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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The American economic review, 2016, Vol.106 (4), p.903-934
    Description: We examine the impact of a positive and policy-driven change in economic resources available in utero and during childhood. We focus on the introduction of the Food Stamp Program, which was rolled out across counties between 1961 and 1975. We use the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to assemble unique data linking family background and county of residence in early childhood to adult health and economic outcomes. Our findings indicate access to food stamps in childhood leads to a significant reduction in the incidence of metabolic syndrome and, for women, an increase in economic selfsufficiency.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; Bildungsniveau ; Children & youth ; Earned income tax credit ; Economics ; Education ; Environmental policy ; Ernährungspolitik ; Erwachsener ; Families & family life ; Food stamp program ; Food stamps ; Gesundheit ; Health behavior ; Health facilities ; Kind ; Low income groups ; Medicare ; Planning ; Poverty ; Public assistance programs ; Regression analysis ; Schätzung ; USA ; Welfare ; Wirkungsanalyse
    ISSN: 0002-8282
    E-ISSN: 1944-7981
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences I
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    2019
    ISSN: 0002-7162 
    Language: English
    In: The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 2019-11, Vol.686 (1), p.180-203
    Description: In this article, I review the most prominent provision of the federal income tax code that targets low-income tax filers, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), as well as the structurally similar Child Tax Credit and Additional Child Tax Credit. I discuss the programs’ goals: distributional, promoting work, and limiting administrative and compliance costs. The article reviews the history of the programs, the predicted economic effects, and what is known about program impacts and distributional consequences. I conclude that the EITC effectively targets low-income households and is efficient in reducing poverty while encouraging work and that increases in after-tax household incomes lead to improved outcomes over the life course for children of those households. I propose reforms to the program, including policies that expand the generosity of the credit and increase take-up, as well as structural reforms that include spreading benefits throughout the year and reducing reliance on paid tax preparers.
    Subject(s): Children ; Compliance ; Credit ; Earned income tax credit ; Generosity ; Government & Law ; Households ; Housework ; Income taxes ; Life course ; Low income groups ; Political Science ; Poverty ; Reforms ; Reliance ; Social Sciences ; Social Sciences - Other Topics ; Social Sciences, Interdisciplinary ; Taxation
    ISSN: 0002-7162
    E-ISSN: 1552-3349
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: Web of Science - Social Sciences Citation Index – 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
    Source: Sociological Abstracts
    Source: Nexis Uni
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of economic perspectives, 2012, Vol.26 (3), p.27-47
    Description: In this paper, we examine how business cycles affect labor market outcomes in the United States. We conduct a detailed analysis of how cycles affect outcomes differentially across persons of differing age, education, race, and gender, and we compare the cyclical sensitivity during the Great Recession to that in the early 1980s recession. We present raw tabulations and estimate a state panel data model that leverages variation across U.S. states in the timing and severity of business cycles. We find that the impacts of the Great Recession are not uniform across demographic groups and have been felt most strongly for men, black and Hispanic workers, youth, and low-education workers. These dramatic differences in the cyclicality across demographic groups are remarkably stable across three decades of time and throughout recessionary periods and expansionary periods. For the 2007 recession, these differences are largely explained by differences in exposure to cycles across industry-occupation employment. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
    Subject(s): Altersgruppe ; Analysis ; Arbeitskraft ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Bildungsniveau ; Business cycles ; Demographic research ; Demography ; Economic aspects ; Economic conditions ; Economic recessions ; Economic recovery ; Economic theory ; Employment ; Employment statistics ; Ethnische Gruppe ; Experimental methods ; Forecasts and trends ; Geschlecht ; Great Recession ; Konjunktur ; Labor economics ; Labor market ; Labor markets ; Labour market ; Men ; Panel data ; Recession ; Recessions ; Studies ; Symposium: Labor Markets and Unemployment ; U.S.A ; Unemployment ; Unemployment rates ; United States ; USA
    ISSN: 0895-3309
    E-ISSN: 1944-7965
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences I
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: American economic journal. Economic policy, 2015-02-01, Vol.7 (1), p.172-211
    Description: This paper uses quasi-experimental variation from federal tax reform to evaluate the effect of the EITC on infant health outcomes. We find that the EITC reduces the incidence of low birth weight and increases mean birth weight: a $1,000 treatment-on-the-treated leads to a 2 to 3 percent decline in low birth weight. Our results suggest that the candidate mechanisms include more prenatal care and less negative health behaviors (smoking). Additionally, we find a shift from public to private insurance coverage, and for some a reduction in insurance overall, indicating a potential change in the quality and perhaps quantity of coverage.
    Subject(s): Birth weight ; Children ; Earned income tax credit ; Estimated taxes ; Income estimates ; Income taxes ; Infants ; Labor supply ; Low birth weight ; Single women
    ISSN: 1945-7731
    E-ISSN: 1945-774X
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences VI
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The review of economics and statistics, 2011-05-01, Vol.93 (2), p.387-403
    Description: This paper evaluates the health impacts of a signature initiative of the War on Poverty: the introduction of the modern Food Stamp Program (FSP). Using variation in the month FSP began operating in each U.S. county, we find that pregnancies exposed to FSP three months prior to birth yielded deliveries with increased birth weight, with the largest gains at the lowest birth weights. We also find small but statistically insignificant improvements in neonatal mortality. We conclude that the sizable increase in income from FSP improved birth outcomes for both whites and African Americans, with larger impacts for African American mothers.
    Subject(s): African Americans ; Analysis ; Benefit plans ; Birth weight ; Censuses ; Death ; Electronics benefit transfer ; Food consumption ; Food resources ; Food stamp program ; Food stamps ; Forecasts and trends ; Impact analysis ; Infant mortality ; Infants ; Low birth weight ; Mortality ; Population economics ; Poverty ; Pregnancy ; Social development ; Statistical analysis ; Studies ; U.S.A ; United States ; United States economic conditions ; Urban populations ; Women
    ISSN: 0034-6535
    ISSN: 1530-9142
    E-ISSN: 1530-9142
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences I
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of labor economics, 2016-01-01, Vol.34 (S1), p.S403-S444
    Description: Much attention has been given to the large increases in safety net spending during the Great Recession. We examine the relationship between poverty, the safety net, and business cycles historically and test whether there has been a significant change in this relationship. We find that post–welfare reform, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families did not respond during the Great Recession and extreme poverty is more cyclical than in prior recessions. Food Stamps and Unemployment Insurance are providing more protection—or no less protection—in the Great Recession, and there is some evidence of less cyclicality for 100% poverty.
    Subject(s): Economic aspects ; Food stamps ; Forecasts and trends ; Government spending ; Great Recession ; Poverty ; Public expenditure ; Recessions ; Studies ; Unemployment ; Unemployment insurance ; Welfare reform
    ISSN: 0734-306X
    E-ISSN: 1537-5307
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of human resources, 2018, Vol.53 (4), p.859-890
    Description: The effects of the earned income tax credit on the economic status of single mothers with children are examined. The income increasing effects of this credit are concentrated between 75% and 150% of income-to-poverty.
    Subject(s): Credit ; Earned income tax credit ; Earnings ; Economic aspects ; Generosity ; Income distribution ; Income inequality ; Income taxes ; Indirect effects ; Inequality ; Poverty ; Public welfare ; Single mothers ; Social aspects ; Tax credits ; Taxation ; United States ; Women heads of households
    ISSN: 0022-166X
    E-ISSN: 1548-8004
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: Project MUSE - Premium Collection
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of labor economics, 2019-07-01, Vol.37 (S2), p.S253-S288
    Description: The past quarter-century has seen substantial change in the social safety nets for families with children in the United States and Canada. Both countries have moved away from cash welfare, but the United States has relied more on work requirements. We examine the implications for the employment and poverty of low-educated single mothers. We find that employment improved substantially in both countries, absolutely and relative to a control group of single women without children. Poverty rates also declined in both countries, with more of the decline coming through market income in the United States and benefit income in Canada.
    Subject(s): Business & Economics ; Economics ; Industrial Relations & Labor ; Social Sciences
    ISSN: 0734-306X
    E-ISSN: 1537-5307
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Web of Science - Social Sciences Citation Index – 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: American economic journal. Applied economics, 2009-10, Vol.1 (4), p.109-139
    Description: Economists have strong theoretical predictions about how in-kind transfers, such as providing vouchers for food, impact consumption. Despite the prominence of the theory, there is little empirical work on responses to in-kind transfers, and most existing work fails to support the canonical theoretical model. We employ difference-in-difference methods to estimate the impact of program introduction on food spending. Consistent with predictions, we find that food stamps reduce out-of-pocket food spending and increase overall food expenditures. We also find that households are inframarginal and respond similarly to one dollar in cash income and one dollar in food stamps.
    Subject(s): Cash ; Cash income ; Censuses ; Children ; Consumers ; Consumption ; Economic models ; Economic theory ; Economics ; Electronics benefit transfer ; Expenditures ; Food consumption ; Food stamps ; Income estimates ; Low income groups ; Marginal propensity to consume ; Medicare ; Nutrition research ; Payment in kind ; Propensity to consume ; Public assistance programs ; Spending ; Studies ; Trends
    ISSN: 1945-7782
    E-ISSN: 1945-7790
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences VI
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: The American economic review, 2015-05-01, Vol.105 (5), p.154-160
    Description: In this paper, we examine the effects of economic cycles on low-to moderate-income families. We use variation across states and over time to estimate the effects of cycles on the distribution of income, using fine gradations of the household income-to-poverty ratio. We also explore how the effects of cycles affect the risk of falling into poverty across demographic groups, focusing on age, race/ethnicity, and family type. We conclude by testing to see whether these relationships have changed in the Great Recession. We discuss the results in light of the changes in the social safety net in recent decades.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; Business cycles ; Calendars ; Children ; Coefficients ; Earnings ; Economic conditions ; Economic fluctuations ; Economic models ; Economic recessions ; Economic theory ; Employment ; Ethnicity ; Great Recession ; Heterogeneous catalysis ; Household income ; Households ; IMPACTS OF THE GREAT RECESSION ON LOW-INCOME HOUSEHOLDS ; Income distribution ; Income estimates ; Influence ; Labor market ; Older adults ; Personal income ; Poverty ; Recession ; Recessions ; Studies ; Subsidies ; Taxes ; Unemployment ; Unemployment rates
    ISSN: 0002-8282
    E-ISSN: 1944-7981
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences I
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
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