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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Global change biology, 2014-07, Vol.20 (7), p.2261-2271
    Description: In cold climates, the expected global warming will lead to earlier cambial resumptions in spring, with a resultant lengthening of the growing season but unknown consequences on forest productivity. The phenological traits of cambium activity and xylem formation were analyzed at a short time scale along a thermal gradient represented by an alti‐latitudinal range from the 48th to 53rd parallels and covering the whole closed black‐spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] forest in Quebec, Canada. A hypothesis was tested that warmer temperatures influence cambium phenology, allowing longer duration and higher intensity of growth, and resulting in proportionally increased xylem production. From April to October 2012, cell division in cambium and post‐cambial differentiation of xylem were observed on anatomical sections obtained from microcores collected weekly from the stem of fifty trees. The southern and warmer site was characterized by the highest radial growth, which corresponded to both the highest rates and longest durations of cell production. The differences in terms of xylem phenology and growth were marginal between the other sites. Xylem growth was positively correlated with rate and duration of cell production, with the latter explaining most variability in growth. Within the range analyzed, the relationship between temperature and most phenological phases of xylogenesis was linear. On the contrary, temperature was related with cell production according to an exponential pattern. Periods of xylogenesis of 14 days longer (+13.1%) corresponded to a massive increase in cell production (33 cells, +109%). This disproportionate change occurred at a May–September average temperature of ca. 14 °C and a snow‐free period of 210–235 days. At the lower boundary of the distribution of black spruce, small environmental changes allowing marginal lengthening of the period of cell division could potentially lead to disproportionate increases in xylem cell production, with substantial consequences for the productivity of this boreal species.
    Subject(s): boreal forest ; climate warming ; phenology ; temperature ; black spruce ; growth ; threshold ; Picea mariana ; General forest ecology ; General aspects ; Animal, plant and microbial ecology ; Exact sciences and technology ; External geophysics ; Biological and medical sciences ; Climatology. Bioclimatology. Climate change ; Animal and plant ecology ; Generalities. Production, biomass. Quality of wood and forest products. General forest ecology ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Forestry ; Earth, ocean, space ; Meteorology ; Cambium - growth & development ; Temperature ; Climate Change ; Time Factors ; Picea - growth & development ; Quebec ; Xylem - growth & development ; Seasons ; Trees - growth & development ; Analysis ; Global temperature changes ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of experimental botany, 2012-01-01, Vol.63 (5), p.2117-2126
    Description: Although habitually considered as a whole, xylogenesis is a complex process of division and maturation of a pool of cells where the relationship between the phenological phases generating such a growth pattern remains essentially unknown. This study investigated the causal relationships in cambium phenology of black spruce [ (Mill.) BSP] monitored for 8 years on four sites of the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada. The dependency links connecting the timing of xylem cell differentiation and cell production were defined and the resulting causal model was analysed with d-sep tests and generalized mixed models with repeated measurements, and tested with Fisher’s C statistics to determine whether and how causality propagates through the measured variables. The higher correlations were observed between the dates of emergence of the first developing cells and between the ending of the differentiation phases, while the number of cells was significantly correlated with all phenological phases. The model with eight dependency links was statistically valid for explaining the causes and correlations between the dynamics of cambium phenology. Causal modelling suggested that the phenological phases involved in xylogenesis are closely interconnected by complex relationships of cause and effect, with the onset of cell differentiation being the main factor directly or indirectly triggering all successive phases of xylem maturation.
    Subject(s): Trees ; Cell growth ; Xylem ; Lignification ; Tracheids ; Cell walls ; Phenology ; Cambium ; Cellular differentiation ; Growth rings ; RESEARCH PAPER ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Biological and medical sciences ; Plant physiology and development ; Forestry ; Climate ; Picea - physiology ; Quebec ; Cambium - growth & development ; Xylem - cytology ; Models, Biological ; Picea - growth & development ; Cell Wall - metabolism ; Plant Stems - cytology ; Xylem - growth & development ; Cell Differentiation ; Cambium - cytology ; Wood - growth & development ; Picea - cytology ; Plant Stems - growth & development ; Index Medicus ; xylogenesis ; cell production ; d-sep test ; Research Papers ; cell differentiation ; secondary wall formation ; Causal modelling ; Picea mariana
    ISSN: 0022-0957
    E-ISSN: 1460-2431
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Oxford Journals 2016 Current and Archive A-Z Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in plant science, 2018, Vol.9, p.1905-1905
    Description: In scenarios of future climate change, there is a projectedincrease in the occurrence and severity of natural disturbances inboreal forests. Spruce budworm ( (SBW) is the main defoliator of conifer trees in the North American boreal forests affecting large areas and causing marked losses of timber supplies. However, the impact and the spatiotemporal patterns of SBW dynamics at the landscape scale over the last century remain poorly known. This is particularly true for northern regions dominated by spruce species. The main goal of this study is to reconstruct SBW outbreaks during the 20th century at the landscape scale and to evaluate changes in the associated spatiotemporal patterns in terms of distribution area, frequency, and severity. We rely on a dendroecological approach from sites within the eastern Canadian boreal forest and draw from a large dataset of almost 4,000 trees across a study area of nearly 800,000 km . Interpolation and analyses of hotspots determined reductions in tree growth related to insect outbreak periods and identified the spatiotemporal patterns of SBW activity over the last century. The use of an Ordinary Least Squares model including regional temperature and precipitation anomalies allows us to assess the impact of climate variables on growth reductions and to compensate for the lack of non-host trees in northern regions. We identified three insect outbreaks having different spatiotemporal patterns, duration, and severity. The first (1905-1930) affected up to 40% of the studied trees, initially synchronizing from local infestations and then migrating to northern stands. The second outbreak (1935-1965) was the longest and the least severe with only up to 30% of trees affected by SBW activity. The third event (1968-1988) was the shortest, yet it was also the most severe and extensive, affecting nearly up to 50% of trees and 70% of the study area. This most recent event was identified for the first time at the limit of the commercial forest illustrating a northward shift of the SBW distribution area during the 20th century. Overall, this research confirms that insect outbreaks are a complex and dynamic ecological phenomena, which makes the understanding of natural disturbance cycles at multiple scales a major priority especially in the context of future regional climate change.
    Subject(s): Taigas ; Tortricids ; Insect-plant relationships ; Analysis ; Distribution ; Environmental aspects ; Ecological research ; Natural history ; GIS ; insect outbreaks ; Plant Science ; sustainable forest management ; black spruce ; dendroecology ; landscape ecology ; natural disturbances ; climate change
    ISSN: 1664-462X
    E-ISSN: 1664-462X
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Canadian journal of forest research, 2020, Vol.50 (2), p.155-169
    Description: The erosion of old-growth forests in boreal managed landscapes is a major issue currently faced by forest managers; however, resolving this problem requires accurate surveys. The intention of our study was to determine if historic operational aerial forest surveys accurately identified boreal old-growth forests in Quebec, Canada. We first compared stand successional stages (even-aged vs. old-growth) in two aerial surveys performed in 1968 (preindustrial aerial survey) and 2007 (modern aerial survey) on the same 2200 km 2 territory. Second, we evaluated the accuracy of the modern aerial survey by comparing its results with those of 74 field plots sampled in the study territory between 2014 and 2016. The two aerial surveys differed significantly; 80.8% of the undisturbed stands that were identified as “old-growth” in the preindustrial survey were classified as “even-aged” in the modern survey, and 60% of the stands identified as “old-growth” by field sampling were also erroneously identified as “even-aged” by the modern aerial survey. The scarcity of obvious old-growth attributes in boreal old-growth forests, as well as poorly adapted modern aerial survey criteria (i.e., criteria requiring high vertical stratification and significant changes in tree species composition along forest succession), were the main factors explaining these errors. It is therefore likely that most of Quebec’s boreal old-growth forests are currently not recognized as such in forest inventories, challenging the efficacy of sustainable forest management policies.
    Subject(s): épinette noire ; overmature ; inventaire ; black spruce ; sampling bias ; monitoring ; ecosystem-based management ; biais d’échantillonnage ; aménagement écosystémique ; suranné ; Surveys ; Old growth forests ; Canada ; Growth ; Quebec ; Forest management ; Sustainable forestry ; Environmental protection
    ISSN: 0045-5067
    E-ISSN: 1208-6037
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Annals of forest science., 2019-12, Vol.76 (4), p.1-16
    Description: Key message Both low- and moderate-severity secondary disturbances are drivers of eastern Canadian boreal old-growth forests dynamics. Moderate-severity disturbances reflect mainly spruce budworm outbreaks. Low-severity disturbances are produced by both spruce budworm outbreaks and random events such as windthrow. Each level of disturbance severity has a specific impact on stand dynamics, and both shape the diversity of boreal old-growth forests. Context A regular succession of low-severity disturbances is seen as determining the dynamics of the old-growth stage (gap dynamics); however, recent studies suggest that moderate-severity secondary disturbances also play an important role in the dynamics of eastern Canadian boreal forests. Aims This study aims to determine if eastern Canadian boreal old-growth forests are driven by a combination of low- and moderate-severity secondary disturbances. Methods We reconstructed the 200-year disturbance history of 20 boreal old-growth stands using dendrochronological analysis. We discriminated low- from moderate-severity disturbances based on their respective influence on mean stand growth. Results The secondary disturbance regime of eastern Canadian boreal old-growth forests varies highly over time, reflected by disturbance peaks in the chronological record. Most peaks occurred during spruce budworm outbreaks related to both low- and moderate-severity disturbances. Between each peak, low-severity disturbances dominate. Each level of disturbance severity has specific consequences for stand dynamics. Conclusion Both low and moderate secondary disturbances are drivers of forest dynamics in eastern Canadian boreal old-growth stands and shape the structural diversity of these stands. The complexity of these dynamics should be recognized in management planning to ensure the efficiency of old-growth forest conservation policies.
    Subject(s): Dynamic structural analysis ; Forests ; Environmental policy ; Boreal forests ; Forest management ; Outbreaks ; Forest conservation ; Forest ecosystems ; Management planning ; Pest outbreaks ; Dynamics ; Disturbances ; Disturbance ; Windthrow ; Growth stage ; Life Sciences
    ISSN: 1286-4560
    E-ISSN: 1297-966X
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Global change biology, 2011-01, Vol.17 (1), p.614-625
    Description: In the next century, the boreal ecosystems are projected to experience greater rates of warming than most other regions of the world. As the boreal forest constitutes a reservoir of trees of huge ecological importance and only partially known economic potential, any possible climate‐related change in plant growth and dynamics has to be promptly predicted and evaluated. A model for assessing xylem phenology in black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.] using daily temperatures and thermal thresholds was defined and applied to predict changes in onset, ending and duration of xylem growth under different warming scenarios with temperatures rising by up to 3 °C. This was achieved by collecting and analyzing a dataset obtained from a 7‐year monitoring of cambium phenology and wood formation on a weekly time‐scale in trees growing in four sites at different latitudes and altitudes in the Saguenay‐Lac‐Saint‐Jean region (Quebec, Canada). The onset of xylem growth occurred between mid‐May and early June while the end ranged between mid‐September and early October, resulting in a growing season of 101–141 days. The model predicted longer duration of xylem growth at higher temperatures, with an increase of 8–11 days/ °C, because of an earlier onset and later ending of growth. With an increase of 3 °C in the mean temperature during the year, the duration of xylem growth changed on average from 125 to 160 days. The predicted changes in cambial phenology could significantly affect future wood production of the boreal ecosystems.
    Subject(s): xylogenesis ; microcoring ; cell differentiation ; cambium ; Picea mariana ; boreal forest ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; General aspects ; Animal, plant and microbial ecology ; Exact sciences and technology ; Earth, ocean, space ; External geophysics ; Biological and medical sciences ; Climatology. Bioclimatology. Climate change ; Animal and plant ecology ; Meteorology ; Ecosystems ; Climate ; Analysis
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Ecology (Durham), 2015-06, Vol.96 (6), p.1480-1491
    Description: Climate change is altering insect disturbance regimes via temperature-mediated phenological changes and trophic interactions among host trees, herbivorous insects, and their natural enemies in boreal forests. Range expansion and increase in outbreak severity of forest insects are occurring in Europe and North America. The degree to which northern forest ecosystems are resilient to novel disturbance regimes will have direct consequences for the provisioning of goods and services from these forests and for long-term forest management planning. Among major ecological disturbance agents in the boreal forests of North America is a tortricid moth, the eastern spruce budworm, which defoliates fir ( Abies spp.) and spruce ( Picea spp.). Northern expansion of this defoliator in eastern North America and climate-induced narrowing of the phenological mismatch between the insect and its secondary host, black spruce ( Picea mariana ), may permit greater defoliation and mortality in extensive northern black spruce forests. Although spruce budworm outbreak centers have appeared in the boreal black spruce zone historically, defoliation and mortality were minor. Potential increases in outbreak severity and tree mortality raise concerns about the future state of this northern ecosystem. Severe spruce budworm outbreaks could decrease stand productivity compared with their occurrence in more diverse, southern balsam fir forest landscapes that have coevolved with outbreaks. Furthermore, depending on the proportion of balsam fir and deciduous species present and fire recurrence, changes in regeneration patterns and in nutrient cycling could alter ecosystem dynamics and replace black spruce by more productive mixed-wood forest, or by less productive ericaceous shrublands. Long-term monitoring, manipulative experiments, and process modeling of climate-induced phenological changes on herbivorous insect pests, their host tree species, and natural enemies in northern forests are therefore crucial to predicting species range shifts and assessing ecological and economic impacts.
    Subject(s): spp ; multitrophic interactions ; Abies ; Choristoneura fumiferana ; spruce budworm outbreak ; boreal forest ; climate warming ; forest productivity ; phenological synchrony ; Picea ; Trees ; Forest insects ; Climate change ; CONCEPTS & SYNTHESIS: EMPHASIZING NEW IDEAS TO STIMULATE RESEARCH IN ECOLOGY ; Phenology ; Boreal forests ; Forest regeneration ; Forest ecology ; Climate models ; Forest ecosystems ; Deciduous forests ; Abies spp ; Picea spp ; Spruce ; Taigas ; Insect-plant relationships ; Forest dynamics ; Climatic changes ; Research ; Spruce budworm
    ISSN: 0012-9658
    E-ISSN: 1939-9170
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences I
    Source: Wiley Online Library All Journals
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Ecology and evolution, 2021-01, Vol.11 (1), p.566-586
    Description: In boreal landscapes, emphasis is currently placed on close‐to‐nature management strategies, which aim to maintain the biodiversity and ecosystem services related to old‐growth forests. The success of these strategies, however, depends on an accurate understanding of the dynamics within these forests. While moderate‐severity disturbances have recently been recognized as important drivers of boreal forests, little is known about their effects on stand structure and growth. This study therefore aimed to reconstruct the disturbance and postdisturbance dynamics in boreal old‐growth forests that are driven by recurrent moderate‐severity disturbances. We studied eight primary old‐growth forests in Québec, Canada, that have recorded recurrent and moderately severe spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana [Clem.]) outbreaks over the 20th century. We applied an innovative dendrochronological approach based on the combined study of growth patterns and releases to reconstruct stand disturbance and postdisturbance dynamics. We identified nine growth patterns; they represented trees differing in age, size, and canopy layer. These patterns highlighted the ability of suppressed trees to rapidly fill gaps created by moderate‐severity disturbances through a single and significant increase in radial growth and height. Trees that are unable to attain the canopy following the disturbance tend to remain in the lower canopy layers, even if subsequent disturbances create new gaps. This combination of a low stand height typical of boreal forests, periodic disturbances, and rapid canopy closure often resulted in stands constituted mainly of dominant and codominant trees, similar to even‐aged forests. Overall, this study underscored the resistance of boreal old‐growth forests owing to their capacity to withstand repeated moderate‐severity disturbances. Moreover, the combined study of growth patterns and growth release demonstrated the efficacy of such an approach for improving the understanding of the fine‐scale dynamics of natural forests. The results of this research will thus help develop silvicultural practices that approximate the moderate‐severity disturbance dynamics observed in primary and old‐growth boreal forests. Résumé Dans les paysages boréaux, l'accent est désormais mis sur des stratégies de gestion proches de la nature afin de maintenir la biodiversité et les services écosystémiques liés aux vieilles forêts. Le succès de ces stratégies dépend toutefois d'une compréhension fine de la dynamique de ces forêts. Les perturbations de sévérité modérée ont ainsi été récemment reconnues comme étant d’importants moteurs de la dynamique des forêts boréales, mais l’on sait encore peu de choses de leur influence sur la structure et la croissance des peuplements. Par conséquent, l'objectif de cette étude est de reconstruire les dynamiques de perturbation et post‐perturbation dans les vieilles forêts boréales causées par des perturbations récurrentes de sévérité modérée. Nous avons étudié huit vieilles forêts primaires au Québec, Canada, ayant enregistré des épidémies de tordeuse des bourgeons de l'épinette (Choristoneura fumiferana [Clem.]) récurrentes et de sévérité modérée au cours du 20ème siècle. Nous avons utilisé une approche dendrochronologique innovante combinant l’étude des patrons et des reprises de croissance pour reconstruire la dynamique de perturbation et post‐perturbation de ces forêts. Nous avons identifié neuf patrons de croissance, observés dans des arbres d'âge, de taille ou de strate de canopée différents, indiquant des dynamiques particulières. Ces patrons ont mis en évidence la capacité des arbres opprimés à rapidement combler les trouées dans la canopée en un unique et significatif accroissement de circonférence et de hauteur. En revanche, les arbres déjà situés dans la canopée ont eu peu d'influence sur la fermeture de ces trouées. En conséquence, les arbres dominants et codominants étaient les plus fréquents dans la canopée. Les résultats de cette étude soulignent la résistance des vieilles forêts boréales aux perturbations récurrentes et de sévérité modérée, car les arbres du sous‐étage peuvent rapidement combler les trouées qui en résultent. Cependant, les arbres incapables d’atteindre le sommet de la canopée à la suite d’une perturbation resteront ensuite souvent dans les strates inférieures de la canopée, même si des perturbations subséquentes créent ensuite de nouvelles trouées. La combinaison de la faible hauteur des arbres typique des forêts boréales, des perturbations périodiques et de la rapide fermeture des trouées forme des peuplements avec une structure verticale ressemblant à celle des forêts équiennes. Globalement, cette étude souligne la résistance des vieilles forêts boréales en raison de leur capacité à supporter des perturbations répétées de sévérité modérée. De plus, l’étude combinée des patrons et des reprises de croissance démontre l’efficacité de cette approche pour reconstruire la dynamique à échelle fine des forêts naturelles. Les résultats de cette recherche contribueront ainsi à développer des pratiques sylvicoles analogues à la dynamique de perturbation de sévérité modérée observée dans les vieilles forêts primaires des paysages boréaux. The analysis of radial growth patterns highlights that boreal old‐growth forests are resistant to recurrent and moderate‐severity disturbances, as understory trees can rapidly fill the resulting gaps. However, trees that are unable to attain the canopy following the disturbance then tend to remain in the lower canopy layers, even if a new disturbance reopens the canopy. Therefore, reaching the canopy represents a once‐in‐a‐lifetime opportunity, where success or failure depends on a relatively short window of time.
    Subject(s): spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana [Clem.]) ; ecosystem‐based management ; old‐growth forest ; forest dynamics ; dendroecology ; radial growth pattern ; natural disturbance ; moderate‐severity disturbance
    ISSN: 2045-7758
    E-ISSN: 2045-7758
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: ProQuest Central
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in plant science, 2018, Vol.9, p.1145-1145
    Description: Forest regeneration is a key element in achieving sustainable forest management. Partial harvest methods have been used extensively in temperate broadleaf and mixedwood ecosystems to promote regeneration on poorly stocked sites and to maintain forest composition and productivity. However, their effectiveness in promoting conifer establishment has yet to be demonstrated in unmanaged boreal forests, especially those dominated by black spruce ( (Mill.) BSP) where constraints for regeneration differ from those found in more meridional regions. We aimed to evaluate conifer seedling density and dimensions, 10 years after the onset of a gradient of silvicultural treatments varying in harvesting intensities, and to identify the critical factors driving the regeneration process. Study blocks of even-aged black spruce stands in the eastern Canadian boreal forest were submitted to three variants of shelterwood harvesting: a seed-tree harvest, a clear-cut and an untreated control. Shelterwood and seed-tree harvesting were combined with spot scarification to promote regeneration. Shelterwood and seed-tree harvesting produced a density of conifer regeneration sufficient to maintain forest productivity, but they did not promote seedling growth. Black spruce was the predominant species in terms of regeneration density, with proportions 3-5× higher than that for balsam fir ( (L.) Mill.). Ten years after treatment, seed-origin black spruce seedlings were abundant in skidding trails, while layers dominated the residual strips. Balsam fir density was not influenced by treatment nor by tree position relative to skidding trails. Balsam fir and black spruce had different responses to treatment in terms of height and diameter, the former exhibiting a better growth performance and larger diameter in the residual strips. Spot scarification created micro-sites that had a significant impact on the regeneration process. Overall, our results support that shelterwood and seed-tree harvesting combined with scarification enable adequate regeneration in black spruce stands, confirming these treatments as viable silvicultural alternatives to clear-cutting when required by sustainable forest management objectives.
    Subject(s): Conifers ; Environmental aspects ; Forest management ; Sustainable forestry ; Analysis ; Harvesting ; even-aged stands ; Plant Science ; sustainable forest management ; shade-tolerant species ; black spruce ; balsam fir ; ecosystem-based management ; seedling ; partial cutting
    ISSN: 1664-462X
    E-ISSN: 1664-462X
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 2019-09-29, Vol.10 (10), p.850
    Description: Spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is the main defoliator of conifer trees in North American boreal forests, affecting extensive areas and causing marked losses of timber supplies. In 2017, spruce budworm affected more than 7 million ha of Eastern Canadian forest. Defoliation was particularly severe for black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.), one of the most important commercial trees in Canada. During the last decades, intensive forest exploitation practices have created vast stands of young balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and black spruce. Most research focused on the impacts of spruce budworm has been on mature stands; its effects on regeneration, however, have been neglected. This study evaluates the impacts of spruce budworm on the defoliation of conifer seedlings (black spruce and balsam fir) in clearcuts. We measured the cumulative and annual defoliation of seedlings within six clearcut black spruce stands in Quebec (Canada) that had experienced severe levels of defoliation due to spruce budworm. For all sampled seedlings, we recorded tree species, height class, and distance to the residual forest. Seedling height and species strongly influenced defoliation level. Small seedlings were less affected by spruce budworm activity. As well, cumulative defoliation for balsam fir was double that of black spruce (21% and 9%, respectively). Distance to residual stands had no significant effect on seedling defoliation. As insect outbreaks in boreal forests are expected to become more severe and frequent in the near future, our results are important for adapting forest management strategies to insect outbreaks in a context of climate change.
    Subject(s): sustainable forest management ; global change ; black spruce ; forest dynamics ; natural disturbances ; balsam fir ; edge effect ; forest damages ; seedlings ; clearcut
    ISSN: 1999-4907
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: ProQuest Central
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