Kidney international, 2019-04, Vol.95 (4), p.983-991
Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists have beneficial effects on left ventricular remodeling, cardiac fibrosis, and arrhythmia in heart failure, but efficacy and safety in dialysis patients is less clear. We evaluated the effect of spironolactone on left ventricular mass (LVM), an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, in hemodialysis patients. In this placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, 97 hemodialysis patients (23% female; mean age 60.3 years) were randomized to spironolactone 50 mg once daily (n=50) or placebo (n=47). The primary efficacy endpoint was change in LVM index (LVMi) from baseline to 40 weeks as determined by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Safety endpoints were development of hyperkalemia and change in residual renal function. There was no significant change in LVMi in participants randomized to spironolactone compared to placebo (-2.86±11.87 vs. 0.41±10.84 g/m2). There was also no difference in the secondary outcomes of mean 24-hour systolic or diastolic ambulatory blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction, 6-minute walk test distance, or New York Heart Association functional class. Moderate hyperkalemia (pre-dialysis potassium levels of 6.0-6.5 mmol/L) was more frequent with spironolactone treatment (155 vs. 80 events), but severe hyperkalemia (≥6.5 mmol/L) was not (14 vs. 24 events). Changes in residual urine volume and measured glomerular filtration rate did not differ between groups. There were no deaths in the spironolactone group and 4 deaths in the placebo group. Thus, treatment with 50 mg spironolactone did not change left ventricular mass index, cardiac function, or blood pressure in hemodialysis patients. Spironolactone increased the frequency of moderate hyperkalemia, but did not increase severe hyperkalemia.
hemodialysis ; blood pressure ; potassium ; left ventricular mass index ; spironolactone ; Spironolactone - administration & dosage ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Male ; Heart Ventricles - diagnostic imaging ; Heart Failure - prevention & control ; Placebos - adverse effects ; Hyperkalemia - epidemiology ; Female ; Heart Failure - etiology ; Heart Ventricles - pathology ; Placebos - administration & dosage ; Spironolactone - adverse effects ; Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists - administration & dosage ; Double-Blind Method ; Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists - adverse effects ; Stroke Volume - drug effects ; Treatment Outcome ; Kidney Failure, Chronic - therapy ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Kidney Failure, Chronic - complications ; Hyperkalemia - chemically induced ; Aged ; Ventricular Remodeling - drug effects ; Heart Ventricles - drug effects ; Renal Dialysis ; Index Medicus
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