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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Plant cell, 2010-04-01, Vol.22 (4), p.1344-1357
    Description: Plants constantly adjust their repertoire of plasma membrane proteins that mediates transduction of environmental and developmental signals as well as transport of ions, nutrients, and hormones. The importance of regulated secretory and endocytic trafficking is becoming increasingly clear; however, our knowledge of the compartments and molecular machinery involved is still fragmentary. We used immunogold electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy to trace the route of cargo molecules, including the BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 receptor and the REQUIRES HIGH BORON1 boron exporter, throughout the plant endomembrane system. Our results provide evidence that both endocytic and secretory cargo pass through the trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE) and demonstrate that cargo in late endosomes/multivesicular bodies is destined for vacuolar degradation. Moreover, using spinning disc microscopy, we show that TGN/EEs move independently and are only transiently associated with an individual Golgi stack.
    Subject(s): Receptors ; Endocytosis ; Boron ; Cell walls ; Plants ; Freight ; Plant cells ; Endosomes ; Seedlings ; Golgi apparatus ; cell-wall pectins ; by-2 cells ; boron transporter ; root-cells ; homotypic fusion ; plant-cells ; prevacuolar compartments ; atpase activity ; endoplasmic-reticulum ; brefeldin-a ; Arabidopsis Proteins - metabolism ; Protein Kinases - metabolism ; Microscopy, Confocal ; Microscopy, Electron, Transmission ; trans-Golgi Network - metabolism ; Antiporters - metabolism ; Multivesicular Bodies - metabolism ; Arabidopsis - metabolism ; Protein Transport ; Arabidopsis thaliana ; Physiological aspects ; Research ; Plant physiology
    ISSN: 1040-4651
    E-ISSN: 1532-298X
    Source: American Society of Plant Biologists
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: JSTOR Ecology & Botany II
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
    Source: PubMed Central
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Nature (London), 2010, Vol.464 (7290), p.913-916
    Description: Acquisition of cell identity in plants relies strongly on positional information1, hence cell–cell communication and inductive signalling are instrumental for developmental patterning. During Arabidopsis embryogenesis, an extra-embryonic cell is specified to become the founder cell of the primary root meristem, hypophysis, in response to signals from adjacent embryonic cells2. The auxin-dependent transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) drives hypophysis specification by promoting transport of the hormone auxin from the embryo to the hypophysis precursor. However, auxin accumulation is not sufficient for hypophysis specification, indicating that additional MP-dependent signals are required3. Here we describe the microarray-based isolation of MP target genes that mediate signalling from embryo to hypophysis. Of three direct transcriptional target genes, TARGET OF MP 5 (TMO5) and TMO7 encode basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factors that are expressed in the hypophysis-adjacent embryo cells, and are required and partially sufficient for MP-dependent root initiation. Importantly, the small TMO7 transcription factor moves from its site of synthesis in the embryo to the hypophysis precursor, thus representing a novel MP-dependent intercellular signal in embryonic root specification
    Subject(s): mutation ; embryogenesis ; receptor ; arabidopsis-thaliana ; auxin-response factors ; gene-expression ; loop-helix proteins ; family ; activation ; encodes ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Vegetative apparatus, growth and morphogenesis. Senescence ; Biological and medical sciences ; Plant physiology and development ; Meristem - cytology ; Plant Roots - metabolism ; Indoleacetic Acids - metabolism ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Signal Transduction ; Arabidopsis - cytology ; Embryonic Development - genetics ; Arabidopsis - embryology ; Plant Roots - cytology ; Arabidopsis - metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins - metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins - metabolism ; Transcription Factors - metabolism ; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors - metabolism ; Genes, Plant - genetics ; Plant Roots - embryology ; Meristem - embryology ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; Meristem - metabolism ; Physiological aspects ; Embryonic development ; Transcription factors ; Genetic aspects ; Research ; Arabidopsis
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Annual review of plant biology, 2012, Vol.63 (1), p.483-506
    Description: Early embryogenesis is the critical developmental phase during which the basic features of the plant body are established: the apical-basal axis of polarity, different tissue layers, and both the root pole and the shoot pole. Polarization of the zygote correlates with the generation of apical and basal (embryonic and extraembryonic) cell fates. Whereas mechanisms of zygote polarization are still largely unknown, distinct expression domains of WOX family transcription factors as well as directional auxin transport and local auxin response are known to be involved in early apical-basal patterning. Radial patterning of tissue layers appears to be mediated by cell-cell communication involving both peptide signaling and transcription factor movement. Although the initiation of the shoot pole is still unclear, the apical organization of the embryo depends on both the proper establishment of transcription factor expression domains and, for cotyledon initiation, upward auxin flow in the protoderm. Here we focus on the essential patterning processes, drawing mainly on data from Arabidopsis thaliana and also including relevant data from other species if available.
    Subject(s): Plant Roots - metabolism ; Flowers - metabolism ; Cotyledon - embryology ; Flowers - cytology ; Plant Roots - cytology ; Cotyledon - metabolism ; Cell Division - physiology ; Transcription Factors - metabolism ; Flowers - embryology ; Seeds - physiology ; Plant Roots - embryology ; Cotyledon - cytology ; Plant Proteins - metabolism ; Seeds - cytology ; Plant Development - physiology ; Embryonic development ; Transcription factors ; Plant genetics ; Physiological aspects ; Genetic aspects ; Research ; Angiosperms ; Space life sciences
    ISSN: 1543-5008
    E-ISSN: 1545-2123
    Source: Annual Reviews Complete A-Z List
    Source: Electronic Back Volume Collection (EBVC)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Plant cell, 2009-12-01, Vol.21 (12), p.3984-4001
    Description: Plastid-targeted proteins pass through the cytosol as unfolded precursors. If proteins accumulate in the cytosol, they can form nonspecific aggregates that cause severe cellular damage. Here, we demonstrate that high levels of plastid precursors are degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in Arabidopsis thaliana cells. The cytosolic heat shock protein cognate 70-4 (Hsc70-4) and E3 ligase carboxy terminus of HscTO-interacting protein (CHIP) were highly induced in plastid protein import2 plants, which had a T-DNA insertion at Toc159 and showed an albino phenotype and a severe defect in protein import into chloroplasts. Hsc70-4 and CHIP together mediated plastid precursor degradation when import-defective chloroplast-targeted reporter proteins were transiently expressed in protoplasts. Hsc70-4 recognized specific sequence motifs in transit peptides and thereby led to precursor degradation through the UPS. CHIP, which interacted with Hsc70-4, functioned as an E3 ligase in the Hsc70-4-mediated protein degradation. The physiological role of Hsc70-4 was confirmed by analyzing Hsc70-4 RNA interfernce plants in an hsc70-1 mutant background. Plants with lower Hsc70 levels exhibited abnormal embryogenesis, resulting in defective seedlings that displayed high levels of reactive oxygen species and monoubiquitinated Lhcb4 precursors. We propose that Hsc70-4 and CHIP mediate plastid-destined precursor degradation to prevent cytosolic precursor accumulation and thereby play a critical role in embryogenesis.
    Subject(s): Proteins ; Protein isoforms ; Chloroplasts ; Gels ; Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction ; Protoplasts ; Antibodies ; Protein precursors ; Plastids ; Plant cells ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Plants, Genetically Modified - genetics ; HSC70 Heat-Shock Proteins - metabolism ; Ubiquitin - metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases - metabolism ; Phylogeny ; RNA, Plant - genetics ; Chloroplasts - metabolism ; Protein Folding ; Arabidopsis - metabolism ; Protein Precursors - metabolism ; Arabidopsis - genetics ; Arabidopsis Proteins - metabolism ; DNA, Bacterial - genetics ; Plants, Genetically Modified - metabolism ; Mutagenesis, Insertional ; Protein Processing, Post-Translational ; Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex - metabolism ; Arabidopsis thaliana ; Ubiquitin ; Heat shock proteins ; Physiological aspects ; Plant embryology ; Research ; Properties
    ISSN: 1040-4651
    E-ISSN: 1532-298X
    Source: American Society of Plant Biologists
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: JSTOR Ecology & Botany II
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
    Source: PubMed Central
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: eLife, 2017-05-19, Vol.6
    Description: Intracellular membrane fusion mediates diverse processes including cell growth, division and communication. Fusion involves complex formation between SNARE proteins anchored to adjacent membranes. How and in what form interacting SNARE proteins reach their sites of action is virtually unknown. We have addressed this problem in the context of plant cell division in which a large number of TGN-derived membrane vesicles fuse with one another to form the partitioning membrane. Blocking vesicle formation at the TGN revealed -SNARE complexes. These inactive cytokinetic SNARE complexes were already assembled at the endoplasmic reticulum and, after passage through Golgi/TGN to the cell division plane, transformed into fusogenic SNARE complexes. This mode of trafficking might ensure delivery of large stoichiometric quantities of SNARE proteins required for forming the partitioning membrane in the narrow time frame of plant cytokinesis. Such long-distance trafficking of inactive SNARE complexes would also facilitate directional growth processes during cell differentiation.
    Subject(s): Endoplasmic Reticulum - metabolism ; Arabidopsis - physiology ; Cell Membrane - metabolism ; Cytokinesis ; SNARE Proteins - metabolism ; Protein Transport ; Physiological aspects ; Cell membranes ; Observations ; Arabidopsis ; Endoplasmic reticulum ; Proteins ; Membrane fusion ; Cell division ; Intracellular signalling ; Membrane vesicles ; SNAP receptors ; Mutation ; Molecular biology ; Cell interactions ; Golgi cells ; Plant Biology ; cytokinesis ; A. thaliana ; Short Report ; SNARE complex ; membrane traffic ; Cell Biology ; membrane fusion
    ISSN: 2050-084X
    E-ISSN: 2050-084X
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Cell, 2003, Vol.112 (2), p.219-230
    Description: Exchange factors for ARF GTPases (ARF-GEFs) regulate vesicle trafficking in a variety of organisms. The Arabidopsis protein GNOM is a brefeldin A (BFA) sensitive ARF-GEF that is required for the proper polar localization of PIN1, a candidate transporter of the plant hormone auxin. Mutations in GNOM lead to developmental defects that resemble those caused by interfering with auxin transport. Both PIN1 localization and auxin transport are also sensitive to BFA. In this paper, we show that GNOM localizes to endosomes and is required for their structural integrity. We engineered a BFA-resistant version of GNOM. In plants harboring this fully functional GNOM variant, PIN1 localization and auxin transport are no longer sensitive to BFA, while trafficking of other proteins is still affected by the drug. Our results demonstrate that GNOM is required for the recycling of auxin transport components and suggest that ARF-GEFs regulate specific endosomal trafficking pathways.
    Subject(s): Cell research ; Auxin ; Arabidopsis ; Analysis ; Physiological aspects ; Genetic aspects ; Growth (Plants) ; Genetic regulation ; Guanosine triphosphatase ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Brefeldin A ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Plant Growth Regulators ; Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors ; Membrane Proteins ; Life Sciences ; Microscopy, Confocal ; Biological Transport, Active ; Arabidopsis Proteins ; Genetic Engineering ; Membrane Transport Proteins ; Mutation ; Vegetal Biology ; Drug Resistance ; Endosomes ; Indoleacetic Acids
    ISSN: 0092-8674
    E-ISSN: 1097-4172
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 2008-10-24, Vol.322 (5901), p.594-597
    Description: During the development of multicellular organisms, organogenesis and pattern formation depend on formative divisions to specify and maintain pools of stem cells. In higher plants, these activities are essential to shape the final root architecture because the functioning of root apical meristems and the de novo formation of lateral roots entirely rely on it. We used transcript profiling on sorted pericycle cells undergoing lateral root initiation to identify the receptor-like kinase ACR4 Arabidopsis as a key factor both in promoting formative cell divisions in the pericycle and in constraining the number of these divisions once organogenesis has been started. In the root tip meristem, ACR4 shows a similar action by controlling cell proliferation activity in the columella cell lineage. Thus, ACR4 function reveals a common mechanism of formative cell division control in the main root tip meristem and during lateral root initiation.
    Subject(s): Research fellowships ; Stem cells ; Cell lines ; Plant roots ; Cell division ; Reports ; Root tips ; Plants ; Pluripotent stem cells ; Root initiation ; Daughter cells ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Economic plant physiology ; Biological and medical sciences ; Agronomy. Soil science and plant productions ; Meristem - enzymology ; Meristem - cytology ; Arabidopsis Proteins - genetics ; Arabidopsis - enzymology ; Arabidopsis - growth & development ; Genes, Plant ; Arabidopsis - cytology ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases ; Receptors, Cell Surface - metabolism ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Plant Roots - cytology ; Meristem - growth & development ; Arabidopsis - genetics ; Arabidopsis Proteins - metabolism ; Cell Lineage ; Cell Division ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; Plant Roots - enzymology ; Mutation ; Plant Roots - growth & development ; Receptors, Cell Surface - genetics ; Physiological aspects ; Genetic aspects ; Research ; Arabidopsis ; Protein kinases
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Single Journals
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Cell, 2003, Vol.115 (5), p.591-602
    Description: Plants, compared to animals, exhibit an amazing adaptability and plasticity in their development. This is largely dependent on the ability of plants to form new organs, such as lateral roots, leaves, and flowers during postembryonic development. Organ primordia develop from founder cell populations into organs by coordinated cell division and differentiation. Here, we show that organ formation in Arabidopsis involves dynamic gradients of the signaling molecule auxin with maxima at the primordia tips. These gradients are mediated by cellular efflux requiring asymmetrically localized PIN proteins, which represent a functionally redundant network for auxin distribution in both aerial and underground organs. PIN1 polar localization undergoes a dynamic rearrangement, which correlates with establishment of auxin gradients and primordium development. Our results suggest that PIN-dependent, local auxin gradients represent a common module for formation of all plant organs, regardless of their mature morphology or developmental origin.
    Subject(s): Green Fluorescent Proteins ; Arabidopsis - growth & development ; Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins ; Cell Differentiation - genetics ; Arabidopsis Proteins ; Membrane Proteins - metabolism ; Plant Roots - growth & development ; Luminescent Proteins ; Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor - genetics ; Cell Division - genetics ; Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor - metabolism ; Plant Roots - metabolism ; Indoleacetic Acids - metabolism ; Membrane Proteins - genetics ; Plant Structures - metabolism ; Arabidopsis - cytology ; Plant Roots - cytology ; Plant Structures - cytology ; Plant Structures - growth & development ; Cotyledon - metabolism ; Protein Transport - genetics ; Arabidopsis - metabolism ; Cell Polarity - genetics ; Cotyledon - cytology ; Membrane Transport Proteins ; Cotyledon - growth & development ; Auxin ; Analysis ; Physiological aspects ; Development ; Influence ; Evolution ; Plants ; Plant hormones
    ISSN: 0092-8674
    E-ISSN: 1097-4172
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Nature cell biology, 2011-05, Vol.13 (5), p.611-615
    Description: Cell specification in development requires robust gene-regulatory responses to transient signals. In plants, the small signalling molecule auxin has been implicated in diverse developmental processes. Auxin promotes the degradation of AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (AUX/IAA) inhibitors that prevent AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) transcription factors from regulating their target genes. However, the precise role of auxin in patterning has remained unclear, the view of auxin acting as a morphogen is controversial and the transcriptional control of the ARF genes themselves is barely explored. Here, we demonstrate by experimental and computational analyses that the Arabidopsis ARF protein MONOPTEROS (MP) controls its own expression and the expression of its AUX/IAA inhibitor BODENLOS (BDL), with auxin acting as a threshold-specific trigger by promoting the degradation of the inhibitor. Our results suggest a general mechanism for how the transient accumulation of auxin activates self-sustaining or hysteretic feedback systems of interacting auxin-response proteins that, similarly to other genetic switches, result in unequivocal developmental responses.
    Subject(s): Arabidopsis - genetics ; Indoleacetic Acids - metabolism ; Genes, Plant ; Proteins ; Physiological aspects ; Embryonic development ; Auxin ; Research
    ISSN: 1465-7392
    E-ISSN: 1476-4679
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Nature (London), 2008-02-14, Vol.451 (7180), p.835-840
    Description: Cell-autonomous immunity is widespread in plant-fungus interactions and terminates fungal pathogenesis either at the cell surface or after pathogen entry. Although post-invasive resistance responses typically coincide with a self-contained cell death of plant cells undergoing attack by parasites, these cells survive pre-invasive defence. Mutational analysis in Arabidopsis identified PEN1 syntaxin as one component of two pre-invasive resistance pathways against ascomycete powdery mildew fungi. Here we show that plasma-membrane-resident PEN1 promiscuously forms SDS-resistant soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes together with the SNAP33 adaptor and a subset of vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs). PEN1-dependent disease resistance acts in vivo mainly through two functionally redundant VAMP72 subfamily members, VAMP721 and VAMP722. Unexpectedly, the same two VAMP proteins also operate redundantly in a default secretory pathway, suggesting dual functions in separate biological processes owing to evolutionary co-option of the default pathway for plant immunity. The disease resistance function of the secretory PEN1-SNAP33-VAMP721/722 complex and the pathogen-induced subcellular dynamics of its components are mechanistically reminiscent of immunological synapse formation in vertebrates, enabling execution of immune responses through focal secretion.
    Subject(s): Arabidopsis Proteins - genetics ; Ascomycota - physiology ; SNARE Proteins - genetics ; Arabidopsis - immunology ; N-Glycosyl Hydrolases - genetics ; N-Glycosyl Hydrolases - metabolism ; Arabidopsis - genetics ; Arabidopsis Proteins - metabolism ; Arabidopsis - microbiology ; ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters - genetics ; Qa-SNARE Proteins - metabolism ; ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters - metabolism ; Qa-SNARE Proteins - genetics ; SNARE Proteins - metabolism
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Nature Journals Online
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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