placeholder
and
and

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
Document type
Language
Year
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The American journal of psychiatry, 2001-08-01, Vol.158 (8), p.1239-1247
    Description: OBJECTIVE: Peritraumatic dissociation has been associated with subsequent development of posttraumatic stress disorder, but supporting data have been largely retrospective. The current study was designed to assess the nature and prevalence of dissociative symptoms in healthy humans experiencing acute, uncontrollable stress during U.S. Army survival training. METHOD: In study 1, 94 subjects completed the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale after exposure to the stress of survival training. In study 2, 59 subjects completed the Brief Trauma Questionnaire before acute stress and the dissociative states scale before and after acute stress. A randomly selected group of subjects in study 2 completed a health problems questionnaire after acute stress. RESULTS: In study 1, 96% of subjects reported dissociative symptoms in response to acute stress. Total scores, as well as individual item scores, on the dissociation scale were significantly lower in Special Forces soldiers compared to general infantry troops. In study 2, 42% of subjects reported dissociative symptoms before stress and 96% reported them after acute stress. Dissociative symptoms before and after stress were significantly higher in individuals who reported a perceived threat to life in the past. Forty-one percent of the variance in reported health problems was accounted for by poststress dissociation scores. Discussion: Symptoms of dissociation were prevalent in healthy subjects exposed to high stress. Stress-hardy individuals (Special Forces soldiers) experienced fewer symptoms of dissociation, compared to individuals who were less hardy. These data support the idea that the nature of response to previously experienced threatening events significantly determines the nature of psychological and somatic response to subsequent stress.
    Subject(s): Abridged Index Medicus ; Acute Disease ; Adult ; Adult and adolescent clinical studies ; Adults ; Americans ; Anxiety disorders. Neuroses ; Army Personnel ; Biological and medical sciences ; Comorbidity ; Diagnosis ; Dissociation ; Dissociation (Psychology) ; Dissociative Disorders - diagnosis ; Dissociative Disorders - epidemiology ; Dissociative Symptoms ; Epidemiology ; Etiology ; Health Status ; Humans ; Life Change Events ; Male ; Medical sciences ; Mental disorders ; Military personnel ; Military Personnel - education ; Military Personnel - psychology ; Military Survival Training ; Post traumatic stress disorder ; Prospective Studies ; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - statistics & numerical data ; Psychiatry ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Psychopathology. Psychiatry ; Risk Factors ; Severity of Illness Index ; Special Forces Personnel ; Stress ; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - diagnosis ; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - epidemiology ; Stress, Physiological - diagnosis ; Stress, Physiological - epidemiology ; Stress, Physiological - psychology ; Stress, Psychological - diagnosis ; Stress, Psychological - epidemiology ; Stress, Psychological - psychology ; Survival ; Survival - physiology ; Survival - psychology ; Survivors
    ISSN: 0002-953X
    E-ISSN: 1535-7228
    Source: PTSDpubs
    Source: Psychiatry Legacy Collection Online Journals 1844-1996
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of forensic sciences, 2011-09, Vol.56 (5), p.1227-1234
    Description: :  Laboratory‐based detecting deception research suggests that truthful statements differ from those of deceptive statements. This nonlaboratory study tested whether forensic statement analysis (FSA) methods would distinguish genuine from false eyewitness accounts about exposure to a highly stressful event. A total of 35 military participants were assigned to truthful or deceptive eyewitness conditions. Genuine eyewitness reported truthfully about exposure to interrogation stress. Deceptive eyewitnesses studied transcripts of genuine eyewitnesses for 24 h and falsely claimed they had been interrogated. Cognitive Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and assessed by FSA raters blind to the status of participants. Genuine accounts contained more unique words, external and contextual referents, and a greater total word count than did deceptive statements. The type‐token ratio was lower in genuine statements. The classification accuracy using FSA techniques was 82%. FSA methods may be effective in real‐world circumstances and have relevance to professionals in law enforcement, security, and criminal justice.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; cognitive interview ; Consulting services ; Deception ; detecting deception ; Expert witness testimony ; false claims ; Forensic Medicine ; Forensic psychiatry ; forensic science ; Forensic sciences ; Humans ; Interviews as Topic ; Law enforcement ; Lie Detection ; Linguistics ; Logistic Models ; Male ; Military Personnel ; military stress ; Post-traumatic stress disorder ; Questioning ; ROC Curve ; Stress ; Stress, Psychological ; Writing
    ISSN: 0022-1198
    E-ISSN: 1556-4029
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Military medicine, 2009-02, Vol.174 (2), p.132-138
    Description: ABSTRACTObjective: The goal of this project was to evaluate the effects of energy supplementation, as liquid carbohydrate (CHO), on facilitating recovery of cognitive function in soldiers who have been exposed to sustained psychological and physical stress during Survival School Training. Project Design: A double-blind, placebo-controlled design was used. Healthy, male volunteers attending survival training were recruited for participation in the study. At the conclusion of the mock captivity phase of survival training and before a recovery night of sleep, subjects participated in cognitive testing. After this, subjects were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. Subjects received either a 6% CHO (35.1 kJ/kg), 12% CHO (70.2 kJ/kg), or placebo beverage in four isovolemic doses. In the morning of the following day, all subjects participated in a second assessment of cognitive functioning. Results: Compared to subjects who received placebo, those who received supplemental CHO beverages exhibited significantly improved performance on a complex cognitive task (i.e., Stroop Test) involving concentration effectiveness associated with selective attention and response inhibition. No differences were observed on a variety of cognitive tasks of lesser complexity. Discussion: These data suggest nutritional interventions enhance the rapid recovery of complex cognitive functions impaired by exposure to significant or sustained stressful conditions. In addition to enhancing speed of recovery of function between operational intervals, the current data suggest that dietary supplement strategies may hold promise for enhancing field performance and a capacity to assist in sustaining operations by military personnel over time.
    Subject(s): Cognition Disorders - diet therapy ; Cognition Disorders - etiology ; Dietary Carbohydrates - administration & dosage ; Dietary Carbohydrates - pharmacology ; Double-Blind Method ; Humans ; Male ; Military Personnel - psychology ; Placebo Effect ; Stress, Physiological - physiology ; Teaching ; United States
    ISSN: 0026-4075
    E-ISSN: 1930-613X
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Biological psychiatry (1969), 2006, Vol.60 (7), p.722-729
    Description: Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown acute stress may impair working memory and visuo-spatial ability. This study was designed to clarify the nature of stress-induced cognitive deficits in soldiers and how such deficits may contribute to operational or battlefield errors. One hundred eighty-four Special Operations warfighters enrolled in Survival School completed pre-stress measures of dissociation and trauma exposure. Subjects were randomized to one of three assessment groups (Pre-stress, Stress, Post-stress) and were administered the Rey Ostereith Complex Figure (ROCF). All subjects completed post-stress measures of dissociation. ROCF copy and recall were normal in the Pre- and Post-stress groups. ROCF copy and recall were significantly impaired in the Stress Group. Stress group ROCF copy performance was piecemeal, and ROCF recall was impaired. Symptoms of dissociation were negatively associated with ROCF recall in the Stress group. Baseline dissociation and history of traumatic stress predicted cognitive impairment during stress. Stress exposure impaired visuo-spatial capacity and working memory. In rats, monkeys, and humans, high dopamine and NE turnover in the PFC induce deficits in cognition and spatial working memory. Improved understanding of stress-induced cognitive deficits may assist in identification of soldiers at risk and lead to the development of better countermeasures.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Biological and medical sciences ; Cognition ; dissociation ; Dissociative Disorders - etiology ; Female ; Form Perception ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Human ; Humans ; Learning. Memory ; Male ; Medical colleges ; Memory ; Memory Disorders - etiology ; Memory, Short-Term ; military performance ; Military personnel ; Military Personnel - psychology ; Pattern Recognition, Visual ; pre-frontal cortex ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Psychology. Psychophysiology ; Short-term memory ; Soldiers ; Space Perception ; Stress, Psychological - complications ; survival school ; Training ; trauma exposure
    ISSN: 0006-3223
    E-ISSN: 1873-2402
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Biological psychiatry (1969), 2002, Vol.52 (2), p.136-142
    Description: Background: We previously reported that stress-related release of cortisol and neuropeptide-Y (NPY) were significantly and positively associated in U.S. Army soldiers participating in survival training. Furthermore, greater levels of NPY were observed in individuals exhibiting fewer psychologic symptoms of dissociation during stress. This study tested whether these findings would be replicated in a sample of U.S. Navy personnel participating in survival school training. Methods: Psychologic as well as salivary and plasma hormone indices were assessed in 25 active duty personnel before, during, and 24 hours after exposure to U.S. Navy survival school stress. Results: Cortisol and NPY were significantly and positively associated during stress and 24 hours after stress; NPY and norepinephrine (NE) were significantly and positively related during and 24 hours after stress. There was a significant, negative relationship between psychologic distress and NPY release during stress. Finally, psychologic symptoms of dissociation reported at baseline predicted significantly less NPY release during stress. Conclusions: These data replicate our previous studies demonstrating that acute stress elicits NPY release and that this release is positively associated with cortisol and NE release. These data also replicate our previous finding that greater levels of NPY release are associated with less psychologic distress suggesting that NPY confers anxiolytic activity.
    Subject(s): Acute stress ; Adult ; Analysis of Variance ; dissociation ; Epinephrine - blood ; Humans ; Hydrocortisone - blood ; Male ; military ; Military Personnel - psychology ; Neuropeptide Y - blood ; Norepinephrine - blood ; peptides ; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales ; Saliva - physiology ; Stress, Physiological - blood ; Stress, Physiological - psychology ; Stress, Psychological - blood ; Stress, Psychological - psychology
    ISSN: 0006-3223
    E-ISSN: 1873-2402
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Yale journal of biology & medicine, 2002-07, Vol.75 (4), p.199-205
    Subject(s): Burnout, Professional - physiopathology ; Diving ; Heart Rate - physiology ; Humans ; Hydrocortisone - metabolism ; Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System - physiology ; Military Personnel ; Naval Medicine ; Pituitary-Adrenal System - physiology ; Task Performance and Analysis
    ISSN: 0044-0086
    E-ISSN: 1551-4056
    Source: PubMed Central
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of forensic sciences, 2011-09, Vol.56 (5), p.1227-1234
    ISSN: 0022-1198
    E-ISSN: 1556-4029
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Psychosomatic medicine, 2001-05, Vol.63 (3), p.412-422
    Description: Although many people are exposed to trauma, only some individuals develop posttraumatic stress disorder; most do not. It is possible that humans differ in the degree to which stress induces neurobiological perturbations of their threat response systems, which may result in a differential capacity to cope with aversive experiences. This study explored the idea that differences in the neurobiological responses of individuals exposed to threat are significantly related to psychological and behavioral indices. Individual differences in neurohormonal, psychological, and performance indices among 44 healthy subjects enrolled in US Army survival school were investigated. Subjects were examined before, during, and after exposure to uncontrollable stress. Stress-induced release of cortisol, neuropeptide Y, and norepinephrine were positively correlated; cortisol release during stress accounted for 42% of the variance in neuropeptide Y release during stress. Cortisol also accounted for 22% of the variance in psychological symptoms of dissociation and 31% of the variance in military performance during stress. Because dissociation, abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and catecholamine functioning have all been implicated in the development of stress disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder, these data suggest that some biological differences may exist before index trauma exposure and before the development of stress-related illness. The data also imply a relationship among specific neurobiological factors and psychological dissociation. In addition, the data provide clues about the way in which individuals' psychobiological responses to threat differ from one another.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Adults ; Americans ; Catecholamines - blood ; Cognition Disorders - blood ; Cognition Disorders - diagnosis ; Dissociative Disorders - blood ; Dissociative Disorders - diagnosis ; Dissociative Disorders - epidemiology ; Dissociative Symptoms ; Humans ; Hydrocortisone - blood ; Male ; Males ; Military Personnel ; Military Training ; Neurobiology ; Neuroendocrinology ; Neuropeptide Y - blood ; Neuropeptides ; Neuropsychological Tests ; Predisposition ; Recovery of Function ; Severity of Illness Index ; Stress, Psychological - blood ; Survivors
    ISSN: 0033-3174
    E-ISSN: 1534-7796
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: PTSDpubs
    Source: Journals@Ovid LWW Total Access Archive Collection 2021 Coverage to 2016 (LTOT-16-A21)
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Language: English
    In: International journal of law and psychiatry, 2004, Vol.27 (3), p.265-279
    Subject(s): Adult ; Cohort Studies ; Crime ; Criminals ; Cues ; Evaluation ; Eyewitness identification ; Humans ; Identification and classification ; Influence ; Law ; Memory ; Mental stress ; Psychiatry ; Psychological aspects ; Recollection (Psychology) ; Repression, Psychology ; Stress (Psychology) ; Stress, Psychological - psychology ; Victims ; Videotape Recording
    ISSN: 0160-2527
    E-ISSN: 1873-6386
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Archives of general psychiatry, 2004, Vol.61 (8), p.819-825
    Description: Recently, a growing body of research has provided evidence that dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) is involved in an organism's response to stress and that it may provide beneficial behavioral and neurotrophic effects. To investigate plasma DHEA-S and cortisol levels, psychological symptoms of dissociation, and military performance. Prospective study. Twenty-five healthy subjects enrolled in military survival school. The DHEA-S-cortisol ratios during stress were significantly higher in subjects who reported fewer symptoms of dissociation and exhibited superior military performance. These data provide prospective, empirical evidence that the DHEA-S level is increased by acute stress in healthy humans and that the DHEA-S-cortisol ratio may index the degree to which an individual is buffered against the negative effects of stress.
    Subject(s): Abridged Index Medicus ; Acute Disease ; Adult ; Adults ; Americans ; Biological and medical sciences ; Dehydroepiandrosterone ; Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate - analysis ; Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate - blood ; Dissociative Disorders - blood ; Dissociative Disorders - diagnosis ; Dissociative Disorders - psychology ; Dissociative Symptoms ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Humans ; Hydrocortisone ; Hydrocortisone - analysis ; Hydrocortisone - blood ; Life Change Events ; Male ; Males ; Military Personnel ; Military Personnel - psychology ; Military Training ; Neuroendocrine Testing ; Neuroendocrinology ; Personality. Affectivity ; Physiological aspects ; Problem Solving ; Prospective Studies ; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales ; Psychological aspects ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Psychology. Psychophysiology ; Regression Analysis ; Research ; Saliva - chemistry ; Stress ; Stress (Psychology) ; Stress, Psychological - blood ; Stress, Psychological - psychology ; Task Performance and Analysis
    ISSN: 0003-990X
    E-ISSN: 1538-3636
    Source: Single Journals
    Source: PTSDpubs
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...