International journal of cancer, 2017-06-15, Vol.140 (12), p.2748-2757
To determine the sensitivity and specificity of HPV16 serology as diagnostic marker for HPV16‐driven oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), 214 HNSCC patients from Germany and Italy with fresh‐frozen tumor tissues and sera collected before treatment were included in this study. Hundred and twenty cancer cases were from the oropharynx and 94 were from head and neck cancer regions outside the oropharynx (45 oral cavity, 12 hypopharynx and 35 larynx). Serum antibodies to early (E1, E2, E6 and E7) and late (L1) HPV16 proteins were analyzed by multiplex serology and were compared to tumor HPV RNA status as the gold standard. A tumor was defined as HPV‐driven in the presence of HPV16 DNA and HPV16 transformation‐specific RNA transcript patterns (E6*I, E1∧E4 and E1C). Of 120 OPSCC, 66 (55%) were HPV16‐driven. HPV16 E6 seropositivity was the best predictor of HPV16‐driven OPSCC (diagnostic accuracy 97% [95%CI 92–99%], Cohen's kappa 0.93 [95%CI 0.8–1.0]). Of the 66 HPV‐driven OPSCC, 63 were HPV16 E6 seropositive, compared to only one (1.8%) among the 54 non‐HPV‐driven OPSCC, resulting in a sensitivity of 96% (95%CI 88–98) and a specificity of 98% (95%CI 90–100). Of 94 HNSCC outside the oropharynx, six (6%) were HPV16‐driven. In these patients, HPV16 E6 seropositivity had lower sensitivity (50%, 95%CI 19–81), but was highly specific (100%, 95%CI 96–100). In conclusion, HPV16 E6 seropositivity appears to be a highly reliable diagnostic marker for HPV16‐driven OPSCC with very high sensitivity and specificity, but might be less sensitive for HPV16‐driven HNSCC outside the oropharynx.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with a subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC). HPV‐driven OPSCC patients have an improved survival, but a reliable marker that is applicable in clinical operations is still needed. Here, the authors analyzed HPV16 antibody levels to the oncoproteins E6 and E7 and to the regulatory proteins E1 and E2 in the serum of patients with molecularly‐defined tumor HPV status. HPV16 serology could identify HPV‐driven OPSCC patients with very high sensitivity [96% (95%CI 88–98)] and specificity [98% (95%CI 90–100)]. HPV16 serology may thus represent a powerful and accurate diagnostic marker for HPV‐driven OPSCC.
human papillomavirus ; serology ; diagnosis ; early proteins ; oropharynx ; biomarker ; head and neck squamous cell carcinoma ; Oropharyngeal Neoplasms - immunology ; Human papillomavirus 16 - physiology ; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell - virology ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Male ; Human papillomavirus 16 - immunology ; Antibodies, Viral - blood ; Host-Pathogen Interactions - immunology ; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell - diagnosis ; Sensitivity and Specificity ; Aged, 80 and over ; Papillomavirus Infections - immunology ; Adult ; Female ; Oncogene Proteins, Viral - genetics ; Papillomavirus Infections - virology ; Oropharyngeal Neoplasms - diagnosis ; Repressor Proteins - genetics ; Oropharyngeal Neoplasms - virology ; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell - immunology ; Repressor Proteins - immunology ; Antibodies, Viral - immunology ; Aged ; Oncogene Proteins, Viral - immunology ; Human papillomavirus 16 - genetics ; Index Medicus
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