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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Agricultural economics, 2017-07, Vol.48 (4), p.469-480
    Description: We study the relationship between pre‐school children's food consumption and household agricultural production. Using a large household survey from rural Ethiopia, we find that increasing household production diversity leads to considerable improvements in children's dietary diversity. However, we also document how this nonseparability of consumption and production does not hold for households that have access to food markets. These findings imply that nutrition‐sensitive agricultural interventions that push for market integration are likely to be more effective in reducing under‐nutrition than those promoting production diversity.
    Subject(s): Agricultural household models ; Agricultural industry ; Agriculture ; Analysis ; Child dietary diversity ; Children ; Count data ; D12 ; Elementary school students ; Food and nutrition ; Food markets ; O12 ; Q12 ; Q18 ; Supermarkets
    ISSN: 0169-5150
    E-ISSN: 1574-0862
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    2018
    ISSN: 0002-9092 
    Language: English
    In: American journal of agricultural economics, 2018-10-01, Vol.100 (5), p.1302-1319
    Description: Abstract Stunting affects 160 million pre-school children globally with adverse life-long consequences. While work within nutritional science suggests that stunting in early childhood is associated with low intakes of animal-sourced foods (ASFs), this topic has received little attention from economists. We attempt to redress this omission through an analysis of 130,432 children aged 6–23 months from 49 countries. We document distinctive patterns of ASF consumption among children in different regions. We find evidence of strong associations between stunting and a generic ASF consumption indicator, as well as dairy, meat/fish, and egg consumption indicators, and evidence that consuming multiple ASFs is more advantageous than any single ASF. We explore why ASF consumption is low but also so variable across countries. Non-tradable ASFs (fresh milk, eggs) are a very expensive source of calories in low-income countries and caloric prices of these foods are strongly associated with children’s consumption patterns. Other demand-side factors are also important, but the strong influence of prices implies an important role for agricultural policies—in production, marketing and trade—to improve the accessibility and affordability of ASFs in poorer countries.
    Subject(s): Access ; Affordability ; Agricultural policy ; Animal-based foods ; Animals ; Animal‐sourced foods ; Calories ; Childhood ; Children ; Consumption ; dietary diversity ; Eggs ; Fish ; fisheries ; Food ; Food sources ; livestock ; Low income countries ; Marketing ; Meat ; Milk ; nutrition ; Prices ; Pricing ; stunting
    ISSN: 0002-9092
    E-ISSN: 1467-8276
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet (British edition), 2008, Vol.371 (9610), p.411-416
    Description: Summary Background Substantial, but indirect, evidence suggests that improving nutrition in early childhood in developing countries is a long-term economic investment. We investigated the direct effect of a nutrition intervention in early childhood on adult economic productivity. Methods We obtained economic data from 1424 Guatemalan individuals (aged 25–42 years) between 2002 and 2004. They accounted for 60% of the 2392 children (aged 0–7 years) who had been enrolled in a nutrition intervention study during 1969–77. In this initial study, two villages were randomly assigned a nutritious supplement (atole) for all children and two villages a less nutritious one (fresco). We estimated annual income, hours worked, and average hourly wages from all economic activities. We used linear regression models, adjusting for potentially confounding factors, to assess the relation between economic variables and exposure to atole or fresco at specific ages between birth and 7 years. Findings Exposure to atole before, but not after, age 3 years was associated with higher hourly wages, but only for men. For exposure to atole from 0 to 2 years, the increase was US$0·67 per hour (95% CI 0·16–1·17), which meant a 46% increase in average wages. There was a non-significant tendency for hours worked to be reduced and for annual incomes to be greater for those exposed to atole from 0 to 2 years. Interpretation Improving nutrition in early childhood led to substantial increases in wage rates for men, which suggests that investments in early childhood nutrition can be long-term drivers of economic growth.
    Subject(s): Abridged Index Medicus ; Adult ; Care and treatment ; Child ; Child Nutrition Disorders - diet therapy ; Child, Preschool ; Dietary Supplements ; Employment - statistics & numerical data ; Female ; Guatemala ; Humans ; Infant ; Internal Medicine ; Longitudinal Studies ; Male ; Malnutrition ; Prevention ; Salaries and Fringe Benefits - statistics & numerical data ; Social Class ; Usage ; Wellness programs
    ISSN: 0140-6736
    E-ISSN: 1474-547X
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Food security, 2020-08, Vol.12 (4), p.769-772
    Description: COVID-19 undermines food security both directly, by disrupting food systems, and indirectly, through the impacts of lockdowns on household incomes and physical access to food. COVID-19 and responses to the pandemic could undermine food production, processing and marketing, but the most concerning impacts are on the demand-side – economic and physical access to food. This paper identifies three complementary frameworks that can contribute to understanding these effects, which are expected to persist into the post-pandemic phase, after lockdowns are lifted. FAO’s ‘four pillars’– availability, access, stability and utilisation – and the ‘food systems’ approach both provide holistic frameworks for analysing food security. Sen’s ‘entitlement’ approach is useful for disaggregating demand-side effects on household production-, labour-, trade- and transfer-based entitlements to food. Drawing on the strengths of each of these frameworks can enhance the understanding of the pandemic’s impacts on food security, while also pinpointing areas for governments and other actors to intervene in the food system, to protect the food security of households left vulnerable by COVID-19 and public responses.
    Subject(s): Coronaviruses ; COVID-19 ; Food ; Food processing ; Food production ; Food security ; Households ; Pandemics ; Side effects
    ISSN: 1876-4517
    E-ISSN: 1876-4525
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of development studies, 2020-10-02, Vol.56 (10), p.1818-1837
    Description: We provide new evidence on the impact of social protection interventions on household size and the factors that cause the household size to change: fertility, child fosterage, and in and out migration related to work and marriage. Using data from an intervention delivered at scale, Ethiopia's Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP), we find that participation in the PSNP leads to an increase in household size of 0.3 members. We find no evidence that PSNP participation increases fertility and some evidence that fertility is reduced, specifically it reduces the likelihood that an adult female member gives birth by 8.1 percentage points. We reconcile this seemingly divergent findings by showing that the increase in household size arises from an increase in the number of girls aged 12 to 18 years. We present evidence that this occurs because the PSNP causes households to delay marrying out adolescent females.
    ISSN: 0022-0388
    E-ISSN: 1743-9140
    Source: Taylor & Francis Open Access
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  • 6
    Article
    Article
    2006
    ISSN: 0030-7653 
    Language: English
    In: Oxford economic papers, 2006-07-01, Vol.58 (3), p.450-474
    Description: This paper examines the impact of pre-school malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects-instrumental variables (MFE-IV) estimator with a long term panel data set. Representations of civil war and drought shocks are used to identify differences in pre-school nutritional status across siblings. Improvements in height-for-age in pre-schoolers are associated with increased height as a young adult and number of grades of schooling completed. Had the median pre-school child in this sample had the stature of a median child in a developed country, by adolescence, she would be 3.4 centimeters taller, had completed an additional 0.85 grades of schooling and would have commenced school six months earlier.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; Child nutrition ; Child nutrition disorders ; Childhood ; Children ; Comparative analysis ; Drought ; Econometrics ; Economic theory ; Health aspects ; Human capital ; Impact analysis ; Instrumental variables estimation ; Malnutrition ; Malnutrition in children ; Nutritional aspects ; Nutritional status ; Preschool children ; Productivity ; Rural areas ; Studies ; Z score
    ISSN: 0030-7653
    E-ISSN: 1464-3812
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Oxford Journals 2016 Current and Archive A-Z Collection
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of development studies, 2015-08-03, Vol.51 (8), p.958-975
    Description: In rural economies encumbered by significant market imperfections, farming decisions may partly be motivated by nutritional considerations, in addition to income and risk factors. These imperfections create the potential for farm assets to have direct dietary impacts on nutrition in addition to any indirect effects via income. We test this hypothesis for the dairy sector in rural Ethiopia, finding that cow ownership raises children's milk consumption, increases linear growth, and reduces stunting. We also find that household cow ownership is less important where there is good access to local markets, suggesting that market development can substitute for household cow ownership.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; Cattle ; Dairy farms ; Dairy industry ; Dairy products ; Diet ; Milk ; Milk consumption ; Nutrition ; Nutritional aspects ; Production management ; Rural areas
    ISSN: 0022-0388
    E-ISSN: 1743-9140
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Sociological Abstracts
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: The American journal of clinical nutrition, 2013, Vol.98 (5), p.1170-1178
    Description: Growth failure is associated with adverse consequences, but studies need to control adequately for confounding. We related height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and stunting at age 24 mo to adult human capital, marriage, fertility, health, and economic outcomes. In 2002-2004, we collected data from 1338 Guatemalan adults (aged 25-42 y) who were studied as children in 1969-1977. We used instrumental variable regression to correct for estimation bias and adjusted for potentially confounding factors. A 1-SD increase in HAZ was associated with more schooling (0.78 grades) and higher test scores for reading and nonverbal cognitive skills (0.28 and 0.25 SDs, respectively), characteristics of marriage partners (1.39 y older, 1.02 grade more schooling, and 1.01 cm taller) and, for women, a higher age at first birth (0.77 y) and fewer number of pregnancies and children (0.63 and 0.43, respectively). A 1-SD increase in HAZ was associated with increased household per capita expenditure (21%) and a lower probability of living in poverty (10 percentage points). Conversely, being stunted at 2 y was associated with less schooling, a lower test performance, a lower household per capita expenditure, and an increased probability of living in poverty. For women, stunting was associated with a lower age at first birth and higher number of pregnancies and children. There was little relation between either HAZ or stunting and adult health. Growth failure in early life has profound adverse consequences over the life course on human, social, and economic capital.
    Subject(s): Abridged Index Medicus ; Activities of daily living ; Adult ; Adults ; Aging - physiology ; Biological and medical sciences ; Body Height - physiology ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; Educational Status ; Failure to Thrive - epidemiology ; Feeding. Feeding behavior ; Female ; Follow-Up Studies ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Growth disorders ; Growth Disorders - epidemiology ; Guatemala - epidemiology ; Humans ; Male ; Physiological aspects ; Poverty ; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic ; Social aspects ; Vertebrates: anatomy and physiology, studies on body, several organs or systems
    ISSN: 0002-9165
    E-ISSN: 1938-3207
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: American journal of agricultural economics, 2019-10-01, Vol.101 (5), p.1311-1327
    Description: Abstract Child dietary diversity is poor in much of rural Africa and developing Asia, prompting significant efforts to leverage agriculture to improve diets. However, growing recognition that even very poor rural households rely on markets to satisfy their demand for nutrient-rich non-staple foods warrants a much better understanding of how rural markets vary in their diversity, competitiveness, frequency and food affordability, and how such characteristics are associated with diets. This article addresses these questions using data from rural Ethiopia. Deploying a novel market survey in conjunction with an information-rich household survey, we find that children in proximity to markets that sell more non-staple food groups have more diverse diets. However, the association is small in absolute terms; moving from three non-staple food groups in the market to six is associated with an increase in the number of non-staple food groups consumed by ∼0.27 and the likelihood of consumption of any non-staple food group by 10 percentage points. These associations are similar in magnitude to those describing the relationship between dietary diversity and household production diversity; moreover, for some food groups, notably dairy, we find that household and community production of that food is especially important. These modest associations may reflect several specific features of our sample which is situated in very poor, food-insecure localities where even the relatively better off are poor in absolute terms and where, by international standards, relative prices for non-staple foods are very high.
    Subject(s): Affordability ; Associations ; child nutrition ; Children ; Competitiveness ; Dairy products ; Diet ; diet diversity ; Ethiopia ; Food ; Food consumption ; Food groups ; Food market diversity ; Food production ; Households ; International standardization ; International standards ; Market research ; Markets ; Nutrition ; Polls & surveys ; Prices ; Proximity ; Rural areas ; Surveys
    ISSN: 0002-9092
    E-ISSN: 1467-8276
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of development studies, 2006-02-01, Vol.42 (2), p.301-321
    Description: Increasing attention is now being paid to poverty dynamics in developing countries. This work links the extent to which households smooth consumption or smooth assets given income shocks, the empirical evidence on the churning of households in and out of poverty, and the possibility that temporary shocks can have permanent consequences. Using longitudinal data from rural Zimbabwe, this paper extends the discussion of these issues by disaggregating the impact of shocks by levels of asset holdings, by disaggregating the impact of shocks on individual level welfare and by assessing the extent to which such shocks have permanent consequences. By doing so, it assesses the validity of distinguishing between asset and consumption smoothing and provides insights into whether poverty dynamics assessed at the household level provide an adequate picture of dynamics at the individual level.
    Subject(s): Developing countries--LDCs ; Family income ; LDCs ; Poverty ; Rural areas
    ISSN: 0022-0388
    E-ISSN: 1743-9140
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Sociological Abstracts
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