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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of marketing research, 2015-08-01, Vol.52 (4), p.436-452
    Description: In the past decade, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of neurophysiological methods to better understand marketing phenomena among academics and practitioners. However, the value of these methods in predicting advertising success remains underresearched. Using a unique experimental protocol to assess responses to 30-second television ads, the authors capture many measures of advertising effectiveness across six commonly used methods (traditional self-reports, implicit measures, eye tracking, biometrics, electroencephalography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging). These measures have been shown to reliably tap into higher-level constructs commonly used in advertising research: attention, affect, memory, and desirability. Using timeseries data on sales and gross rating points, the authors attempt to relate individual-level response to television ads in the lab to the ads' aggregate, market-level elasticities. The authors show that functional magnetic resonance imaging measures explain the most variance in advertising elasticities beyond the baseline traditional measures. Notably, activity in the ventral striatum is the strongest predictor of real-world, market-level response to advertising. The authors discuss the findings and their significant implications for theory, research, and practice.
    Subject(s): Advertising ; Evaluation ; Influence ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Methods ; Neuromarketing ; Neurophysiology ; Nuclear magnetic resonance--NMR ; Studies ; Television advertising ; Time series
    ISSN: 0022-2437
    E-ISSN: 1547-7193
    Source: Communication & Mass Media Complete
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences VII
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of marketing research, 2011-01-01, Vol.48 (SPL), p.S23-S37
    Description: Many people fail to save what they will need for retirement. Research on excessive discounting of the future suggests that removing the lure of immediate rewards by precommitting to decisions or elaborating the value of future rewards both can make decisions more future oriented. The authors explore a third and complementary route, one that deals not with present and future rewards but with present and future selves. In line with research that shows that people may fail, because of a lack of belief or imagination, to identify with their future selves, the authors propose that allowing people to interact with age-progressed renderings of themselves will cause them to allocate more resources to the future. In four studies, participants interacted with realistic computer renderings of their future selves using immersive virtual reality hardware and interactive decision aids. In all cases, those who interacted with their virtual future selves exhibited an increased tendency to accept later monetary rewards over immediate ones.
    Subject(s): Age ; Age progression (Forensic science) ; Analytical forecasting ; Consumer behavior ; Discounting ; future self-continuity ; immersive virtual reality ; intertemporal choice ; Marketing ; Methods ; Photographs ; Research ; Retirement ; Retirement income ; Retirement planning ; Retirement saving ; Rewards ; Savings ; Self ; Self-evaluation ; Studies ; Technology application ; temporal discounting ; Usage ; Virtual avatars ; Virtual reality
    ISSN: 0022-2437
    E-ISSN: 1547-7193
    Source: Communication & Mass Media Complete
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences VII
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of consumer research, 2015-06-01, Vol.42 (1), p.59-75
    Description: Consumers with limited discretionary money face important trade-offs when deciding how to spend it. In the current research, we suggest that feelings of financial constraint increase consumers’ concern about the lasting utility of their purchases, which in turn increases their preference for material goods over experiences. The results of seven studies confirm that the consideration of financial constraints shifts consumers’ preferences toward material goods (rather than experiences), and that this systematic shift is due to an increased concern about the longevity of the purchase. This preference shift persists even when the material goods are more frivolous than the experiences, indicating that the effect is not driven by an increased desire for sensible and justifiable purchases. However, the shift toward material purchases disappears when the material good is unusually short lived, further implicating concern about longevity as the key driver of the effect. Finally, the consideration of financial constraints increases preference for material purchases even when the potential memories that experiences can provide are made explicitly salient. Together, these results indicate that financially constrained consumers spend their discretionary money on material purchases as a means of securing long-term consumption utility.
    Subject(s): Consumer behavior ; Consumer preferences ; Disposable income ; Influence ; Market research ; Marketing research ; Materialism ; Personal budgets ; Personal finance ; Preferences ; Research ; Studies ; Usage ; Utility functions
    ISSN: 0093-5301
    E-ISSN: 1537-5277
    Source: Communication & Mass Media Complete
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences IV
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Psychological science, 2013-06-01, Vol.24 (6), p.974-980
    Description: The tendency to live in the here and now, and the failure to think through the delayed consequences of behavior, is one of the strongest individual-level correlates of delinquency. We tested the hypothesis that this correlation results from a limited ability to imagine one's self in the future, which leads to opting for immediate gratification. Strengthening the vividness of the future self should therefore reduce involvement in delinquency. We tested and found support for this hypothesis in two studies. In Study 1, compared with participants in a control condition, those who wrote a letter to their future self were less inclined to make delinquent choices. In Study 2, participants who interacted with a realistic digital version of their future, age-progressed self in a virtual environment were less likely than control participants to cheat on a subsequent task.
    Subject(s): Adolescent ; Adult ; Adult and adolescent clinical studies ; Analytical forecasting ; Behavior ; Biological and medical sciences ; Cheating ; Correlation analysis ; Criminals ; Delayed ; Delinquency ; Delinquent behavior ; Female ; Forecasting ; Gratification ; Humans ; Hypotheses ; Imagination - physiology ; Individual differences ; Juvenile Delinquency - psychology ; Male ; Medical sciences ; Psychological research ; Psychology ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Psychopathology. Psychiatry ; Self ; Self Concept ; Social behavior disorders. Criminal behavior. Delinquency ; Trucks ; Virtual avatars ; Virtual reality ; Vividness ; Young Adult ; Young offenders
    ISSN: 0956-7976
    E-ISSN: 1467-9280
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of marketing research, 2016-10-01, Vol.53 (5), p.804-813
    Description: Research on choice architecture is shaping policy around the world, touching on areas ranging from retirement economics to environmental issues. Recently, researchers and policy makers have begun paying more attention not just to choice architecture but also to information architecture, or the format in which information is presented to people. In this article, the authors investigate information architecture as it applies to consumption in retirement. Specifically, in three experiments, they examine how people react to lump sums versus equivalent streams of monthly income. Their primary question of interest is whether people exhibit more or less sensitivity to changes in retirement wealth expressed as lump sums (e.g., $100,000) or monthly equivalents (e.g., $500 per month for life). They also test whether people exhibit an "illusion of wealth," by which lump sums seem more adequate than monthly amounts in certain conditions, as well as the opposite effect, in which lump sums seem less adequate. They conclude by discussing how format-dependent perceptions of wealth can affect policy and consumers' financial decision making.
    Subject(s): Age ; Annuities ; Consumer behavior ; Consumer preferences ; Consumption ; Decision making ; Economic aspects ; Illusion ; Income distribution ; Influence ; Information architecture ; Lump sum ; Lump sum payments ; Market conditions ; Market research ; Marketing research ; Perceptions ; Personal finance ; Research ; Retirement ; Retirement income ; Retirement savings ; Savings rates ; Social Security benefits ; Special Section: The Greater Good ; Standard error ; Studies ; Usage ; Wealth
    ISSN: 0022-2437
    E-ISSN: 1547-7193
    Source: Communication & Mass Media Complete
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences VII
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Psychological science, 2014-01-01, Vol.25 (1), p.152-160
    Description: There are obvious economic predictors of ability and willingness to invest in environmental sustainability. Yet, given that environmental decisions represent trade-offs between present sacrifices and uncertain future benefits, psychological factors may also play a role in country-level environmental behavior. Gott's principle suggests that citizens may use perceptions of their country's age to predict its future continuation, with longer pasts predicting longer futures. Using country- and individual-level analyses, we examined whether longer perceived pasts result in longer perceived futures, which in turn motivate concern for continued environmental quality. Study 1 found that older countries scored higher on an environmental performance index, even when the analysis controlled for country-level differences in gross domestic product and governance. Study 2 showed that when the United States was framed as an old country (vs. a young one), participants were willing to donate more money to an environmental organization. The findings suggest that framing a country as a long-standing entity may effectively prompt proenvironmental behavior.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Age ; Applied psychology ; Biological and medical sciences ; Climate change ; Ecological sustainability ; Economic benefits ; Environment ; Environment. Ecology ; Environmental education ; Environmental performance index ; Environmental psychology ; Female ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Green businesses ; Green economics ; Gross domestic product ; Gross Domestic Product--GDP ; Humans ; Investment ; Male ; Perceptions ; Psychology ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Psychology. Psychophysiology ; Social Behavior ; Sustainability ; Sustainable development ; Time Factors ; United States ; United States history
    ISSN: 0956-7976
    E-ISSN: 1467-9280
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Perspectives on psychological science, 2015-11-01, Vol.10 (6), p.749-752
    Description: U.S. consumers currently hold $880 billion in revolving debt, with a mean household credit card balance of approximately $6,000. Although economic factors play a role in this societal issue, it is clear that psychological forces also affect consumers' decisions to take on and maintain unmanageable debt balances. We examine three psychological barriers to the responsible use of credit and debt. We discuss the tendency for consumers to (a) make erroneous predictions about future spending habits, (b) rely too heavily on values presented on billing statements, and (c) categorize debt and saving into separate mental accounts. To overcome these obstacles, we urge policymakers to implement methods that facilitate better budgeting of future expenses, modify existing credit card statement disclosures, and allow consumers to easily apply government transfers (such as tax credits) to debt repayment. In doing so, we highlight minimal and inexpensive ways to remedy the debt problem.
    Subject(s): Council of Psychological Science Advisers ; Decision Making ; Economics, Behavioral ; Humans ; Income ; Public Policy - economics ; Risk-Taking ; United States
    ISSN: 1745-6916
    E-ISSN: 1745-6924
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Emotion (Washington, D.C.), 2017-03, Vol.17 (2), p.323-336
    Description: Understanding the nature of emotional experience requires understanding the relationship between positive and negative affect. Two particularly important aspects of that relationship are the extent to which positive and negative affect are correlated with one another and the extent to which they co-occur. Some researchers have assumed that weak negative correlations imply greater co-occurrence (i.e., more mixed emotions) than do strong negative correlations, but others have noted that correlations may imply very little about co-occurrence. We investigated the relationship between the correlation between positive and negative affect and co-occurrence. Participants in each of 2 samples provided moment-to-moment happiness and sadness ratings as they watched an evocative film and listened to music. Results indicated (a) that 4 measures of the correlation between positive and negative affect were quite highly related to 1 another; (b) that the strength of the correlation between measures of mixed emotions varied considerably; (c) that correlational measures were generally (but not always) weakly correlated with mixed emotion measures; and (d) that bittersweet stimuli consistently led to elevations in mixed emotion measures but did not consistently weaken the correlation between positive and negative affect. Results highlight that the correlation between positive and negative affect and their co-occurrence are distinct aspects of the relationship between positive and negative affect. Such insight helps clarify the implications of existing work on age-related and cultural differences in emotional experience and sets the stage for greater understanding of the experience of mixed emotions.
    Subject(s): Affect ; Emotions ; Female ; Happiness ; Humans ; Male ; Music - psychology
    ISSN: 1528-3542
    E-ISSN: 1931-1516
    Source: APA PsycARTICLES
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  • 9
    Article
    Article
    2015
    ISSN: 0022-3514 
    Language: English
    In: Journal of personality and social psychology, 2015-02, Vol.108 (2), p.336-355
    Description: Mental simulation, the process of self-projection into alternate temporal, spatial, social, or hypothetical realities is a distinctively human capacity. Numerous lines of research also suggest that the tendency for mental simulation is associated with enhanced meaning. The present research tests this association specifically examining the relationship between two forms of simulation (temporal and spatial) and meaning in life. Study 1 uses neuroimaging to demonstrate that enhanced connectivity in the medial temporal lobe network, a subnetwork of the brain's default network implicated in prospection and retrospection, correlates with self-reported meaning in life. Study 2 demonstrates that experimentally inducing people to think about the past or future versus the present enhances self-reported meaning in life, through the generation of more meaningful events. Study 3 demonstrates that experimentally inducing people to think specifically versus generally about the past or future enhances self-reported meaning in life. Study 4 turns to spatial simulation to demonstrate that experimentally inducing people to think specifically about an alternate spatial location (from the present location) increases meaning derived from this simulation compared to thinking generally about another location or specifically about one's present location. Study 5 demonstrates that experimentally inducing people to think about an alternate spatial location versus one's present location enhances meaning in life, through meaning derived from this simulation. Study 6 demonstrates that simply asking people to imagine completing a measure of meaning in life in an alternate location compared with asking them to do so in their present location enhances reports of meaning. This research sheds light on an important determinant of meaning in life and suggests that undirected mental simulation benefits psychological well-being.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Arousal - physiology ; Brain - physiology ; Brain Mapping ; Character ; Correlation analysis ; Echo-Planar Imaging ; Female ; Humans ; Imagination - physiology ; Individuality ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Male ; Medical imaging ; Mental health ; Mental Processes - physiology ; Motivation - physiology ; Nerve Net - physiology ; Projection ; Psychological aspects ; Reality Testing ; Simulation ; Simulation methods ; Social Environment ; Social psychology ; Statistics as Topic ; Surveys and Questionnaires
    ISSN: 0022-3514
    E-ISSN: 1939-1315
    Source: APA PsycARTICLES
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Sociological Abstracts
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Current directions in psychological science : a journal of the American Psychological Society, 2021-08, Vol.30 (4), p.327-334
    Description: The tremendous heterogeneity in functional and demographic characteristics of the over-65 age group presents challenges to effective marketing and public-health communications. Messages grounded on tacit assumptions that older people are frail, incompetent, and needy risk being overlooked by most of the older population; on the other hand, ignoring age-associated vulnerabilities is problematic. We argue that although traditional approaches to market segmentation based on chronological age often fail, reliable age differences in motivation influence the types of information that older people typically prefer, attend to, and remember, and these differences can be used to inform communication efforts. Socioemotional selectivity theory maintains that as future time horizons grow limited—as they typically do with age—emotional goals are prioritized over goals that focus on exploration. As time left becomes more limited, positive messages are remembered better than negative ones, and products that help people savor the moment are preferred over those that benefit the long-term future. In addition, emphasizing individual strengths and personal resilience is likely to be especially appealing to older people.
    Subject(s): Age ; Older people
    ISSN: 0963-7214
    E-ISSN: 1467-8721
    Source: Get It Now
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