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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: AIDS care, 01 May 2012, Vol.24(5), pp.562-576
    Description: Many studies have attempted to determine the relationship between education and HIV status. However, a complete and causal understanding of this relationship requires analysis of its mediating pathways, focusing on sexual behaviors. We developed a series of hypotheses based on the differential effect of educational attainment on three sexual behaviors. We tested our predictions in a systematic literature review including 65 articles reporting associations between three specific sexual behaviors-sexual initiation, number of partners, and condom use-and educational attainment or school enrollment in sub-Saharan Africa. The patterns of associations varied by behavior. The findings for condom use were particularly convergent; none of the 44 studies using educational attainment as a predictor reviewed found that more educated people were significantly less likely to use condoms. Findings for sexual initiation and number of partners were more complex. The contrast between findings for...
    Subject(s): Sub-Saharan Africa ; Quantitative Methods ; Prevention ; Social Cognition ; HIV/AIDS ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0954-0121
    E-ISSN: 1360-0451
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  • 2
    In: British Journal of Educational Psychology, September 2014, Vol.84(3), pp.483-501
    Description: Background: Early childhood malaria is often fatal, but its impact on the development and education of survivors has not received much attention. Malaria impacts cognitive development in a number of ways that may impact later educational participation. Aims: In this study, we examine the long-term educational effects of preventing early childhood malaria. Does intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) during early childhood reduce the risk of dropout? If so, does this effect vary by school type--government school versus madrassa? Sample: We use data from a 2001 follow-up of a 1985-1987 malaria prevention randomized controlled trial in the Gambia. The sample consists of 562 youth born between 1981 and 1986. Methods: We use discrete-time survival analysis to identify the impact of the intervention on dropout risk over time. Results: We find that IPT has a positive impact on dropout for government school students, but not for madrassa attendees. The difference was striking: in government schools, the odds of dropout in the treatment group were one third of those in the control group. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that preventing early childhood malaria may reduce dropout at a relatively low cost. In this intervention, the drugs cost less than one dollar per year per child. While IPT is no longer practised in many countries due to concerns over drug resistance, these results support the conclusion that any type of effective malaria control programme protecting young children, such as consistent and correct use of bed nets, could improve educational attainment in areas where malaria is prevalent.
    Subject(s): Malaria ; Dropout ; The Ambia ; Madrassa
    ISSN: 0007-0998
    E-ISSN: 2044-8279
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  • 3
    In: British Journal of Educational Psychology, March 2010, Vol.80(1), pp.77-97
    Description: Background: The use of cognitive tests is increasing in Africa but little is known about how such tests are affected by the great ethnic and linguistic diversity on the continent. Aim: To assess ethnic and linguistic group differences in cognitive test performance in the West African country of the Gambia and to investigate the sources of these differences. Samples: Study 1 included 579 participants aged 14-19 years from the Wolof and Mandinka ethnic groups of the Gambia. Study 2 included 41 participants aged 12-18 years from the two ethnic groups. Methods: Study 1 assessed performance on six cognitive tests. Participants were also asked about their history of education, residence in the city, parental education, and family socio-economic status. Study 2 assessed performance on two versions of the digit span test. Recall of the numbers 1-5 were compared with recall of numbers 1-9 for both the Wolof (who count in base 5) and the Mandinka (who count in base 10). Results: Study 1 established that Wolof performance was lower than that of the Mandinka on five out of six cognitive tests. In four of these tests, group differences were partially mediated by participation in primary school and migration to the city. Group differences were substantial for the digit span test and were not attenuated by mediating variables. Study 2 found that digit span among the Wolof was shorter than that of the Mandinka for numbers 1-9 but not for numbers 1-5. Conclusions: Several suggestions are made on how to consider the ethnicity, language, education, and residence (urban vs. rural) of groups when conducting comparative cognitive assessments or collecting normative data. Adapted from the source document.
    Subject(s): Gambia ; Sociodemographic Aspects ; Ethnic Groups ; Linguistics ; Residence ; Assessment ; Article;
    ISSN: 0007-0998
    E-ISSN: 2044-8279
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Jukes, Matthew C.H., and Elena L. Grigorenko. 2010. Assessment of cognitive abilities in multiethnic countries: The case of the Wolof and Mandinka in the Gambia. British Journal of Educational Psychology 80, no. 1: 77-97.
    Description: Background: The use of cognitive tests is increasing in Africa but little is known about how such tests are affected by the great ethnic and linguistic diversity on the continent. Aim: To assess ethnic and linguistic group differences in cognitive test performance in the West African country of the Gambia and to investigate the sources of these differences. Samples: Study 1 included 579 participants aged 14–19 years from the Wolof and Mandinka ethnic groups of the Gambia. Study 2 included 41 participants aged 12–18 years from the two ethnic groups. Methods: Study 1 assessed performance on six cognitive tests. Participants were also asked about their history of education, residence in the city, parental education, and family socio-economic status. Study 2 assessed performance on two versions of the digit span test. Recall of the numbers 1–5 were compared with recall of numbers 1–9 for both the Wolof (who count in base 5) and the Mandinka (who count in base 10). Results: Study 1 established that Wolof performance was lower than that of the Mandinka on five out of six cognitive tests. In four of these tests, group differences were partially mediated by participation in primary school and migration to the city. Group differences were substantial for the digit span test and were not attenuated by mediating variables. Study 2 found that digit span among the Wolof was shorter than that of the Mandinka for numbers 1–9 but not for numbers 1–5. Conclusions: Several suggestions are made on how to consider the ethnicity, language, education, and residence (urban vs. rural) of groups when conducting comparative cognitive assessments or collecting normative data.
    ISSN: 0007-0998
    Source: Harvard University Library
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of learning disabilities, September 2018, Vol.51(5), pp.463-472
    Description: Literacy levels in Africa are low, and school instruction outcomes are not promising. Africa also has a disproportionate number of unschooled children. Phonological awareness (PA), especially phoneme awareness, is critically associated with literacy, but there is little evidence about whether PA is gained through literacy, schooling, or both, because most children studied are in education and can read at least letters. Our previous study of PA and reading in children in and out of school in Tanzania found that PA was associated with reading ability, not schooling or age, and many unschooled children learned to read. We retested 85 children from the baseline study, on measures of PA and literacy, approximately 2 years later. We found that more unschooled children had now learned to read but PA had generally not improved for these children. Unschooled children were still poorer at PA than schooled children. At 2 years, schooling now independently predicted PA and literacy. PA also...
    Subject(s): Literacy ; Africa ; Phonological Awareness ; Schooling ; Unschooled Children ; Medicine ; Education ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0022-2194
    E-ISSN: 1538-4780
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of cross-cultural psychology, January 2018, Vol.49(1), pp.82-98
    Description: The recent growth of schooling and urban residence represents a major change to the cultural context of child development across Africa. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between these social changes in the Gambia and the development of both cognitive skills and behaviors viewed by participant communities as the basis for success in village life, comprising six aspects of social responsibility. We compared these skills and behaviors in a sample of 562 Gambian adolescents (M age = 17.1 years) from 10 villages who had either attended a government primary school (n = 207; 36.8%) or a madrasa (n = 355; 63.2%). A total of 235 participants (41.8%) had spent a short time living in the Gambia’s major urban center (median visit duration of 4.2 months). This temporary urban residence was associated with improved performance in all six cognitive tests and a decrease in five of the six social responsibility scores, as rated by adults in the community. Government schooling...
    Subject(s): Africa ; Social and Emotional Learning ; Cognitive Ability ; Gambia ; Culture ; Urbanization ; Schooling ; Social Responsibility ; Developmental: Child/Adolescent ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0022-0221
    E-ISSN: 1552-5422
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Alcock,K. L., D. Ngorosho, C. Deus, and M. C. H. Jukes. 2010. We don't have language at our house: Disentangling the relationship between phonological awareness, schooling, and literacy. British Journal of Educational Psychology 80, no. 1:55-76.
    Description: Background: A strong link between phonological awareness (PA) and literacy exists, but the origins of this link are difficult to investigate, since PA skills are hard to test in young, pre-literate children, and many studies neither include such children nor report children's initial literacy levels. Aims: To examine PA and literacy in children who are attending or not attending school in rural East Africa. Sample: 108 children ages 7 to 10 years, with no education, or in grades 1 or 2, randomly selected from a community survey of all children in this age group. Methods: PA skill, reading, cognitive abilities and socio-economic status were examined. Results: Implicit and explicit PA skill with small or large units is related to letter reading ability, and this effect is independent of age, schooling, and cognitive ability. Some PA tasks are performed above chance levels by children who cannot recognise single letters. Conclusions: Basic PA develops prior to the attainment of literacy, and learning to read improves PA both quantitatively and qualitatively.
    ISSN: 0007-0998
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Nyamukapa, C.A., S. Gregson, M. Wambe, P. Mushore, B. Lopman, Z. Mupambireyi, K. Nhongo, and M.C.H. Jukes. 2010. Causes and consequences of psychological distress among orphans in eastern Zimbabwe. AIDS Care 22(8): 988-996.
    Description: Substantial resources are invested in psychological support for children orphaned or otherwise made vulnerable in the context of HIV/AIDS (OVC). However, there is still only limited scientific evidence for greater psychological distress amongst orphans and even less evidence for the effectiveness of current support strategies. Furthermore, programmes that address established mechanisms through which orphanhood can lead to greater psychological distress should be more effective. We use quantitative and qualitative data from Eastern Zimbabwe to measure the effects of orphanhood on psychological distress and to test mechanisms for greater distress amongst orphans suggested in a recently published theoretical framework. Orphans were found to suffer greater psychological distress than non-orphans (sex- and age-adjusted co-efficient: 0.15; 95% CI 0.03–0.26; P = 0.013). Effects of orphanhood contributing to their increased levels of distress included trauma, being out-of-school, being cared for by a non-parent, inadequate care, child labour, physical abuse, and stigma and discrimination. Increased mobility and separation from siblings did not contribute to greater psychological distress in this study. Over 40% of orphaned children in the sample lived in households receiving external assistance. However, receipt of assistance was not associated with reduced psychological distress. These findings and the ideas put forward by children and caregivers in the focus group discussions suggest that community-based programmes that aim to improve caregiver selection, increase support for caregivers, and provide training in parenting responsibilities and skills might help to reduce psychological distress. These programmes should be under-pinned by further efforts to reduce poverty, increase school attendance and support out-of-school youth.
    Subject(s): Aidsimpact Special Issue 2010
    ISSN: 0954-0121
    E-ISSN: 13600451
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Drake, Thomas L., George Okello, Kiambo Njagi, Katherine E Halliday, Matthew CH Jukes, Lindsay Mangham, and Simon Brooker. 2011. Cost analysis of school-based intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in Kenya. Malaria Journal 10:273.
    Description: Background: The control of malaria in schools is receiving increasing attention, but there remains currently no consensus as to the optimal intervention strategy. This paper analyses the costs of intermittent screening and treatment (IST) of malaria in schools, implemented as part of a cluster-randomized controlled trial on the Kenyan coast. Methods: Financial and economic costs were estimated using an ingredients approach whereby all resources required in the delivery of IST are quantified and valued. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate how programme variation affects costs and to identify potential cost savings in the future implementation of IST. Results: The estimated financial cost of IST per child screened is US$ 6.61 (economic cost US$ 6.24). Key contributors to cost were salary costs (36%) and malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) (22%). Almost half (47%) of the intervention cost comprises redeployment of existing resources including health worker time and use of hospital vehicles. Sensitivity analysis identified changes to intervention delivery that can reduce programme costs by 40%, including use of alternative RDTs and removal of supervised treatment. Cost-effectiveness is also likely to be highly sensitive to the proportion of children found to be RDT-positive. Conclusion: In the current context, school-based IST is a relatively expensive malaria intervention, but reducing the complexity of delivery can result in considerable savings in the cost of intervention.
    Subject(s): Public Health;
    ISSN: 1475-2875
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Comparative Education Review, 01, 15 February November 2012 2011, Vol.56(1), pp.48-68
    Description: We report on a study that used observations, conversations, and formal interviews to explore literacy instruction in 24 lower-primary classrooms in coastal Kenya. Specifically, we report the ways literacy instruction is delivered and how that delivery aligns with practices understood to promote reading acquisition. We find (1) prioritization of developing oral language skills over teaching the relationships between sounds and symbols, (2) enablers to literacy instruction that are the result of teachers efforts, and (3) constraints to successful literacy instruction as perceived by the teachers. We identify challenges and opportunities to improve literacy instruction in English and Swahili.
    Subject(s): Literacy ; Kenya ; Teachers ; Classrooms ; Educational Policy ; Teaching ; Languages ; Article;
    ISSN: 00104086
    E-ISSN: 1545701X
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