non-autism spectrum disorder, condition (N = 722). The odds of being referred before 3 years of age was higher in children with autism spectrum disorder than in children with another condition during the program than before (3.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.2–7.6) or after (1.7, 95% confidence interval: 1.0–3.0) the program but was not different before versus after the program. Thus, although the program led to earlier referral of children with autism spectrum disorder, after correction for other referrals, the effect was not sustained after the program ended. This study highlights the importance of continued investment in the early detection of autism spectrum disorder.
    Subject(s): Index Medicus ; screening ; early detection ; long term ; autism spectrum disorder ; Original ; implementation
    ISSN: 1362-3613
    E-ISSN: 1461-7005
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Nature biotechnology, 2006-04, Vol.24 (4), p.435-436
    Description: Meat products are generally low in omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, which are beneficial to human health. We describe the generation of cloned pigs that express a humanized Caenorhabditis elegans gene, fat-1, encoding an n-3 fatty acid desaturase. The hfat-1 transgenic pigs produce high levels of n-3 fatty acids from n-6 analogs, and their tissues have a significantly reduced ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids (P 〈 0.001).
    Subject(s): Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Biotechnology ; Methods. Procedures. Technologies ; Transgenic animals ; Genetic technics ; Biological and medical sciences ; Genetic engineering ; Transgenic animals and transgenic plants ; Tissue Distribution ; Caenorhabditis elegans ; Swine - physiology ; Cloning, Organism - methods ; Animals ; Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - metabolism ; Protein Engineering - methods ; Meat - analysis ; Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - genetics ; Humans ; Muscle, Skeletal - metabolism ; Animals, Genetically Modified - metabolism ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 1087-0156
    E-ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Single Journals
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Nature Journals Online
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis, 2016-11, Vol.14 (11), p.2187-2193
    Description: Essentials Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) or anti‐Xa tests are used to monitor heparin. Prothrombinase‐induced Clotting Time (PiCT) was compared to APTT in a clinical study. PiCT shows higher correlation to anti‐Xa than APTT does and is more comparable between centers. PiCT demonstrates significantly higher accuracy and reliability than APTT in heparin monitoring. Summary Background Unfractionated heparin (UFH) is still a commonly used anticoagulant for prevention and treatment of thromboembolism in a variety of situations. Increasingly, chromogenic anti‐Xa assays are used for UFH monitoring given the high variability of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in this setting. On the other hand, and despite the known variability, the APTT test remains the most frequently used monitoring tool in UFH therapy because of its broad availability, lower costs and wide acceptance. Various guidelines continue to recommend the use of the APTT as an anti‐Xa surrogate, but this approach remains controversial. Objective To assess the prothrombinase‐induced clotting time (PiCT®) test, reported in seconds, as an alternative to the APTT in the management of UFH‐mediated anticoagulation. Methods Plasma samples from patients receiving UFH were obtained in three different centers in the USA and Europe. Samples were analyzed for PiCT, APTT and anti‐Xa activities with conditions set to allow comparability. Target‐ranges in seconds for PiCT and APTT were established for a UFH concentration of 0.3–0.7 IU mL−1, derived from anti‐Xa results as suggested by the ACCP guidelines. Results PiCT demonstrated better correlation with anti‐Xa IU mL−1 than APTT, higher ability to identify samples within target range and, importantly, comparable target‐ranges between different centers. Conclusion Accuracy and reliability of PiCT are significantly better than those of APTT in monitoring UFH for anticoagulant therapy.
    Subject(s): clinical trial ; diagnostic ; unfractionated heparin ; activated partial thromboplastin time ; reagent kits ; blood coagulation tests ; Factor Xa - chemistry ; Thromboplastin - pharmacology ; Reproducibility of Results ; United States ; Europe ; Humans ; Heparin - administration & dosage ; Anticoagulants - therapeutic use ; Male ; Drug Monitoring - methods ; Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight - therapeutic use ; Regression Analysis ; Factor Xa Inhibitors - therapeutic use ; Blood Coagulation - drug effects ; Factor Xa - pharmacology ; Time Factors ; Partial Thromboplastin Time ; Blood Coagulation Tests - methods ; Female ; Hemostatics - therapeutic use ; Anticoagulants (Medicine) ; Medical examination ; Thromboembolism ; Analysis ; Blood ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 1538-7933
    E-ISSN: 1538-7836
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary research (Paris), 2020-09-14, Vol.51 (1), p.116-116
    Description: Biomedical research relies on the use of animal models, and the animals used in those models receive medical care, including antibiotics for brief periods of time to treat conditions such as dermatitis, fight wounds, and suspected bacterial pathogens of unknown etiology. As many mouse model phenotypes are sensitive to changes in the gut microbiota, our goal was to examine the effect of antibiotics commonly administered to mice. Therefore, four treatment groups (subcutaneous enrofloxacin for 7 days, oral enrofloxacin for 14 days, oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 14 days, and topical triple antibiotic ointment for 14 days) alongside a fifth control group receiving no treatment (n = 12/group) were included in our study. Fecal samples were collected prior to treatment, immediately after two weeks of exposure, and four weeks after cessation of treatment, and subjected to 16S rRNA library sequencing. The entire experimental design was replicated in mice from two different suppliers. As expected, several treatments including enrofloxacin and triple antibiotic ointment substantially decreased the amount of DNA recovered from fecal material, as well as the microbial richness. Notably, many of these effects were long-lasting with diminished gut microbiota (GM) richness four weeks following exposure, in both substrains of mice. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole induced minimal to no discernible changes in the taxonomic composition beyond that seen in control mice. Collectively, these data highlight the need to consider the impact on GM of brief and seemingly routine use of antibiotics in the clinical care of research animals.
    Subject(s): Animal experimentation ; Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ; Medical research ; Microbiota (Symbiotic organisms) ; RNA ; Analysis ; Neomycin ; Medicine, Experimental ; Drinking water ; Microbiota ; Biomedical research ; Antibiotics ; Feces ; Laboratory animals ; Deoxyribonucleic acid--DNA ; Index Medicus ; Life Sciences
    ISSN: 1297-9716
    ISSN: 0928-4249
    E-ISSN: 1297-9716
    Source: BioMedCentral Open Access
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis, 2017-08, Vol.15 (8), p.1576-1583
    Description: Essentials Accurate determination of anticoagulant plasma concentration is important in clinical practice. We studied the accuracy and consistency of anti‐Xa assays for rivaroxaban in a multicentre study. In a range between 50 and 200 μg L−1, anti‐Xa activity correlated well with plasma concentrations. The clinical value might be limited by overestimation and intra‐ and inter‐individual variation. Summary Background Determining the plasma level of direct oral anticoagulants reliably is important in the work‐up of complex clinical situations. Objectives To study the accuracy and consistency of anti‐Xa assays for rivaroxaban plasma concentration in a prospective, multicenter evaluation study employing different reagents and analytical platforms. Methods Rivaroxaban 20 mg was administered once daily to 20 healthy volunteers and blood samples were taken at peak and trough levels (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01710267). Anti‐Xa activity was determined in 10 major laboratories using different reagents and analyzers; corresponding rivaroxaban plasma concentrations were measured by high‐performance liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC‐MS). Findings Overall Pearson's correlation coefficient of anti‐Xa levels and HPLC‐MS results was 0.99 for Biophen® Heparin (95% CI, 0.99, 0.99), Biophen® DiXaI (95% CI, 0.99, 0.99) and STA® anti‐Xa liquid (95% CI, 0.99, 1.00). Correlation was lower in rivaroxaban concentrations below 50 μg L−1 and above 200 μg L−1. The overall bias of the Bland‐Altman difference plot was 14.7 μg L−1 for Biophen Heparin, 17.9 μg L−1 for Biophen DiXal and 19.0 μg L−1 for STA anti‐Xa liquid. Agreement between laboratories was high at peak level but limited at trough level. Conclusions Anti‐Xa activity correlated well with rivaroxaban plasma concentrations, especially in a range between 50 and 200 μg L−1. However, anti‐Xa assays systematically overestimated rivaroxaban concentration as compared with HPLC‐MS, particularly at higher concentrations. This overestimation, coupled with an apparent interindividual variation, might affect the interpretation of results in some situations.
    Subject(s): reproducibility of results ; rivaroxaban ; factor Xa inhibitors ; blood coagulation tests ; sensitivity and specificity ; drug monitoring ; Measurement ; Anticoagulants (Medicine) ; Medical examination ; Mass spectrometry ; High performance liquid chromatography ; Blood ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 1538-7933
    E-ISSN: 1538-7836
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Autism : the international journal of research and practice, 2020, Vol.24 (8), p.2117-2128
    Description: The initiation of social interaction is often defined as a core deficit of autism spectrum disorder. Optimizing these self-initiations is therefore a key component of Pivotal Response Treatment, an established intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder. However, little is known about the development of self-initiations during intervention and whether this development can be facilitated by robot assistance within Pivotal Response Treatment. The aim of this study was to (1) investigate the effect of Pivotal Response Treatment and robot-assisted Pivotal Response Treatment on self-initiations (functional and social) of young children with autism spectrum disorder over the course of intervention and (2) explore the relation between development in self-initiations and additional gains in general social-communicative skills. Forty-four children with autism spectrum disorder (aged 3-8nyears) were included in this study. Self-initiations were assessed during parent-child interaction videos of therapy sessions and coded by raters who did not know which treatment (Pivotal Response Treatment or robot-assisted Pivotal Response Treatment) the child received. General social-communicative skills were assessed before start of the treatment, after 10 and 20nweeks of intervention and 3nmonths after the treatment was finalized. Results showed that self-initiations increased in both treatment groups, with the largest improvements in functional self-initiations in the group that received robot-assisted Pivotal Response Treatment. Increased self-initiations were related to higher parent-rated social awareness 3nmonths after finalizing the treatment.
    Subject(s): Index Medicus
    ISSN: 1362-3613
    E-ISSN: 1461-7005
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Autism : the international journal of research and practice, 2018, Vol.22 (2), p.216-226
    Description: The field of early autism research is in dire need of outcome measures that adequately reflect subtle changes in core autistic behaviors. This article compares the ability of a newly developed measure, the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) to detect changes in core symptoms of autism in 44 toddlers. The results provide encouraging evidence for the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change as a candidate outcome measure, as reflected in sufficient inter- and intra-rater reliability, independency from other child characteristics, and sensitivity to capture change. Although the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change did not evidently outperform the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule on any of these quality criteria, the instrument may be better able to capture subtle, individual changes in core autistic symptoms. The promising findings warrant further study of this new instrument.
    ISSN: 1362-3613
    E-ISSN: 1461-7005
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 2021-02-09
    Description: Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) is promising for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but more methodologically robust designed studies are needed. In this randomized controlled trial, forty-four children with ASD, aged 9-15 years, were randomly allocated to PRT (n = 22) or treatment-as-usual (TAU; n = 22). Measurements were obtained after 12- and 20-weeks treatment, and 2-month follow-up. PRT resulted in significant greater improvements on parent-rated social-communicative skills after 12 weeks treatment (p = .004, partial η  = 0.22), compared to TAU. Furthermore, larger gains in PRT compared to TAU were observed on blindly rated global functioning, and parent-rated adaptive socialization skills and attention problems. Implications for clinical practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.
    Subject(s): Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0162-3257
    E-ISSN: 1573-3432
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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