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  • 1
    In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, September 2011, Vol.56(5), pp.1227-1234
    Description: Laboratory‐based detecting deception research suggests that truthful statements differ from those of deceptive statements. This nonlaboratory study tested whether forensic statement analysis (FSA) methods would distinguish genuine from false eyewitness accounts about exposure to a highly stressful event. A total of 35 military participants were assigned to truthful or deceptive eyewitness conditions. Genuine eyewitness reported truthfully about exposure to interrogation stress. Deceptive eyewitnesses studied transcripts of genuine eyewitnesses for 24 h and falsely claimed they had been interrogated. Cognitive Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and assessed by FSA raters blind to the status of participants. Genuine accounts contained more unique words, external and contextual referents, and a greater total word count than did deceptive statements. The type‐token ratio was lower in genuine statements. The classification accuracy using FSA techniques was 82%. FSA methods may be effective in real‐world circumstances and have relevance to professionals in law enforcement, security, and criminal justice.
    Subject(s): Forensic Science ; Detecting Deception ; False Claims ; Cognitive Interview ; Military Stress
    ISSN: 0022-1198
    E-ISSN: 1556-4029
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Biological psychiatry (1969), 2006, Vol.60(7), pp.722-729
    Description: Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown acute stress may impair working memory and visuo-spatial ability. This study was designed to clarify the nature of stress-induced cognitive deficits in soldiers and how such deficits may contribute to operational or battlefield errors. One hundred eighty-four Special Operations warfighters enrolled in Survival School completed pre-stress measures of dissociation and trauma exposure. Subjects were randomized to one of three assessment groups (Pre-stress, Stress, Post-stress) and were administered the Rey Ostereith Complex Figure (ROCF). All subjects completed post-stress measures of dissociation. ROCF copy and recall were normal in the Pre- and Post-stress groups. ROCF copy and recall were significantly impaired in the Stress Group. Stress group ROCF copy performance was piecemeal, and ROCF recall was impaired. Symptoms of dissociation were negatively associated with ROCF recall in the Stress group....
    Subject(s): Cognition ; Dissociation ; Military Performance ; Survival School ; Pre-Frontal Cortex ; Trauma Exposure ; Cognition ; Dissociation ; Military Performance ; Survival School ; Pre-Frontal Cortex ; Trauma Exposure ; Medicine ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0006-3223
    E-ISSN: 1873-2402
    E-ISSN: 18733402
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Biological psychiatry (1969), 2002, Vol.52(2), pp.136-142
    Description: Background: We previously reported that stress-related release of cortisol and neuropeptide-Y (NPY) were significantly and positively associated in U.S. Army soldiers participating in survival training. Furthermore, greater levels of NPY were observed in individuals exhibiting fewer psychologic symptoms of dissociation during stress. This study tested whether these findings would be replicated in a sample of U.S. Navy personnel participating in survival school training. Methods: Psychologic as well as salivary and plasma hormone indices were assessed in 25 active duty personnel before, during, and 24 hours after exposure to U.S. Navy survival school stress. Results: Cortisol and NPY were significantly and positively associated during stress and 24 hours after stress; NPY and norepinephrine (NE) were significantly and positively related during and 24 hours after stress. There was a significant, negative relationship between psychologic distress...
    Subject(s): Acute Stress ; Peptides ; Dissociation ; Military ; Acute Stress ; Peptides ; Dissociation ; Military ; Medicine ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0006-3223
    E-ISSN: 1873-2402
    E-ISSN: 18733402
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  • 4
    In: Psychosomatic Medicine, 2001, Vol.63(3), pp.412-422
    Description: OBJECTIVE: Although many people are exposed to trauma, only some individuals develop posttraumatic stress disorder; most do not. It is possible that humans differ in the degree to which stress induces neurobiological perturbations of their threat response systems, which may result in a differential capacity to cope with aversive experiences. This study explored the idea that differences in the neurobiological responses of individuals exposed to threat are significantly related to psychological and behavioral indices. METHODS: Individual differences in neurohormonal, psychological, and performance indices among 44 healthy subjects enrolled in US Army survival school were investigated. Subjects were examined before, during, and after exposure to uncontrollable stress. RESULTS: Stress-induced release of cortisol, neuropeptide Y, and norepinephrine were positively correlated; cortisol release during stress accounted for 42% of the variance in neuropeptide Y release during stress. Cortisol also accounted for 22% of the variance in psychological symptoms of dissociation and 31% of the variance in military performance during stress. CONCLUSIONS: Because dissociation, abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and catecholamine functioning have all been implicated in the development of stress disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder, these data suggest that some biological differences may exist before index trauma exposure and before the development of stress-related illness. The data also imply a relationship among specific neurobiological factors and psychological dissociation. In addition, the data provide clues about the way in which individuals’ psychobiological responses to threat differ from one another.
    Subject(s): Adult–Blood ; Catecholamines–Blood ; Cognition Disorders–Diagnosis ; Dissociative Disorders–Blood ; Humans–Diagnosis ; Hydrocortisone–Epidemiology ; Male–Blood ; Neuropeptide Y–Blood ; Neuropsychological Tests–Blood ; Recovery of Function–Blood ; Severity of Illness Index–Blood ; Stress, Psychological–Blood ; Catecholamines ; Neuropeptide Y ; Hydrocortisone;
    ISSN: 0033-3174
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: International journal of law and psychiatry, 2004, Vol.27(3), pp.265-279
    Description: Charles A. Morgan III*, Gary Hazlett, Anthony Doran, Stephan Garrett, Gary Hoyt, Paul Thomas, Madelon Baranoski, Steven M. Southwick Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, Connecticut Mental Health Center, Law and Psychiatry Division, 34 Park Street, New Haven, CT 06519-1187, USA Major, JFK Special Warfare Training Center and School, United States Army, Fort Bragg, NC, USA Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy, FASOTRAGRULANT, Naval Air Station, Brunswick, ME, USA Physician Associate, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy, FASOTRAGRUPAC-N2, Naval Air Station, North Island, Coronado, CA, USA Assistant Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, Connecticut Mental Health Center, Law and Psychiatry Division, 34 Park Street, New Haven, CT 06519-1187, USA Professor of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, Connecticut Mental Health Center, Law and Psychiatry Division, 34 Park Street, New Haven, CT 06519-1187, USA
    Subject(s): Medicine ; Law
    ISSN: 0160-2527
    E-ISSN: 1873-6386
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Biological psychiatry (1969), 2000, Vol.47(10), pp.902-909
    Description: Background: Neuropeptide-Y (NPY) is present in extensive neuronal systems of the brain and is present in high concentrations in cell bodies and terminals in the amygdala. Preclinical studies have shown that injections of NPY into the central nucleus of the amygdala function as a central anxiolytic and buffer against the effects of stress. The objective of this study was to assess plasma NPY immunoreactivity in healthy soldiers participating in high intensity military training at the U.S. Army survival school. The Army survival school provides a means of observing individuals under high levels of physical, environmental, and psychological stress, and consequently is considered a reasonable analogue to stress incurred as a result of war or other catastrophic experiences. Methods: Plasma levels of NPY were assessed at baseline (prior to initiation of training), and 24 hours after the conclusion of survival training in 49 subjects, and at baseline and during the...
    Subject(s): Military Stress ; Stess Resilience ; PTSD ; Special Forces ; Cortisol ; Military Stress ; Stess Resilience ; PTSD ; Special Forces ; Cortisol ; Medicine ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0006-3223
    E-ISSN: 1873-2402
    E-ISSN: 18733402
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Biological psychiatry (1969), 2000, Vol.47(10), pp.891-901
    Description: Background: Clinical models of the human response to intense, acute stress have been limited to laboratory settings or cross sectional characterizations. As a result, data about the sensitivity of the human neuroendocrine activation to realistic stressors of varying magnitudes are limited. The U.S. Army survival course offers a unique opportunity to examine, in a controlled manner, the human response to acute, realistic, military stress. Methods: Salivary data were collected in 109 subjects at baseline during four stress exposure time points and at recovery. Serum data was collected at baseline and recovery in 72 subjects and at baseline and during stress exposure in a subgroup of subjects ( n = 21). Results: Cortisol significantly increased during the captivity experience and was greatest after subjects’ exposure to interrogations. Cortisol remained significantly elevated at recovery. Testosterone was significantly reduced within 12...
    Subject(s): Cortisol ; Testosterone ; Thyroid ; Military Stress ; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ; Cortisol ; Testosterone ; Thyroid ; Military Stress ; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ; Medicine ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0006-3223
    E-ISSN: 1873-2402
    E-ISSN: 18733402
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PTSD Research Quarterly, Winter 2001, Vol.12(1), pp.1-7
    Subject(s): PTSD ; Military Personnel ; Literature Review ; Acute Stress Disorder ; Stressors ; Survivors
    ISSN: 1050-1835
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
    Source: PTSDpubs
    Source: ProQuest Social Sciences Premium Collection
    Source: ProQuest Sociology Collection
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Military medicine, February 2009, Vol.174(2), pp.132-8
    Description: The goal of this project was to evaluate the effects of energy supplementation, as liquid carbohydrate (CHO), on facilitating recovery of cognitive function in soldiers who have been exposed to sustained psychological and physical stress during Survival School Training. PROJECT DESIGN: A double-blind, placebo-controlled design was used. Healthy, male volunteers attending survival training were recruited for participation in the study. At the conclusion of the mock captivity phase of survival training and before a recovery night of sleep, subjects participated in cognitive testing. After this, subjects were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. Subjects received either a 6% CHO (35.1 kJ/kg), 12% CHO (70.2 kJ/kg), or placebo beverage in four isovolemic doses. In the morning of the following day, all subjects participated in a second assessment of cognitive functioning. Compared to subjects who received placebo, those who received supplemental CHO beverages exhibited significantly improved performance on a complex cognitive task (i.e., Stroop Test) involving concentration effectiveness associated with selective attention and response inhibition. No differences were observed on a variety of cognitive tasks of lesser complexity. These data suggest nutritional interventions enhance the rapid recovery of complex cognitive functions impaired by exposure to significant or sustained stressful conditions. In addition to enhancing speed of recovery of function between operational intervals, the current data suggest that dietary supplement strategies may hold promise for enhancing field performance and a capacity to assist in sustaining operations by military personnel over time.
    Subject(s): Teaching ; Cognition Disorders -- Diet Therapy ; Dietary Carbohydrates -- Pharmacology ; Military Personnel -- Psychology ; Stress, Physiological -- Physiology
    ISSN: 0026-4075
    E-ISSN: 1930613X
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Psychiatry, 01 August 2001, Vol.158(8), pp.1239-1247
    Description: OBJECTIVE: Peritraumatic dissociation has been associated with subsequent development of posttraumatic stress disorder, but supporting data have been largely retrospective. The current study was designed to assess the nature and prevalence of dissociative symptoms in healthy humans experiencing acute, uncontrollable stress during U.S. Army survival training. METHOD: In study 1, 94 subjects completed the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale after exposure to the stress of survival training. In study 2, 59 subjects completed the Brief Trauma Questionnaire before acute stress and the dissociative states scale before and after acute stress. A randomly selected group of subjects in study 2 completed a health problems questionnaire after acute stress. RESULTS: In study 1, 96% of subjects reported dissociative symptoms in response to acute stress. Total scores, as well as individual item scores, on the dissociation scale were significantly lower in Special Forces soldiers compared to general infantry troops. In study 2, 42% of subjects reported dissociative symptoms before stress and 96% reported them after acute stress. Dissociative symptoms before and after stress were significantly higher in individuals who reported a perceived threat to life in the past. Forty-one percent of the variance in reported health problems was accounted for by poststress dissociation scores. Discussion: Symptoms of dissociation were prevalent in healthy subjects exposed to high stress. Stress-hardy individuals (Special Forces soldiers) experienced fewer symptoms of dissociation, compared to individuals who were less hardy. These data support the idea that the nature of response to previously experienced threatening events significantly determines the nature of psychological and somatic response to subsequent stress.
    Subject(s): Medicine
    ISSN: 0002-953X
    E-ISSN: 1535-7228
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