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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Molecular psychiatry, 2009-10, Vol.14 (10), p.954-958
    Description: Early-life disruption of the parent-child relationship, for example, in the form of abuse, neglect or loss, dramatically increases risk for psychiatric, as well as certain medical, disorders in adulthood. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) plays a seminal role in mediating social affiliation, attachment, social support, maternal behavior and trust, as well as protection against stress and anxiety. We therefore examined central nervous system OT activity after early-life adversity in adult women. We measured OT concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from 22 medically healthy women, aged 18-45 years, categorized into those with none-mild versus those with moderate-severe exposure to various forms of childhood abuse or neglect. Exposure to maltreatment was associated with decreased CSF OT concentrations. A particularly strong effect was identified for emotional abuse. There were inverse associations between CSF OT concentrations and the number of exposure categories, the severity and duration of the abuse and current anxiety ratings. If replicated, the association of lower adult CSF OT levels with childhood trauma might indicate that alterations in central OT function may be involved in the adverse outcomes of childhood adversity.
    Subject(s): Abused women ; Adult ; Adult Survivors of Child Abuse - psychology ; Anxiety ; Anxiety - cerebrospinal fluid ; Central nervous system ; Cerebrospinal fluid ; Child abuse ; Child abuse & neglect ; Children ; Demographic aspects ; Female ; Health aspects ; Humans ; Maternal behavior ; Mental illness ; Middle Aged ; Oxytocin ; Oxytocin - cerebrospinal fluid ; Psychological aspects ; Research ; Risk factors ; Social behavior ; Social interactions ; Trauma ; Womens history
    ISSN: 1359-4184
    E-ISSN: 1476-5578
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Nature Journals Online
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Psychological medicine, 2013-03, Vol.43 (3), p.507-518
    Description: Early life stress (ELS) is a significant risk factor for depression. The effects of ELS exposure on neural network organization have not been differentiated from the effect of depression. Furthermore, many individuals exposed to ELS do not develop depression, yet the network organization patterns differentiating resiliency versus susceptibility to the depressogenic effects of ELS are not clear. Women aged 18-44 years with either a history of ELS and no history of depression (n = 7), a history of ELS and current or past depression (n = 19), or a history of neither ELS nor depression (n = 12) underwent a resting-state 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. An emotion regulation brain network consisting of 21 nodes was described using graph analyses and compared between groups. Group differences in network topology involved decreased global connectivity and hub-like properties for the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and decreased local network connectivity for the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) among resilient individuals. Decreased local connectivity and increased hub-like properties of the left amygdala, decreased hub-like properties of the dACC and decreased local connectivity of the left vlPFC were observed among susceptible individuals. Regression analyses suggested that the severity of ELS (measured by self-report) correlated negatively with global connectivity and hub-like qualities for the left dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC). These preliminary results suggest functional neural connectivity patterns specific to ELS exposure and resiliency versus susceptibility to the depressogenic effects of ELS exposure.
    Subject(s): Adolescent ; Adult ; Adult and adolescent clinical studies ; Adults ; Americans ; Amygdala ; Biological and medical sciences ; Brain Imaging ; Child Abuse - psychology ; Child psychology ; Cognitive Processes ; Connectome ; Cortex ; Depression ; Depressive Disorder, Major - physiopathology ; Depressive Disorders ; Disease Susceptibility ; Emotional Intelligence - physiology ; Emotional Regulation ; Etiology ; Female ; Females ; Hippocampus ; Humans ; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted ; Life Change Events ; Limbic System - physiopathology ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging - methods ; Medical sciences ; Mental depression ; Models, Biological ; Mood disorders ; Nerve Net - physiopathology ; Neural networks ; Neurobiology ; Neurotransmitters ; Original Articles ; Prefrontal Cortex ; Prefrontal Cortex - physiopathology ; Property ; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Psychopathology. Psychiatry ; Regression Analysis ; Resilience ; Resilience, Psychological ; Rest ; Risk Factors ; Severity of Illness Index ; Stress response ; Stress, Psychological - physiopathology ; Stressful events ; Stressors ; Survivors ; Young Adult
    ISSN: 0033-2917
    E-ISSN: 1469-8978
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: PTSDpubs
    Source: Cambridge Journals 2015 STM Package Standard UK
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Canadian journal of fisheries and aquatic sciences, 2020, Vol.77 (9), p.1433-1445
    Description: Understanding factors mediating hybridization between native and invasive species is crucial for conservation. We assessed the spatial distribution of hybridization between invasive rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and native Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouveri) in the Lamar River of Yellowstone National Park using a paired telemetry and genetic dataset. Spawning populations containing hybrids (15/30) occupied the full spectrum of abiotic conditions in the watershed (stream temperature, stream size, runoff timing), including an intermittent stream that dried completely in late June, and mainstem spawning locations. Hybrids and rainbow trout occupied an entire high-elevation (∼2500–1900 m) tributary where rainbow trout ancestry was highest in headwaters and decreased downstream. Fluvial distance to this ostensible source population was the only covariate included in top hybridization models; effects of abiotic covariates and stocking intensity were relatively weak. In this watershed, abiotic conditions are unlikely to mediate continued hybridization. We conclude that management intervention is important for the persistence of nonhybridized Yellowstone cutthroat trout and highlight the value of pairing telemetry with genetic analysis to identify and characterize populations for hybridization assessments.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; Conservation ; Elevation ; Expressed sequence tags ; Fishes ; Genetic analysis ; Geomorphology ; Headwaters ; Hybridization ; Hybrids ; Indigenous species ; Introduced species ; Invasive species ; Metapopulations ; National parks ; National parks and reserves ; Oncorhynchus clarkii ; Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri ; Oncorhynchus mykiss ; Population genetics ; Populations ; Runoff ; Salmon ; Spatial distribution ; Spawning ; Spawning populations ; Telemetry ; Trout ; Watersheds ; Wildlife conservation
    ISSN: 0706-652X
    E-ISSN: 1205-7533
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: American journal of epidemiology, 2013, Vol.178 (9), p.1378-1388
    Description: An estimated 80% of sexually active young women in the United States use hormonal contraceptives during their reproductive years. Associations between hormonal contraceptive use and mood disturbances remain understudied, despite the hypothesis that estrogen and progesterone play a role in mood problems. In this study, we used data from 6,654 sexually active nonpregnant women across 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-2008), focusing on women aged 25-34 years. Women were asked about hormonal contraceptive use in the context of a current sexual partnership; thus, contraceptive users were compared with other sexually active women who were using either nonhormonal contraception or no contraception. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. At ages 25-34 years, hormonal contraceptive users had lower mean levels of concurrent depressive symptoms (β = -1.04, 95% confidence interval: -1.73, -0.35) and were less likely to report a past-year suicide attempt (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.14, 0.95) than women using low-efficacy contraception or no contraception, in models adjusted for propensity scores for hormonal contraceptive use. Longitudinal analyses indicated that associations between hormonal contraception and depressive symptoms were stable. Hormonal contraception may reduce levels of depressive symptoms among young women. Systematic investigation of exogenous hormones as a potential preventive factor in psychiatric epidemiology is warranted.
    Subject(s): Adolescent ; Adult ; Adult and adolescent clinical studies ; Biological and medical sciences ; Birth control ; Body Mass Index ; Contraceptive Agents, Female - adverse effects ; Contraceptive drugs ; Depression ; Depression - chemically induced ; Depression, Mental ; Epidemiology ; Estrogens - adverse effects ; Exercise ; Female ; gender ; General aspects ; Gynecology. Andrology. Obstetrics ; Health aspects ; Health Behavior ; Health Status ; hormonal contraception ; Humans ; Influence ; Longitudinal Studies ; Medical sciences ; Mental depression ; Mood disorders ; oral contraceptives ; Original Contributions ; Progestins - adverse effects ; Propensity Score ; Psychology. Psychoanalysis. Psychiatry ; Psychopathology. Psychiatry ; Public health. Hygiene ; Public health. Hygiene-occupational medicine ; Research ; Risk factors ; Sexual Behavior ; Smoking - epidemiology ; Socioeconomic Factors ; Suicide ; Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data ; Suicides & suicide attempts ; United States ; Women
    ISSN: 0002-9262
    E-ISSN: 1476-6256
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Biogeosciences, 2015-01-06, Vol.12 (1), p.29-47
    Description: Beaded streams are widespread in permafrost regions and are considered a common thermokarst landform. However, little is known about their distribution, how and under what conditions they form, and how their intriguing morphology translates to ecosystem functions and habitat. Here we report on a circum-Arctic survey of beaded streams and a watershed-scale analysis in northern Alaska using remote sensing and field studies. We mapped over 400 channel networks with beaded morphology throughout the continuous permafrost zone of northern Alaska, Canada, and Russia and found the highest abundance associated with medium to high ground-ice content permafrost in moderately sloping terrain. In one Arctic coastal plain watershed, beaded streams accounted for half of the drainage density, occurring primarily as low-order channels initiating from lakes and drained lake basins. Beaded streams predictably transition to alluvial channels with increasing drainage area and decreasing channel slope, although this transition is modified by local controls on water and sediment delivery. The comparisons of one beaded channel using repeat photography between 1948 and 2013 indicate a relatively stable landform, and 14C dating of basal sediments suggest channel formation may be as early as the Pleistocene–Holocene transition. Contemporary processes, such as deep snow accumulation in riparian zones, effectively insulate channel ice and allows for perennial liquid water below most beaded stream pools. Because of this, mean annual temperatures in pool beds are greater than 2 °C, leading to the development of perennial thaw bulbs or taliks underlying these thermokarst features that range from 0.7 to 1.6 m. In the summer, some pools thermally stratify, which reduces permafrost thaw and maintains cold-water habitats. Snowmelt-generated peak flows decrease rapidly by two or more orders of magnitude to summer low flows with slow reach-scale velocity distributions ranging from 0.01 to 0.1 m s−1, yet channel runs still move water rapidly between pools. The repeating spatial pattern associated with beaded stream morphology and hydrological dynamics may provide abundant and optimal foraging habitat for fish. Beaded streams may create important ecosystem functions and habitat in many permafrost landscapes and their distribution and dynamics are only beginning to be recognized in Arctic research.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; Remote sensing ; Sediments (Geology)
    ISSN: 1726-4189
    ISSN: 1726-4170
    E-ISSN: 1726-4189
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Fisheries (Bethesda), 2019-11, Vol.44 (11), p.539-544
    Subject(s): Fisheries ; Life Sciences & Biomedicine ; Science & Technology
    ISSN: 0363-2415
    E-ISSN: 1548-8446
    Source: Web of Science - Science Citation Index Expanded - 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
    Source: Wiley Online Library All Journals
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: CEAS aeronautical journal, 2019-01-19, Vol.10 (3), p.885-892
    Description: The increasing application of fibre-reinforced composite components in aviation results in new problems in production when compared to the conventional production of components from aluminium alloys. For instance, the existence of leakages in the vacuum bag can substantially impact the component quality. A significant increase of both time and cost, and even the rejection of the entire component are caused. Commercially available methods are suitable for identifying leakages in vacuum bags; however, their application is predominantly associated with high outlay in labour and time, and, thus, high costs. Market analysis and comparison of different available leakage detection technologies conducted in the course of the advanced detection of leakages project with our collaborative partner Airbus Operations GmbH Stade has shown that the combination of run-time based leakage detection and infrared thermography is the most promising concept for quick, reliable, and automated identification of leakages in vacuum bags for large components. In combination, both technologies are able to compensate for their respective detection limits, and significantly reduce the time required. In addition to the analysis and assessment of different technologies for leakage detection, the investigations presented also include the development of run-time based leakage detection using sensors integrated into the vacuum bag. Furthermore, the linking, further development, and automation of leakage detection using infrared thermography are described.
    Subject(s): Aerospace Technology and Astronautics ; Aircraft industry ; Aluminum base alloys ; Automation ; Cost analysis ; Engineering ; Fiber composites ; Identification methods ; Infrared imaging ; Leak detection ; Original Paper ; Thermography ; Vacuum bags
    ISSN: 1869-5582
    E-ISSN: 1869-5590
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Biological invasions, 2020-05-19, Vol.22 (9), p.2685-2698
    Description: Leveraging public harvest can be a cost-effective invasive species management tool, but target taxa must be correctly identified and removed at rates that achieve biological objectives. We explored the potential role of recreational anglers to curtail expanding hybridization between invasive rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ; RT) and native Yellowstone cutthroat trout ( O. clarkii bouvieri; YCT) in the Lamar River watershed in Yellowstone National Park. We sought to (1) develop a hybrid identification key that could be used by anglers and (2) estimate angler participation, catch, and potential exploitation rates. We assessed seven morphological features of trout in the field ( n  = 251, 15 locations) and collected fin clips to estimate RT ancestry proportion using genetic analysis. An identification key was built using recursive partitioning to objectively distinguish YCT from RT and hybrids. A single-choice dichotomous key (white pelvic fin tip present/absent) correctly classified 93% of fish as native (YCT) or containing RT ancestry (RT or hybrid). Success increased to 97% when a second criterion was added (head spot count ≥ 6). Using angler surveys (2013–2017), we estimated that 10,000 anglers catch 50,000 trout annually. In a popular road-accessible area, most trout are probably caught and released ~ 5 times each year. The combination of high angler participation, substantial annual catch, and an accurate and easy to use identification method indicate that leveraging public harvest is a promising management tool. Invasive hybridization is a global conservation issue threatening many native taxa; this case study highlights some factors for resource managers to consider prior to implementing public harvest regulations and the benefits of standardized keys to distinguish hybrids in the field.
    Subject(s): Biomedical and Life Sciences ; Developmental Biology ; Ecology ; Exploitation ; Freshwater & Marine Ecology ; Genetic analysis ; Harvesting ; Hybridization ; Hybrids ; Identification ; Identification keys ; Introduced species ; Invasive species ; Life Sciences ; National parks ; Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri ; Oncorhynchus mykiss ; Original Paper ; Plant Sciences ; Salmon ; Taxa ; Trout
    ISSN: 1387-3547
    E-ISSN: 1573-1464
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Fish and fisheries (Oxford, England), 2019-07, Vol.20 (4), p.802-816
    Description: Temporary aquatic habitats are not widely appreciated fish habitat. However, fish navigate the transient waters of intertidal zones, floodplains, intermittent and ephemeral streams, lake margins, seasonally frozen lakes and streams, and anthropogenic aquatic habitats across the globe to access important resources. The selective pressures imposed by water impermanence (i.e., freezing, drying, tidal fluctuations), however, operate similarly across taxa and ecosystems. These similarities are formalized into a conceptual model relating habitat use to surface water phenology. Whereas all necessary life history functions (spawning, foraging, refuge, and dispersal) can be accomplished in temporary habitats, the timing, duration, and predictability of water act as a “life history filter” to which habitats can be used and for what purpose. Habitats wet from minutes to months may all be important—albeit in different ways, for different species. If life history needs co‐occur with accessibility, temporary habitats can contribute substantially to individual fitness, overall production and important metapopulation processes. This heuristic is intended to promote research, recognition and conservation of these frequently overlooked habitats that can be disproportionately important relative to their size or brevity of existence. There is a pressing need to quantify how use of temporary aquatic habitats translates to individual fitness benefits, population size and temporal stability, and ecosystem‐level consequences. Temporary aquatic habitats are being impacted at an alarming rate by anthropogenic activities altering their existence, phenology, and connectivity. It is timely that scientists, managers and policymakers consider the role these habitats play in global fish production.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; Aquatic resources ; Coastal ecosystems ; fish movement and migration ; Fisheries ; floodplains and wetlands ; habitat use ; intermittent and ephemeral streams ; intertidal zone ; Lakes ; Life Sciences & Biomedicine ; phenology and hydroperiod ; Science & Technology ; Tide pool ecology ; Usage
    ISSN: 1467-2960
    E-ISSN: 1467-2979
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Web of Science - Science Citation Index Expanded - 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Ecological indicators, 2021-06, Vol.125, p.107522
    Description: •We examined 22 marine ecosystem indicators at multiple spatial scales.•Indicators can be misleading, exaggerated, or insensitive at certain scales.•Static ecosystem boundaries and ecosystem assessments may miss important ecosystem dynamics.•We recommend examining indicators at multiple spatial scales for stronger inference. Time series indicators are widely used in ecosystem-based management. A suite of indicators is typically calculated for a static region or multiple subregions and presented in an ecosystem assessment (EA). These are used to guide management decisions or determine environmental status. Yet, few studies have examined how the spatial scale of an EA influences indicator behavior. We explore this question using the Northwest Atlantic continental shelf ecosystem (USA). We systematically divided the ecosystem at six spatial scales (31 unique units), covering spatial extents from 250,000 km2 to 20,000 km2. The same 22 indicators were calculated for each unit, assessed for trends, and evaluated as 31 independent EAs. We found that the detected signals of indicator trends depended on the spatial scale at which the ecosystem was defined. A single EA for the whole region differed by 23% (in terms of the 22 indicator trend tests) relative to ones for spatially nested 120,000 km2 subunits, and by up to 36% for EAs at smaller scales. Indicator trend disagreement occurred because (most common) a localized trend was perceived as widespread, (common) a local trend was obscured by aggregating data over a large region, or (least common) a local trend switched direction when examined at a broader scale. Yet, there was variation among indicators in their scale sensitivity related to trophic level. Indicators of temperature, chlorophyll-a, and zooplankton were spatially coherent: trends portrayed were similar regardless of scale. Mid-trophic level indicators (fish and invertebrates) showed more spatial variation in trends. We also compared trend magnitude and indicator values to spatial extent and found relationships consistent with scaling theory. Indicators at broad scales produced subdued trends and values relative to indicators developed at smaller spatial scales, which often portrayed ‘hotspots’ of local abundance or strong trend. Our results imply that subsequent uses of indicators (e.g., determining environmental status, risk assessments, management decisions) are also sensitive to ecosystem delineation and scale. We suggest that indicators and EAs should be done at multiple spatial scales and complimented with spatially explicit analysis to reflect the hierarchical structure of ecosystems. One scale is not best, but rather we gain a new level of understanding at each scale examined that can contribute to management decisions in a multiscale governance framework characterized by goals and objectives with relevance at different scales.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; Chlorophyll ; Dynamic Ocean management ; Ecosystem based management ; Ecosystem indicators ; Marine ecosystems ; Marine sciences ; Problem of scale ; Spatial scale ; Trophic levels
    ISSN: 1470-160X
    E-ISSN: 1872-7034
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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