placeholder
and
and

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Proceed order?

Export
Filter
Document type
Language
Year
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The New phytologist, 2019-07, Vol.223 (1), p.52-67
    Description: Summary Despite the phylogenetic distance between plants and insects, these two groups of organisms produce some secondary metabolites in common. Identical structures belonging to chemical classes such as the simple monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, iridoid monoterpenes, cyanogenic glycosides, benzoic acid derivatives, benzoquinones and naphthoquinones are sometimes found in both plants and insects. In addition, very similar glucohydrolases involved in activating two‐component defenses, such as glucosinolates and cyanogenic glycosides, occur in both plants and insects. Although this trend was first noted many years ago, researchers have long struggled to find convincing explanations for such co‐occurrence. In some cases, identical compounds may be produced by plants to interfere with their function in insects. In others, plant and insect compounds may simply have parallel functions, probably in defense or attraction, and their co‐occurrence is a coincidence. The biosynthetic origin of such co‐occurring metabolites may be very different in insects as compared to plants. Plants and insects may have different pathways to the same metabolite, or similar sequences of intermediates, but different enzymes. Further knowledge of the ecological roles and biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolites may shed more light on why plants and insects produce identical substances.
    Subject(s): Animals ; Benzoic acid ; Biosynthetic Pathways ; chemical defense ; chemical mimicry ; convergent evolution ; cyanogenic glycoside ; Evolution ; glucosinolate ; Insecta - metabolism ; Insects ; iridoid ; Life Sciences & Biomedicine ; pheromone ; Phylogeny ; Plant metabolites ; Plant Sciences ; Plants - metabolism ; Science & Technology ; Secondary Metabolism ; terpene
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
    Source: Web of Science - Science Citation Index Expanded - 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Plant cell, 2013-06-01, Vol.25 (6), p.2341-2355
    Description: Plants differ greatly in their susceptibility to insect herbivory, suggesting both local adaptation and resistance tradeoffs. We used maize (Zea mays) recombinant inbred lines to map a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the maize leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis) susceptibility to maize Chromosome 1. Phytochemical analysis revealed that the same locus was also associated with high levels of 2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one glucoside (HDMBOA-Glc) and low levels of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one glucoside (DIMBOA-Glc). In vitro enzyme assays with candidate genes from the region of the QTL identified three O-methyltransferases (Bx10a-c) that convert DIMBOA-Glc to HDMBOA-Glc. Variation in HDMBOA-Glc production was attributed to a natural CACTA family transposon insertion that inactivates Bx10c in maize lines with low HDMBOA-Glc accumulation. When tested with a population of 26 diverse maize inbred lines, R. maidis produced more progeny on those with high HDMBOA-Glc and low DIMBOA-Glc. Although HDMBOA-Glc was more toxic to R. maidis than DIMBOA-Glc in vitro, BX10c activity and the resulting decline of DIMBOA-Glc upon methylation to HDMBOA-Glc were associated with reduced callose deposition as an aphid defense response in vivo. Thus, a natural transposon insertion appears to mediate an ecologically relevant trade-off between the direct toxicity and defense-inducing properties of maize benzoxazinoids.
    Subject(s): Amino Acid Sequence ; Analysis ; Animals ; Aphididae ; Aphids - physiology ; Benzoxazines - metabolism ; Chromosome Mapping ; Chromosomes, Plant - genetics ; Corn ; Dextrose ; Disease Resistance - genetics ; DNA Transposable Elements - genetics ; Genes ; Genetic aspects ; Genetic research ; Genetic variation ; Glucose ; Glucosides - metabolism ; Herbivores ; Host-Parasite Interactions ; Inbred strains ; Insect genetics ; Instrument industry ; Isoenzymes - classification ; Isoenzymes - genetics ; Isoenzymes - metabolism ; Methyltransferases - classification ; Methyltransferases - genetics ; Methyltransferases - metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutagenesis, Insertional ; Phylogeny ; Phytophagous insects ; Plant Diseases - genetics ; Plant Diseases - parasitology ; Plant Proteins - classification ; Plant Proteins - genetics ; Plant Proteins - metabolism ; Plants ; Quantitative genetics ; Quantitative trait loci ; Quantitative Trait Loci - genetics ; RESEARCH ARTICLES ; Sequence Homology, Amino Acid ; Transferases ; Transposons ; Zea mays - genetics ; Zea mays - metabolism ; Zea mays - parasitology
    ISSN: 1040-4651
    E-ISSN: 1532-298X
    Source: American Society of Plant Biologists
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: JSTOR Ecology & Botany II
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
    Source: PubMed Central
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Plant cell, 2016-10-01, Vol.28 (10), p.2651-2665
    Description: Plant volatiles not only have multiple defense functions against herbivores, fungi, and bacteria, but also have been implicated in signaling within the plant and toward other organisms. Elucidating the function of individual plant volatiles will require more knowledge of their biosynthesis and regulation in response to external stimuli. By exploiting the variation of herbivore-induced volatiles among 26 maize ( ) inbred lines, we conducted a nested association mapping and genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify a set of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for investigating the pathways of volatile terpene production. The most significant identified QTL affects the emission of ( )-nerolidol, linalool, and the two homoterpenes ( )-3,8-dimethyl-1,4,7-nonatriene (DMNT) and ( )-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene (TMTT). GWAS associated a single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter of the gene encoding the terpene synthase TPS2 with this QTL. Biochemical characterization of TPS2 verified that this plastid-localized enzyme forms linalool, ( )-nerolidol, and ( )-geranyllinalool. The subsequent conversion of ( )-nerolidol into DMNT maps to a P450 monooxygenase, CYP92C5, which is capable of converting nerolidol into DMNT by oxidative degradation. A QTL influencing TMTT accumulation corresponds to a similar monooxygenase, CYP92C6, which is specific for the conversion of ( )-geranyllinalool to TMTT. The DMNT biosynthetic pathway and both monooxygenases are distinct from those previously characterized for DMNT and TMTT synthesis in , suggesting independent evolution of these enzymatic activities.
    Subject(s): Arabidopsis - genetics ; Arabidopsis - metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins - metabolism ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Monoterpenes - metabolism ; Quantitative Trait Loci - genetics ; RESEARCH ARTICLES ; Sesquiterpenes - metabolism
    ISSN: 1040-4651
    E-ISSN: 1532-298X
    Source: American Society of Plant Biologists
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: JSTOR Ecology & Botany II
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
    Source: PubMed Central
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Language: English
    In: BMC genomics, 2015-06-11, Vol.16 (1), p.450-450
    Description: Terpenoids are abundant in the foliage of Eucalyptus, providing the characteristic smell as well as being valuable economically and influencing ecological interactions. Quantitative and qualitative inter- and intra- specific variation of terpenes is common in eucalypts. The genome sequences of Eucalyptus grandis and E. globulus were mined for terpene synthase genes (TPS) and compared to other plant species. We investigated the relative expression of TPS in seven plant tissues and functionally characterized five TPS genes from E. grandis. Compared to other sequenced plant genomes, Eucalyptus grandis has the largest number of putative functional TPS genes of any sequenced plant. We discovered 113 and 106 putative functional TPS genes in E. grandis and E. globulus, respectively. All but one TPS from E. grandis were expressed in at least one of seven plant tissues examined. Genomic clusters of up to 20 genes were identified. Many TPS are expressed in tissues other than leaves which invites a re-evaluation of the function of terpenes in Eucalyptus. Our data indicate that terpenes in Eucalyptus may play a wider role in biotic and abiotic interactions than previously thought. Tissue specific expression is common and the possibility of stress induction needs further investigation. Phylogenetic comparison of the two investigated Eucalyptus species gives insight about recent evolution of different clades within the TPS gene family. While the majority of TPS genes occur in orthologous pairs some clades show evidence of recent gene duplication, as well as loss of function.
    Subject(s): Alkyl and Aryl Transferases - genetics ; Alkyl and Aryl Transferases - metabolism ; Biodiversity ; Comparative analysis ; Essential oil ; Eucalyptus ; Eucalyptus - classification ; Eucalyptus - enzymology ; Eucalyptus - genetics ; Evolution ; Evolution, Molecular ; Genome, Plant ; Herbivory ; Monoterpenes ; Multigene Family ; Myrtaceae ; Phylogeny ; Plant Proteins - genetics ; Plant Proteins - metabolism ; Sesquiterpenes ; Terpene synthase
    ISSN: 1471-2164
    E-ISSN: 1471-2164
    Source: BioMedCentral Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Plant physiology (Bethesda), 2020-01, Vol.182 (1), p.480-492
    Description: Terpenes are specialized metabolites ubiquitously produced by plants via the action of terpene synthases (TPSs). There are enormous variations in the types and amounts of terpenes produced by individual species. To understand the mechanisms responsible for such vast diversity, here we investigated the origin and evolution of a cluster of tandemly arrayed genes in In the species analyzed, genes occur as a three- cluster, a two- cluster, and a single gene in five, one, and one species, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the origins of the two- and three- clusters and the role of species-specific losses of genes. Within the three- clusters, one orthologous group exhibited conserved catalytic activities. The other two groups, both of which contained pseudogenes and/or nonfunctional genes, exhibited distinct profiles of terpene products. Sequence and structural analyses combined with functional validation identified several amino acids in the active site that are critical for catalytic activity divergence of the three orthologous groups. In the five species containing the three- cluster, their functional genes showed both conserved and species-specific expression patterns in insect-damaged and untreated plants. Emission patterns of volatile terpenes from each species were largely consistent with the expression of their respective genes and the catalytic activities of the encoded enzymes. This study indicates the importance of combinatorial evolution of genes in determining terpene variations among individual species, which includes gene duplication, retention/loss/degradation of duplicated genes, varying selection pressure, retention/divergence in catalytic activities, and divergence in expression regulation.
    Subject(s): Alkyl and Aryl Transferases - genetics ; Enzymes ; Gene Duplication - genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant - genetics ; Genetic aspects ; Multigene Family - genetics ; Natural history ; Oryza - genetics ; Physiological aspects ; Plant Proteins - genetics ; Plant Proteins - metabolism ; Rice ; Terpenes ; Terpenes - metabolism
    ISSN: 0032-0889
    E-ISSN: 1532-2548
    Source: American Society of Plant Biologists
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: PubMed Central
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Language: English
    In: BioEssays, 2015-02, Vol.37 (2), p.167-174
    Description: The defense of plants against herbivores and pathogens involves the participation of an enormous range of different metabolites, some of which act directly as defensive weapons against enemies (toxins or deterrents) and some of which act as components of the complex internal signaling network that insures that defense is timed to enemy attack. Recent work reveals a surprising trend: The same compounds may act as both weapons and signals of defense. For example, two groups of well‐studied defensive weapons, glucosinolates and benzoxazinoids, trigger the accumulation of the protective polysaccharide callose as a barrier against aphids and pathogens. In the other direction, several hormones acting in defense signaling (and their precursors and products) exhibit activity as weapons against pathogens. Knowing which compounds are defensive weapons, which are defensive signals and which are both is vital for understanding the functioning of plant defense systems. Plant defense responses to herbivores and pathogens involve production of defensive weapons, including toxins and deterrents, induced by a complex network of signals that synchronize defensive response with enemy attack. Some defensive signals also act as weapons, which could allow plants to mobilize defenses faster and more efficiently upon attack.
    Subject(s): Animals ; Benzoxazines - metabolism ; benzoxazinoids ; Botanical research ; defenses against herbivores ; defenses against pathogens ; Glucans - metabolism ; glucosinolates ; Glucosinolates - metabolism ; Herbivory - physiology ; Physiological aspects ; phytohormones ; Plant defenses ; Plant Growth Regulators - metabolism ; Plant metabolites ; Plant physiology ; Plants - metabolism ; Research ; secondary metabolites ; Signal Transduction - physiology ; volatiles
    ISSN: 0265-9247
    E-ISSN: 1521-1878
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Language: English
    In: BMC plant biology, 2018-10-22, Vol.18 (1), p.251-12
    Description: Nitrilases are nitrile-converting enzymes commonly found within the plant kingdom that play diverse roles in nitrile detoxification, nitrogen recycling, and phytohormone biosynthesis. Although nitrilases are present in all higher plants, little is known about their function in trees. Upon herbivory, poplars produce considerable amounts of toxic nitriles such as benzyl cyanide, 2-methylbutyronitrile, and 3-methylbutyronitrile. In addition, as byproduct of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway upregulated in many plant species after herbivory, toxic β-cyanoalanine may accumulate in damaged poplar leaves. In this work, we studied the nitrilase gene family in Populus trichocarpa and investigated the potential role of the nitrilase PtNIT1 in the catabolism of herbivore-induced nitriles. A BLAST analysis revealed three putative nitrilase genes (PtNIT1, PtNIT2, PtNIT3) in the genome of P. trichocarpa. While PtNIT1 was expressed in poplar leaves and showed increased transcript accumulation after leaf herbivory, PtNIT2 and PtNIT3 appeared not to be expressed in undamaged or herbivore-damaged leaves. Recombinant PtNIT1 produced in Escherichia coli accepted biogenic nitriles such as β-cyanoalanine, benzyl cyanide, and indole-3-acetonitrile as substrates in vitro and converted them into the corresponding acids. In addition to this nitrilase activity, PtNIT1 showed nitrile hydratase activity towards β-cyanoalanine, resulting in the formation of the amino acid asparagine. The kinetic parameters of PtNIT1 suggest that the enzyme utilizes β-cyanoalanine and benzyl cyanide as substrates in vivo. Indeed, β-cyanoalanine and benzyl cyanide were found to accumulate in herbivore-damaged poplar leaves. The upregulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes after leaf herbivory indicates that herbivore-induced β-cyanoalanine accumulation is likely caused by ethylene formation. Our data suggest a role for PtNIT1 in the catabolism of herbivore-induced β-cyanoalanine and benzyl cyanide in poplar leaves.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; Asparagine ; Benzyl cyanide ; Biological research ; Biology, Experimental ; Enzymes ; Escherichia coli ; Ethylene ; Explosions ; Genetic aspects ; Hydrolases ; NIT1 ; Nitrilase ; Nitriles ; Physiological aspects ; Plant defense ; Plant-animal interactions ; Poplar ; Populus trichocarpa ; Research ; β-Cyanoalanine
    ISSN: 1471-2229
    E-ISSN: 1471-2229
    Source: BioMedCentral Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Language: English
    In: The New phytologist, 2011-01-01, Vol.189 (1), p.308-320
    Description: Herbivore-induced systemic resistance occurs in many plants and is commonly assumed to be adaptive. The mechanisms triggered by leaf-herbivores that lead to systemic resistance are largely understood, but it remains unknown how and why root herbivory also increases resistance in leaves. To resolve this, we investigated the mechanism by which the root herbivore Diabrotica virgifera induces resistance against lepidopteran herbivores in the leaves of Zea mays. Diabrotica virgifera infested plants suffered less aboveground herbivory in the field and showed reduced growth of Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars in the laboratory. Root herbivory did not lead to a jasmonate-dependent response in the leaves, but specifically triggered water loss and abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation. The induction of ABA by itself was partly responsible for the induction of leaf defenses, but not for the resistance against S. littoralis. Root-herbivore induced hydraulic changes in the leaves, however, were crucial for the increase in insect resistance. We conclude that the induced leaf resistance after root feeding is the result of hydraulic changes, which reduce the quality of the leaves for chewing herbivores. This finding calls into question whether root-herbivore induced leaf-resistance is an evolved response.
    Subject(s): aboveground–belowground interactions ; Abscisic acid ; Abscisic Acid - metabolism ; Abscisic Acid - physiology ; Animals ; Aquatic resources ; Coleoptera - physiology ; Corn ; Dehydration ; Diabrotica virgifera ; Feeding Behavior ; Herbivores ; induced resistance ; Infestation ; Larvae ; Larval development ; Leaves ; Plant genetics ; Plant Leaves - metabolism ; Plant Leaves - physiology ; Plant roots ; Plant Roots - metabolism ; Plant Roots - physiology ; Plants ; Spodoptera littoralis ; Stress, Physiological ; Water - metabolism ; water stress ; Water supply ; Zea mays ; Zea mays - metabolism ; Zea mays - physiology
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The Plant cell, 2013-11-01, Vol.25 (11), p.4737-4754
    Description: Aldoximes are known as floral and vegetative plant volatiles but also as biosynthetic intermediates for other plant defense compounds. While the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) from the CYP79 family forming aldoximes as biosynthetic intermediates have been intensively studied, little is known about the enzymology of volatile aldoxime formation. We characterized two P450 enzymes, CYP79D6v3 and CYP79D7v2, which are involved in herbivore-induced aldoxime formation in western balsam poplar (Populus trichocarpa). Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that both enzymes produce a mixture of different aldoximes. Knockdown lines of CYP79D6/7 in gray poplar (Populus × canescens) exhibited a decreased emission of aldoximes, nitriles, and alcohols, emphasizing that the CYP79s catalyze the first step in the formation of a complex volatile blend. Aldoxime emission was found to be restricted to herbivore-damaged leaves and is closely correlated with CYP79D6 and CYP79D7 gene expression. The semi-volatile phenylacetaldoxime decreased survival and weight gain of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars, suggesting that aldoximes may be involved in direct defense. The wide distribution of volatile aldoximes throughout the plant kingdom and the presence of CYP79 genes in all sequenced genomes of angiosperms suggest that volatile formation mediated by CYP79s is a general phenomenon in the plant kingdom.
    Subject(s): Alcohols - metabolism ; Amino acids ; Animals ; Biosynthesis ; Botanical research ; Caterpillars ; Cytochrome P-450 ; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System - genetics ; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System - metabolism ; Enzymes ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Genome, Plant ; Health aspects ; Herbivores ; Herbivory ; Leaves ; Mortality ; Moths ; Moths - drug effects ; Moths - growth & development ; Moths - physiology ; Nitriles ; Nitriles - metabolism ; Oximes ; Oximes - metabolism ; Oximes - pharmacology ; Phenylalanine - metabolism ; Physiological aspects ; Plant Leaves - genetics ; Plant Leaves - metabolism ; Plant Proteins - genetics ; Plant Proteins - metabolism ; Plants ; Plants, Genetically Modified ; Poplar ; Populus - genetics ; Populus - metabolism ; Populus - physiology ; RESEARCH ARTICLES ; s ; Tobacco - genetics ; Tobacco - metabolism ; Volatile Organic Compounds - analysis ; Volatile Organic Compounds - metabolism
    ISSN: 1040-4651
    E-ISSN: 1532-298X
    Source: American Society of Plant Biologists
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: JSTOR Ecology & Botany II
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
    Source: PubMed Central
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 2020-04-29, Vol.25 (9), p.2083
    Description: Roots provide anchorage and enable the absorption of water and micronutrients from the soil for plants. Besides these essential functions, roots are increasingly being recognized as an important organ for the production of diverse secondary metabolites. The goal of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and function of terpenoid secondary metabolites in roots of different cultivars of the popular ornamental plant Ramat. Although is known for rich production of secondary metabolites in its flower heads and leaves, the diversity of secondary metabolites in roots remains poorly characterized. In this study, 12 cultivars of were selected for comparative analysis. From their roots, a total of 20 terpenoids were detected, including four monoterpenes, 15 sesquiterpenes, and one diterpene. The cultivar 'She Yang Hong Xin Ju' exhibited the highest concentration of total terpenoids at approximately 730 µg·g fresh weight. Most cultivars contained sesquiterpenes as the predominant terpenoids. Of them, ( )-β-farnesene was detected in all cultivars. Based on their terpenoid composition, the 12 cultivars were planed into four groups. To gain insights into the function of root secondary metabolites, we performed bioassays to assess their effects on growth of three species of pathogenic fungi: , , and . Significant variability in antifungal activity of the root extracts among different cultivars were observed. The cultivar 'Xiao Huang Ju' was the only cultivar that had significant inhibitory effects on all three species of fungi. Our study reveals the diversity of terpenoids in roots of and their function as a chemical defense against fungi.
    Subject(s): antifungal ; Antifungal Agents - chemistry ; Antifungal Agents - pharmacology ; Chemical Fractionation ; Chrysanthemum - chemistry ; Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry ; Microbial Sensitivity Tests ; Plant Extracts - chemistry ; Plant Extracts - pharmacology ; Plant Roots - chemistry ; Principal Component Analysis ; root ; Secondary Metabolism ; secondary metabolites ; Terpenes - chemistry ; Terpenes - pharmacology ; terpenoids
    ISSN: 1420-3049
    E-ISSN: 1420-3049
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...