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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Molecular psychiatry, 2009-10, Vol.14 (10), p.954-958
    Description: Early-life disruption of the parent-child relationship, for example, in the form of abuse, neglect or loss, dramatically increases risk for psychiatric, as well as certain medical, disorders in adulthood. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) plays a seminal role in mediating social affiliation, attachment, social support, maternal behavior and trust, as well as protection against stress and anxiety. We therefore examined central nervous system OT activity after early-life adversity in adult women. We measured OT concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from 22 medically healthy women, aged 18-45 years, categorized into those with none-mild versus those with moderate-severe exposure to various forms of childhood abuse or neglect. Exposure to maltreatment was associated with decreased CSF OT concentrations. A particularly strong effect was identified for emotional abuse. There were inverse associations between CSF OT concentrations and the number of exposure categories, the severity and duration of the abuse and current anxiety ratings. If replicated, the association of lower adult CSF OT levels with childhood trauma might indicate that alterations in central OT function may be involved in the adverse outcomes of childhood adversity.
    Subject(s): Adult Survivors of Child Abuse - psychology ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Anxiety - cerebrospinal fluid ; Oxytocin - cerebrospinal fluid ; Adult ; Female ; Psychological aspects ; Child abuse ; Demographic aspects ; Oxytocin ; Abused women ; Research ; Mental illness ; Health aspects ; Risk factors ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 1359-4184
    E-ISSN: 1476-5578
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Biogeosciences, 2015-01-06, Vol.12 (1), p.29-47
    Description: Beaded streams are widespread in permafrost regions and are considered a common thermokarst landform. However, little is known about their distribution, how and under what conditions they form, and how their intriguing morphology translates to ecosystem functions and habitat. Here we report on a circum-Arctic survey of beaded streams and a watershed-scale analysis in northern Alaska using remote sensing and field studies. We mapped over 400 channel networks with beaded morphology throughout the continuous permafrost zone of northern Alaska, Canada, and Russia and found the highest abundance associated with medium to high ground-ice content permafrost in moderately sloping terrain. In one Arctic coastal plain watershed, beaded streams accounted for half of the drainage density, occurring primarily as low-order channels initiating from lakes and drained lake basins. Beaded streams predictably transition to alluvial channels with increasing drainage area and decreasing channel slope, although this transition is modified by local controls on water and sediment delivery. The comparisons of one beaded channel using repeat photography between 1948 and 2013 indicate a relatively stable landform, and 14C dating of basal sediments suggest channel formation may be as early as the Pleistocene–Holocene transition. Contemporary processes, such as deep snow accumulation in riparian zones, effectively insulate channel ice and allows for perennial liquid water below most beaded stream pools. Because of this, mean annual temperatures in pool beds are greater than 2 °C, leading to the development of perennial thaw bulbs or taliks underlying these thermokarst features that range from 0.7 to 1.6 m. In the summer, some pools thermally stratify, which reduces permafrost thaw and maintains cold-water habitats. Snowmelt-generated peak flows decrease rapidly by two or more orders of magnitude to summer low flows with slow reach-scale velocity distributions ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m s−1, yet channel runs still move water rapidly between pools. The repeating spatial pattern associated with beaded stream morphology and hydrological dynamics may provide abundant and optimal foraging habitat for fish. Beaded streams may create important ecosystem functions and habitat in many permafrost landscapes and their distribution and dynamics are only beginning to be recognized in Arctic research.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; Remote sensing ; Sediments (Geology)
    ISSN: 1726-4189
    ISSN: 1726-4170
    E-ISSN: 1726-4189
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Canadian journal of fisheries and aquatic sciences, 2020, Vol.77 (9), p.1433-1445
    Description: Understanding factors mediating hybridization between native and invasive species is crucial for conservation. We assessed the spatial distribution of hybridization between invasive rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and native Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouveri) in the Lamar River of Yellowstone National Park using a paired telemetry and genetic dataset. Spawning populations containing hybrids (15/30) occupied the full spectrum of abiotic conditions in the watershed (stream temperature, stream size, runoff timing), including an intermittent stream that dried completely in late June, and mainstem spawning locations. Hybrids and rainbow trout occupied an entire high-elevation (∼2500–1900 m) tributary where rainbow trout ancestry was highest in headwaters and decreased downstream. Fluvial distance to this ostensible source population was the only covariate included in top hybridization models; effects of abiotic covariates and stocking intensity were relatively weak. In this watershed, abiotic conditions are unlikely to mediate continued hybridization. We conclude that management intervention is important for the persistence of nonhybridized Yellowstone cutthroat trout and highlight the value of pairing telemetry with genetic analysis to identify and characterize populations for hybridization assessments.
    Subject(s): Wildlife conservation ; Geomorphology ; National parks and reserves ; Trout ; Analysis ; Fishes
    ISSN: 0706-652X
    E-ISSN: 1205-7533
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Psychological medicine, 2013-03, Vol.43 (3), p.507-518
    Description: Early life stress (ELS) is a significant risk factor for depression. The effects of ELS exposure on neural network organization have not been differentiated from the effect of depression. Furthermore, many individuals exposed to ELS do not develop depression, yet the network organization patterns differentiating resiliency versus susceptibility to the depressogenic effects of ELS are not clear. Women aged 18-44 years with either a history of ELS and no history of depression (n = 7), a history of ELS and current or past depression (n = 19), or a history of neither ELS nor depression (n = 12) underwent a resting-state 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. An emotion regulation brain network consisting of 21 nodes was described using graph analyses and compared between groups. Group differences in network topology involved decreased global connectivity and hub-like properties for the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and decreased local network connectivity for the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) among resilient individuals. Decreased local connectivity and increased hub-like properties of the left amygdala, decreased hub-like properties of the dACC and decreased local connectivity of the left vlPFC were observed among susceptible individuals. Regression analyses suggested that the severity of ELS (measured by self-report) correlated negatively with global connectivity and hub-like qualities for the left dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC). These preliminary results suggest functional neural connectivity patterns specific to ELS exposure and resiliency versus susceptibility to the depressogenic effects of ELS exposure.
    Subject(s): Original Articles ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Adult and adolescent clinical studies ; Psychopathology. Psychiatry ; Mood disorders ; Biological and medical sciences ; Depression ; Medical sciences ; Severity of Illness Index ; Depressive Disorder, Major - physiopathology ; Disease Susceptibility ; Humans ; Life Change Events ; Prefrontal Cortex - physiopathology ; Risk Factors ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging - methods ; Connectome ; Emotional Intelligence - physiology ; Young Adult ; Regression Analysis ; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales ; Rest ; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted ; Child Abuse - psychology ; Models, Biological ; Adolescent ; Limbic System - physiopathology ; Adult ; Female ; Resilience, Psychological ; Nerve Net - physiopathology ; Stress, Psychological - physiopathology ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0033-2917
    E-ISSN: 1469-8978
    Source: Cambridge Journals 2019 CJDA Complete Package Americas
    Source: 2011 Cambridge Journals Digital Archive - CJDA Full Collection
    Source: Cambridge Journals Digital Archive 2014 CJDA Full Package
    Source: Cambridge Journals Digital Archive 2015 CJDA Full Package
    Source: Cambridge Journals Digital Archives
    Source: 2009 Cambridge Journals Digital Archive - CJDA Full Collection
    Source: 2010 Cambridge Journals Digital Archive - CJDA Full Collection
    Source: Cambridge Journals 2019 CJDA Full Package UK
    Source: Cambridge Journals 2015 STM Package Standard UK
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of heart and lung transplantation, 2016, Vol.35 (4), p.S340-S341
    Subject(s): Surgery
    ISSN: 1053-2498
    E-ISSN: 1557-3117
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Arctic, antarctic, and alpine research, 2019-01-01, Vol.51 (1), p.9-23
    Description: Vast mosaics of lakes, wetlands, and rivers on the Arctic Coastal Plain give the impression of water surplus. Yet long winters lock freshwater resources in ice, limiting freshwater habitats and water supply for human uses. Increasingly the petroleum industry relies on lakes to build temporary ice roads for winter oil exploration. Permitting water withdrawal for ice roads in Arctic Alaska is dependent on lake depth, ice thickness, and the fish species present. Recent winter warming suggests that more winter water will be available for ice- road construction, yet high interannual variability in ice thickness and summer precipitation complicates habitat impact assessments. To address these concerns, multidisciplinary researchers are working to understand how Arctic freshwater habitats are responding to changes in both climate and water use in northern Alaska. The dynamics of habitat availability and connectivity are being linked to how food webs support fish and waterbirds across diverse freshwater habitats. Moving toward watershed-scale habitat classification coupled with scenario analysis of climate extremes and water withdrawal is increasingly relevant to future resource management decisions in this region. Such progressive refinement in understanding responses to change provides an example of adaptive management focused on ensuring responsible resource development in the Arctic.
    Subject(s): adaptive management ; freshwater habitat ; ice roads ; petroleum development ; Arctic watersheds ; climate change ; arctic watersheds
    ISSN: 1523-0430
    E-ISSN: 1938-4246
    Source: Taylor & Francis Open Access
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Equine veterinary journal, 2016-07, Vol.48 (4), p.509-516
    Description: Summary Reasons for performing study The diagnosis of equine back disorders is challenging. Objectively determining movement of the vertebral column may therefore be of value in a clinical setting. Objectives To establish whether surface‐mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs) can be used to establish normal values for range of motion (ROM) of the vertebral column in a uniform population of horses trotting under different conditions. Study design Vertebral ROM was established in Franches‐Montagnes stallions and a general population of horses and the variability in measurements compared between the two groups. Repeatability and the influence of specific exercise condition (on ROM) were assessed. Finally, attempts were made to explain the findings of the study through the evaluation of factors that might influence ROM. Methods Dorsoventral (DV) and mediolateral (ML) vertebral ROM was measured at a trot under different exercise conditions in 27 Franches‐Montagnes stallions and six general population horses using IMUs distributed over the vertebral column. Results Variability in the ROM measurements was significantly higher for general population horses than for Franches‐Montagnes stallions (both DV and ML ROM). Repeatability was strong to very strong for DV measurements and moderate for ML measurements. Trotting under saddle significantly reduced the ROM, with sitting trot resulting in a significantly lower ROM than rising trot. Age is unlikely to explain the low variability in vertebral ROM recorded in the Franches‐Montagnes horses, while this may be associated with conformational factors. Conclusions It was possible to establish a normal vertebral ROM for a group of Franches‐Montagnes stallions. While within‐breed variation was low in this population, further studies are necessary to determine variation in vertebral ROM for other breeds and to assess their utility for diagnosis of equine back disorders.
    Subject(s): horse ; inertial measurement unit ; back ; vertebral column ; range of motion ; objective ; Aging ; Animals ; Horses - physiology ; Spine - physiology ; Range of Motion, Articular - physiology ; Horses ; Population ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0425-1644
    E-ISSN: 2042-3306
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Fisheries (Bethesda), 2019-11, Vol.44 (11), p.539-544
    ISSN: 0363-2415
    E-ISSN: 1548-8446
    Source: Wiley Online Library All Journals
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Fish and fisheries (Oxford, England), 2019-07, Vol.20 (4), p.802-816
    Description: Temporary aquatic habitats are not widely appreciated fish habitat. However, fish navigate the transient waters of intertidal zones, floodplains, intermittent and ephemeral streams, lake margins, seasonally frozen lakes and streams, and anthropogenic aquatic habitats across the globe to access important resources. The selective pressures imposed by water impermanence (i.e., freezing, drying, tidal fluctuations), however, operate similarly across taxa and ecosystems. These similarities are formalized into a conceptual model relating habitat use to surface water phenology. Whereas all necessary life history functions (spawning, foraging, refuge, and dispersal) can be accomplished in temporary habitats, the timing, duration, and predictability of water act as a “life history filter” to which habitats can be used and for what purpose. Habitats wet from minutes to months may all be important—albeit in different ways, for different species. If life history needs co‐occur with accessibility, temporary habitats can contribute substantially to individual fitness, overall production and important metapopulation processes. This heuristic is intended to promote research, recognition and conservation of these frequently overlooked habitats that can be disproportionately important relative to their size or brevity of existence. There is a pressing need to quantify how use of temporary aquatic habitats translates to individual fitness benefits, population size and temporal stability, and ecosystem‐level consequences. Temporary aquatic habitats are being impacted at an alarming rate by anthropogenic activities altering their existence, phenology, and connectivity. It is timely that scientists, managers and policymakers consider the role these habitats play in global fish production.
    Subject(s): intermittent and ephemeral streams ; habitat use ; fish movement and migration ; intertidal zone ; floodplains and wetlands ; phenology and hydroperiod ; Lakes ; Usage ; Aquatic resources ; Tide pool ecology ; Analysis ; Coastal ecosystems
    ISSN: 1467-2960
    E-ISSN: 1467-2979
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of heart and lung transplantation, 2016, Vol.35 (4), p.S179-S179
    Subject(s): Surgery ; Transplantation of organs, tissues, etc
    ISSN: 1053-2498
    E-ISSN: 1557-3117
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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