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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 2012-06-29, Vol.336 (6089), p.1704-1708
    Description: Noscapine is an antitumor alkaloid from opium poppy that binds tubulin, arrests metaphase, and induces apoptosis in dividing human cells. Elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway will enable improvement in the commercial production of noscapine and related bioactive molecules. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the exclusive expression of 10 genes encoding five distinct enzyme classes in a high noscapine-producing poppy variety, HN1. Analysis of an F₂ mapping population indicated that these genes are tightly linked in HN1, and bacterial artificial chromosome sequencing confirmed that they exist as a complex gene cluster for plant alkaloids. Virus-induced gene silencing resulted in accumulation of pathway intermediates, allowing gene function to be linked to noscapine synthesis and a novel biosynthetic pathway to be proposed.
    Subject(s): Alkaloids ; Anticancer properties ; Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic - biosynthesis ; Biological and medical sciences ; Biosynthesis ; Capsules ; Classical genetics, quantitative genetics, hybrids ; Clusters ; Cough ; Enzymes ; Flowers & plants ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Gene silencing ; Genes ; Genes, Plant ; Genetic aspects ; Genetics of eukaryotes. Biological and molecular evolution ; Genomes ; Latex ; Libraries ; Low level ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Morphinans ; Multigene Family ; Narcotics ; Noscapine - metabolism ; Open reading frames ; Papaver - enzymology ; Papaver - genetics ; Papaver - metabolism ; Papaver somniferum ; Pharmaceutical sciences ; Physiological aspects ; Plant biology ; Poppies ; Pteridophyta, spermatophyta ; REPORTS ; Synthesis ; Vegetals
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Gut, 2018-08, Vol.67 (8), p.1374-1375
    Description: [...]the detail of provided data varies between studies. [...]only four studies provided information on the proportion of high-risk sm1 lesions that would still require surgery, limiting the generalisability of this estimate. A non-surgical approach is supported by the observation that 98% of patients with low-risk sm1 cancers will have no lymph node invasion and can be considered cured. 8 Professional guidelines have therefore started to support R0 endoscopic resection as an alternative strategy to surgery. 9 However, the acceptance of this approach among physicians and patients may vary, particularly across countries. Because a small risk of node metastasis remains, physicians and patients alike may choose surgical resection following a potentially curative ESD, particularly if the surgical risk is low. In their subsequent cost-effectiveness analysis, the authors found that a selective ESD can be cost-effective. 10 Current European guidelines also support a selective use of ESD for lesions with depressed morphology and an irregular or non-granular surface pattern. 9 A selective approach can however be difficult in practice because real-time assessment of cancer risk is suboptimal even among experts. 11 After considering these arguments, one wonders whether it might just be simpler (and more practical) to approach all colorectal lesions with EMR and take into account that some patients with any sm invasion may need surgical resection.
    Subject(s): Abridged Index Medicus ; Cancer ; Colonic Polyps ; Colonoscopy ; Colorectal cancer ; Colorectal Neoplasms ; Cost analysis ; Dissection ; Endoscopy ; Gastroenterology ; Humans ; Lymph nodes ; Lymphatic system ; Metastases ; Metastasis ; Morphology ; Patients ; Studies ; Surgery ; Systematic review
    ISSN: 0017-5749
    E-ISSN: 1468-3288
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Gut, 2018-11, Vol.67 (11), p.1958-1964
    Description: ObjectivePain associated with colonoscopy is a major burden for patients. We investigated modifiable factors associated with patient-reported pain during and after colonoscopy.DesignThis cross-sectional analysis included database records from 23 centres participating in a population-based colonoscopy screening programme in Poland. Colonoscopies were performed under three sedation modalities: none, benzodiazepine-opioid sedation or propofol sedation. We used Gastronet (a validated tool) to assess patients’ pain during and after colonoscopy; pain was scored on a four-point scale (no, little, moderate or severe pain), with moderate to severe defined as painful. We used multivariate logistic regression models to estimate ORs for painful colonoscopy and calculated risk-adjusted ratios of painful colonoscopies per endoscopist and compared it to the mean rate.ResultsOf 35 216 screening colonoscopies in 2014 and 2015 included in our study, 22 725 (64.5%) patients returned valid Gastronet questionnaires. The proportion of examinations described as causing pain during (after) the procedure was 22.5% (14.2%) for unsedated, 19.9% (13.5%) for benzodiazepine-opioid sedation and 2.5% (7.5%) for propofol sedation. Propofol sedation, higher case volume of endoscopists, newest endoscope generation and adequate bowel preparation were significantly associated with lower odds of painful colonoscopy. Pain scores after colonoscopy showed similar associations. Adjusted pain rates during and after colonoscopy varied 11 and over 23-fold, respectively, between endoscopists.ConclusionWe identified several independent, modifiable factors associated with pain during and after colonoscopy, of which individual endoscopist was the most important. Dedicated training should be considered to decrease variability among endoscopists.
    Subject(s): Abdomen ; Abdominal surgery ; Abridged Index Medicus ; Anesthesia ; Benzodiazepines ; Benzodiazepines - administration & dosage ; Benzodiazepines - adverse effects ; Body mass index ; Colon ; Colonoscopy ; Colonoscopy - adverse effects ; Colonoscopy - methods ; Colorectal cancer ; Colorectal Neoplasms - diagnosis ; Cross-Sectional Studies ; Databases ; Databases, Factual ; Early Detection of Cancer - adverse effects ; Early Detection of Cancer - methods ; Endoscopes ; Female ; Gastroenterology ; Humans ; Hypnotics and Sedatives - administration & dosage ; Hypnotics and Sedatives - adverse effects ; Intestine ; Irritable bowel syndrome ; Male ; Medical screening ; Middle Aged ; Narcotics ; Opioids ; Pain ; Pain Measurement - methods ; Pain, Postoperative - drug therapy ; Pain, Postoperative - epidemiology ; Pain, Postoperative - etiology ; Pain, Procedural - drug therapy ; Pain, Procedural - epidemiology ; Pain, Procedural - etiology ; Patient Reported Outcome Measures ; Patients ; Pediatrics ; Poland ; Propofol ; Propofol - administration & dosage ; Propofol - adverse effects ; Questionnaires ; Regression analysis ; Risk Factors ; Surveys and Questionnaires ; Systematic review
    ISSN: 0017-5749
    E-ISSN: 1468-3288
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Nature biotechnology, 2006-08, Vol.24 (8), p.997-1004
    Description: Alcanivorax borkumensis is a cosmopolitan marine bacterium that uses oil hydrocarbons as its exclusive source of carbon and energy. Although barely detectable in unpolluted environments, A. borkumensis becomes the dominant microbe in oil-polluted waters. A. borkumensis SK2 has a streamlined genome with a paucity of mobile genetic elements and energy generation-related genes, but with a plethora of genes accounting for its wide hydrocarbon substrate range and efficient oil-degradation capabilities. The genome further specifies systems for scavenging of nutrients, particularly organic and inorganic nitrogen and oligo-elements, biofilm formation at the oil-water interface, biosurfactant production and niche-specific stress responses. The unique combination of these features provides A. borkumensis SK2 with a competitive edge in oil-polluted environments. This genome sequence provides the basis for the future design of strategies to mitigate the ecological damage caused by oil spills.
    Subject(s): Base Sequence ; Biodegradation, Environmental ; Biological and medical sciences ; Biology of microorganisms of confirmed or potential industrial interest ; Bioremediation ; Biotechnology ; Chromosome Mapping - methods ; Environmental science ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Genetics ; Genome, Bacterial - genetics ; Genomics ; Halomonadaceae - genetics ; Halomonadaceae - metabolism ; Hydrocarbons - metabolism ; Microbiology ; Mission oriented research ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Oil spills ; Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
    ISSN: 1087-0156
    E-ISSN: 1546-1696
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Nature Journals Online
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Annals of internal medicine, 2020-07-21, Vol.173 (2), p.81-91
    Description: Current guidelines recommend a 10-year interval between screening colonoscopies, but evidence is limited. To assess the long-term risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and death from CRC after a high- and low-quality single negative screening colonoscopy. Observational study. Polish Colonoscopy Screening Program. Average-risk individuals aged 50 to 66 years who had a single negative colonoscopy (no neoplastic findings). Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of CRC after high- and low-quality single negative screening colonoscopy. High-quality colonoscopy included a complete examination, with adequate bowel preparation, performed by endoscopists with an adenoma detection rate of 20% or greater. Among 165 887 individuals followed for up to 17.4 years, CRC incidence (0.28 [95% CI, 0.25 to 0.30]) and mortality (0.19 [CI, 0.16 to 0.21]) were 72% and 81% lower, respectively, than in the general population. High-quality examination resulted in 2-fold lower CRC incidence (SIR, 0.16 [CI, 0.13 to 0.20]) and mortality (SMR, 0.10 [CI, 0.06 to 0.14]) than low-quality examination (SIR, 0.32 [CI, 0.29 to 0.35]; SMR, 0.22 [CI, 0.18 to 0.25]). In multivariable analysis, the hazard ratios for CRC incidence after high-quality versus low-quality colonoscopy were 0.55 (CI, 0.35 to 0.86) for 0 to 5 years, 0.54 (CI, 0.38 to 0.77) for 5.1 to 10 years, and 0.46 (CI, 0.25 to 0.86) for 10 to 17.4 years. Only after high-quality colonoscopy did the SIR and SMR for 10.1 to 17.4 years of follow-up not differ compared with earlier observation periods. The general population was used as the comparison group. A single negative screening colonoscopy was associated with reduced CRC incidence and mortality for up to 17.4 years. Only high-quality colonoscopy yielded profound and stable reductions in CRC incidence and mortality throughout the entire follow-up. Polish Ministry of Health.
    Subject(s): Abridged Index Medicus ; Aged ; Colonoscopy ; Colorectal cancer ; Colorectal Neoplasms - epidemiology ; Colorectal Neoplasms - mortality ; Epidemiology ; Female ; Follow-Up Studies ; Humans ; Incidence ; Male ; Mass Screening - methods ; Medical screening ; Middle Aged ; Mortality ; Poland - epidemiology ; Risk Factors ; Time Factors
    ISSN: 0003-4819
    E-ISSN: 1539-3704
    Source: Journals@Ovid Ovid Full Text
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The New phytologist, 2017-06, Vol.214 (4), p.1702-1711
    Description: Summary Maternal experience of abiotic environmental factors such as temperature and light are well known to control seed dormancy in many plant species. Maternal biotic stress alters offspring defence phenotypes, but whether it also affects seed dormancy remains unexplored. We exposed Arabidopsis thaliana plants to herbivory and investigated plasticity in germination and defence phenotypes in their offspring, along with the roles of phytohormone signalling in regulating maternal effects. Maternal herbivory resulted in the accumulation of jasmonic acid‐isoleucine and loss of dormancy in seeds of stressed plants. Dormancy was also reduced by engineering seed‐specific accumulation of jasmonic acid in transgenic plants. Loss of dormancy was dependent on an intact jasmonate signalling pathway and was associated with increased gibberellin content and reduced abscisic acid sensitivity during germination. Altered dormancy was only observed in the first generation following herbivory, whereas defence priming was maintained for at least two generations. Herbivory generates a jasmonic acid‐dependent reduction in seed dormancy, mediated by alteration of gibberellin and abscisic acid signalling. This is a direct maternal effect, operating independently from transgenerational herbivore resistance priming.
    Subject(s): Abscisic acid ; Arabidopsis thaliana ; defence ; dormancy ; Genetic engineering ; Genetically modified plants ; Germination ; herbivory ; jasmonic acid ; priming ; Seeds
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The New phytologist, 2017-06-01, Vol.214 (4), p.1702-1711
    Description: Maternal experience of abiotic environmental factors such as temperature and light are well known to control seed dormancy in many plant species. Maternal biotic stress alters offspring defence phenotypes, but whether it also affects seed dormancy remains unexplored. We exposed Arabidopsis thaliana plants to herbivory and investigated plasticity in germination and defence phenotypes in their offspring, along with the roles of phytohormone signalling in regulating maternal effects. Maternal herbivory resulted in the accumulation of jasmonic acid-isoleucine and loss of dormancy in seeds of stressed plants. Dormancy was also reduced by engineering seed-specific accumulation of jasmonic acid in transgenic plants. Loss of dormancy was dependent on an intact jasmonate signalling pathway and was associated with increased gibberellin content and reduced abscisic acid sensitivity during germination. Altered dormancy was only observed in the first generation following herbivory, whereas defence priming was maintained for at least two generations. Herbivory generates a jasmonic acid-dependent reduction in seed dormancy, mediated by alteration of gibberellin and abscisic acid signalling. This is a direct maternal effect, operating independently from transgenerational herbivore resistance priming.
    Subject(s): Animals ; Arabidopsis - drug effects ; Arabidopsis - microbiology ; Arabidopsis - physiology ; Cyclopentanes - metabolism ; Cyclopentanes - pharmacology ; Germination ; Herbivory ; Oxylipins - metabolism ; Oxylipins - pharmacology ; Plant Dormancy - physiology ; Plant Growth Regulators - metabolism ; Plants, Genetically Modified - metabolism ; Pseudomonas syringae - pathogenicity ; Seeds - physiology ; Tetranychidae
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Gut, 2020-05-14, Vol.70 (2), p.268-275
    Description: Background and aimsAdenoma detection rate (ADR) has been shown to correlate with interval cancers after screening colonoscopy and is commonly used as surrogate parameter for its outcome quality. ADR improvements by various techniques have been studied in randomised trials using either parallel or tandem methodololgy.MethodsA systematic literature search was done on randomised trials (full papers, English language) on tandem or parallel studies using either adenoma miss rates (AMR) or ADR as main outcome to test different novel technologies on imaging (new endoscope generation, narrow band imaging, iScan, Fujinon intelligent chromoendoscopy/blue laser imaging and wide angle scopes) and mechanical devices (transparent caps, endocuff, endorings and balloons). Available meta analyses were also screened for randomised studies.ResultsOverall, 24 randomised tandem trials with AMR (variable definitions and methodology) and 42 parallel studies using ADR (homogeneous methodology) as primary outcome were included. Significant differences in favour of the new method were found in 66.7% of tandem studies (8222 patients) but in only 23.8% of parallel studies (28 059 patients), with higher rates of positive studies for mechanical devices than for imaging methods. In a random-effects model, small absolute risk differences were found, but these were double in magnitude for tandem as compared with parallel studies (imaging: tandem 0.04 (0.01, 0.07), parallel 0.02 (0.00, 0.04); mechanical devices: tandem 0.08 (0.00, 0.15), parallel 0.04 (0.01, 0.07)). Nevertheless, 94.2% of missed adenomas in the tandem studies were small (〈1 cm) and/or non-advanced.ConclusionsA tandem study is more likely to yield positive results than a simple parallel trial; this may be due to the use of different parameters, variable definitions and methodology, and perhaps also a higher likelihood of bias. Therefore, we suggest to accept positive results of tandem studies only if accompanied by positive results from parallel trials.
    Subject(s): Abridged Index Medicus ; Adenoma ; Balloons ; Cancer ; Clinical trials ; Colon ; colonic adenomas ; Colonoscopy ; Endoscopes ; HDTV ; High definition television ; Patients ; Tumors
    ISSN: 0017-5749
    E-ISSN: 1468-3288
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Gut, 2020-11, Vol.69 (11), p.1915-1924
    Description: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on provision of endoscopy services globally as staff and real estate were repurposed. As we begin to recover from the pandemic, a cohesive international approach is needed, and guidance on how to resume endoscopy services safely to avoid unintended harm from diagnostic delays. The aim of these guidelines is to provide consensus recommendations that clinicians can use to facilitate the swift and safe resumption of endoscopy services. An evidence-based literature review was carried out on the various strategies used globally to manage endoscopy during the COVID-19 pandemic and control infection. A modified Delphi process involving international endoscopy experts was used to agree on the consensus statements. A threshold of 80% agreement was used to establish consensus for each statement. 27 of 30 statements achieved consensus after two rounds of voting by 34 experts. The statements were categorised as pre-endoscopy, during endoscopy and postendoscopy addressing relevant areas of practice, such as screening, personal protective equipment, appropriate environments for endoscopy and infection control precautions, particularly in areas of high disease prevalence. Recommendations for testing of patients and for healthcare workers, appropriate locations of donning and doffing areas and social distancing measures before endoscopy are unique and not dealt with by any other guidelines. This international consensus using a modified Delphi method to produce a series of best practice recommendations to aid the safe resumption of endoscopy services globally in the era of COVID-19.
    Subject(s): Consensus ; Coronavirus Infections - epidemiology ; Coronavirus Infections - prevention & control ; Coronaviruses ; COVID-19 ; Cross Infection - prevention & control ; Delphi Technique ; Endoscopy ; Endoscopy, Digestive System - methods ; Endoscopy, Digestive System - statistics & numerical data ; Female ; Follow-Up Studies ; Humans ; Incidence ; Internationality ; Literature reviews ; Male ; Masks ; Medical personnel ; Occupational Health ; Pandemics ; Pandemics - prevention & control ; Pandemics - statistics & numerical data ; Patient Safety ; Personal protective equipment ; Pneumonia, Viral - epidemiology ; Pneumonia, Viral - prevention & control ; Practice Guidelines as Topic ; Risk Assessment ; Time Factors ; United States
    ISSN: 0017-5749
    E-ISSN: 1468-3288
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Gut, 2021-03-18, Vol.71 (3), p.553-560
    Description: ObjectiveDespite regular colonoscopy surveillance, colorectal cancers still occur in patients with Lynch syndrome. Thus, detection of all relevant precancerous lesions remains very important. The present study investigates Linked Colour imaging (LCI), an image-enhancing technique, as compared with high-definition white light endoscopy (HD-WLE) for the detection of polyps in this patient group.DesignThis prospective, randomised controlled trial was performed by 22 experienced endoscopists from eight centres in six countries. Consecutive Lynch syndrome patients ≥18 years undergoing surveillance colonoscopy were randomised (1:1) and stratified by centre for inspection with either LCI or HD-WLE. Primary outcome was the polyp detection rate (PDR).ResultsBetween January 2018 and March 2020, 357 patients were randomised and 332 patients analysed (160 LCI, 172 HD-WLE; 6 excluded due to incomplete colonoscopies and 19 due to insufficient bowel cleanliness). No significant difference was observed in PDR with LCI (44.4%; 95% CI 36.5% to 52.4%) compared with HD-WLE (36.0%; 95% CI 28.9% to 43.7%) (p=0.12). Of the secondary outcome parameters, more adenomas were found on a patient (adenoma detection rate 36.3%; vs 25.6%; p=0.04) and a colonoscopy basis (mean adenomas per colonoscopy 0.65 vs 0.42; p=0.04). The median withdrawal time was not statistically different between LCI and HD-WLE (12 vs 11 min; p=0.16).ConclusionLCI did not improve the PDR compared with HD-WLE in patients with Lynch syndrome undergoing surveillance. The relevance of findings more adenomas by LCI has to be examined further.Trial registration number NCT03344289.
    Subject(s): Adenoma ; Adenoma - diagnostic imaging ; Adenoma - pathology ; Adult ; Aged ; Anesthesia ; Cancer ; Colon ; colonic polyps ; Colonic Polyps - diagnostic imaging ; Colonoscopy ; Color ; Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis - diagnostic imaging ; Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis - pathology ; Endoscopy ; Extubation ; Female ; Genes ; Histopathology ; Humans ; Image Enhancement ; imaging ; inherited cancers ; Intubation ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Patients ; Polyps ; Prospective Studies ; Surveillance ; Tumors
    ISSN: 0017-5749
    E-ISSN: 1468-3288
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
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