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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Scientific reports, 2021-02-12, Vol.11 (1), p.3747-3747
    Description: Insect odorant receptors (ORs) detect volatile chemical cues with high sensitivity. These ORs operate as ligand-gated ion channels and are formed by heptahelical OrX and Orco (co-receptor) proteins. A highly conserved calmodulin (CaM) binding site (CBS) SAIKYWVER within the second intracellular loop of Drosophila melanogaster Orco constitutes a target for regulating OR performance. Here we asked how a point mutation K339N in this CBS affects the olfactory performance of Drosophila melanogaster. We first asked how this mutation would affect the odor responses of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Using Ca imaging in an ex-vivo antenna preparation, we activated all OR (OrX/Orco) expressing neurons using the synthetic agonist VUAA1. In a next attempt, we restricted the OR spectrum to Or22a expressing neurons (Or22a/Orco) and stimulated these OSNs with the ligand ethyl hexanoate. In both approaches, we found that flies carrying the K339N point mutation in Orco display a reduced olfactory response. We also found that the mutation abolishes the capability of OSNs to sensitize by repeated weak odor stimuli. Next, we asked whether OrcoK339N might affect the odor localization performance. Using a wind tunnel bioassay, we found that odor localization in flies carrying the OrcoK339N mutation was severely diminished.
    Subject(s): Antennae ; Binding sites ; Calcium imaging ; Calcium-binding protein ; Calmodulin ; Chemical stimuli ; Ethyl hexanoate ; Insects ; Ion channels ; Ion channels (ligand-gated) ; Ligands ; Localization ; Mutation ; Odorant receptors ; Olfactory receptor neurons ; Point mutation ; Sensory evaluation ; Sensory neurons ; Wind tunnels
    ISSN: 2045-2322
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Nature communications, 2019-03-11, Vol.10 (1), p.1162-1162
    Description: Divergent populations across different environments are exposed to critical sensory information related to locating a host or mate, as well as avoiding predators and pathogens. These sensory signals generate evolutionary changes in neuroanatomy and behavior; however, few studies have investigated patterns of neural architecture that occur between sensory systems, or that occur within large groups of closely-related organisms. Here we examine 62 species within the genus Drosophila and describe an inverse resource allocation between vision and olfaction, which we consistently observe at the periphery, within the brain, as well as during larval development. This sensory variation was noted across the entire genus and appears to represent repeated, independent evolutionary events, where one sensory modality is consistently selected for at the expense of the other. Moreover, we provide evidence of a developmental genetic constraint through the sharing of a single larval structure, the eye-antennal imaginal disc. In addition, we examine the ecological implications of visual or olfactory bias, including the potential impact on host-navigation and courtship.
    Subject(s): Animals ; Animals, Genetically Modified ; Biological Evolution ; Brain - physiology ; Drosophila - physiology ; Female ; Imaginal Discs - growth & development ; Larva - growth & development ; Male ; Multidisciplinary Sciences ; Phylogeny ; Science & Technology ; Science & Technology - Other Topics ; Sexual Behavior, Animal - physiology ; Smell - physiology ; Spatial Navigation - physiology ; Vision, Ocular - physiology
    ISSN: 2041-1723
    E-ISSN: 2041-1723
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: Web of Science - Science Citation Index Expanded - 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: eLife, 2014-12-16, Vol.3, p.e04147-e04147
    Description: To internally reflect the sensory environment, animals create neural maps encoding the external stimulus space. From that primary neural code relevant information has to be extracted for accurate navigation. We analyzed how different odor features such as hedonic valence and intensity are functionally integrated in the lateral horn (LH) of the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster. We characterized an olfactory-processing pathway, comprised of inhibitory projection neurons (iPNs) that target the LH exclusively, at morphological, functional and behavioral levels. We demonstrate that iPNs are subdivided into two morphological groups encoding positive hedonic valence or intensity information and conveying these features into separate domains in the LH. Silencing iPNs severely diminished flies' attraction behavior. Moreover, functional imaging disclosed a LH region tuned to repulsive odors comprised exclusively of third-order neurons. We provide evidence for a feature-based map in the LH, and elucidate its role as the center for integrating behaviorally relevant olfactory information. Organisms need to sense and adapt to their environment in order to survive. Senses such as vision and smell allow an organism to absorb information about the external environment and translate it into a meaningful internal image. This internal image helps the organism to remember incidents and act accordingly when they encounter similar situations again. A typical example is when organisms are repeatedly attracted to odors that are essential for survival, such as food and pheromones, and are repulsed by odors that threaten survival.Strutz et al. addressed how attractiveness or repulsiveness of a smell, and also the strength of a smell, are processed by a part of the olfactory system called the lateral horn in fruit flies. This involved mapping the neuronal patterns that were generated in the lateral horn when a fly was exposed to particular odors.Strutz et al. found that a subset of neurons called inhibitory projection neurons processes information about whether the odor is attractive or repulsive, and that a second subset of these neurons process information about the intensity of the odor. Other insects, such as honey bees and hawk moths, have olfactory systems with a similar architecture and might also employ a similar spatial approach to encode information regarding the intensity and identity of odors. Locusts, on the other hand, employ a temporal approach to encoding information about odors.The work of Strutz et al. shows that certain qualities of odors are contained in a spatial map in a specific brain region of the fly. This opens up the question of how the information in this spatial map influences decisions made by the fly.
    Subject(s): antennal lobe ; Behavior ; Brain mapping ; D. melanogaster ; functional imaging ; Information processing ; Insects ; lateral horn ; Luteinizing hormone ; Memory ; Morphology ; neural circuit ; Neuroimaging ; Neurons ; Neuroscience ; Odor intensity ; odor processing ; olfaction ; Olfactory pathways ; Pheromones ; Principal components analysis ; Sensory evaluation ; Software
    ISSN: 2050-084X
    E-ISSN: 2050-084X
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Nature communications, 2019-10-30, Vol.10 (1), p.4938-8
    Description: Flagellated oomycetes frequently infect unicellular algae, thus limiting their proliferation. Here we show that the marine oomycete Lagenisma coscinodisci rewires the metabolome of the bloom-forming diatom Coscinodiscus granii, thereby promoting infection success. The algal alkaloids beta-carboline and 4-carboxy-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-beta-carboline are induced during infection. Single-cell profiling with AP-MALDI-MS and confocal laser scanning microscopy reveals that algal carbolines accumulate in the reproductive form of the parasite. The compounds arrest the algal cell division, increase the infection rate and induce plasmolysis in the host. Our results indicate that the oomycete manipulates the host metabolome to support its own multiplication.
    Subject(s): Alkaloids - metabolism ; Carbolines - metabolism ; Cell Division ; Diatoms - metabolism ; Diatoms - parasitology ; Host-Parasite Interactions ; Infections - metabolism ; Metabolome ; Microscopy, Confocal ; Multidisciplinary Sciences ; Oomycetes - metabolism ; Oomycetes - physiology ; Principal Component Analysis ; Science & Technology ; Science & Technology - Other Topics ; Single-Cell Analysis ; Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
    ISSN: 2041-1723
    E-ISSN: 2041-1723
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: Web of Science - Science Citation Index Expanded - 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Nature communications, 2020-03-31, Vol.11 (1), p.1698-1698
    Description: An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
    ISSN: 2041-1723
    E-ISSN: 2041-1723
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of comparative neurology (1911), 2015-02-15, Vol.523 (3), p.530-544
    Description: ABSTRACT As a model for primary olfactory perception, the antennal lobe (AL) of Drosophila melanogaster is among the most thoroughly investigated and well‐understood neuronal structures. Most studies investigating the functional properties and neuronal wiring of the AL are conducted in vivo, although so far the AL morphology has been mainly analyzed in vitro. Identifying the morphological subunits of the AL—the olfactory glomeruli—is usually done using in vitro AL atlases. However, the dissection and fixation procedure causes not only strong volumetric but also geometrical modifications; the result is unpredictable dislocation and a distortion of the AL glomeruli between the in vitro and in vivo brains. Hence, to characterize these artifacts, which are caused by in vitro processing, and to reliably identify glomeruli for in vivo applications, we generated a transgenic fly that expresses the red fluorescent protein DsRed directly fused to the presynaptic protein n‐synaptobrevin, under the control of the pan‐neuronal promotor elav to label the neuropil in the live animal. Using this fly line, we generated a digital 3D atlas of the live Drosophila AL; this atlas, the first of its kind, provides an excellent geometric match for in vivo studies. We verified the identity of 63% of AL glomeruli by mapping the projections of 34 GAL4‐lines of individual chemosensory receptor genes. Moreover, we characterized the innervation patterns of the two most frequently used GAL4‐lines in olfactory research: Orco‐ and GH146‐GAL4. The new in vivo AL atlas will be accessible online to the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:530–544, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. By using a novel transgenic fly line, that enables to selectively visualize the neuropil in the live fly brain, the authors established the first 3D in vivo atlas of the antennal lobe of Drosophila melanogaster and demonstrate that in vitro processing results in unexpected deformations of flexible neuropils.
    Subject(s): Animals ; Animals, Genetically Modified ; Arthropod Antennae - anatomy & histology ; Arthropod Antennae - metabolism ; Brain - anatomy & histology ; Brain - metabolism ; Brain Mapping ; Drosophila melanogaster ; Drosophila melanogaster - anatomy & histology ; Drosophila Proteins - genetics ; Drosophila Proteins - metabolism ; glomeruli ; Imaging, Three-Dimensional ; in vitro artifacts ; In Vitro Techniques ; in vivo neuropil marker ; Luminescent Proteins - genetics ; Luminescent Proteins - metabolism ; Nerve Net - anatomy & histology ; Nerve Net - metabolism ; olfactory system ; Transcription Factors - metabolism
    ISSN: 0021-9967
    E-ISSN: 1096-9861
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Molecular ecology, 2019-03, Vol.28 (5), p.1154-1169
    Description: The beneficial effects of plant‐–bacterial interactions in controlling plant pests have been extensively studied with single bacterial isolates. However, in nature, bacteria interact with plants in multitaxa consortia, systems which remain poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that a consortium of five native bacterial isolates protected their host plant Nicotiana attenuata from a sudden wilt disease. Here we explore the mechanisms behind the protection effect against the native pathosystem. Three members of the consortium, Pseudomonas azotoformans A70, P. frederiksbergensis A176 and Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus E46, form biofilms when grown individually in vitro, and the amount of biofilm increased synergistically in the five‐membered consortium, including two Bacillus species, B. megaterium and B. mojavensis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and scanning electron microscopy in planta imaging techniques confirmed biofilm formation and revealed locally distinct distributions of the five bacterial strains colonizing different areas on the plant‐root surface. One of the five isolates, K1 B. mojavensis produces the antifungal compound surfactin, under in vitro and in vivo conditions, clearly inhibiting fungal growth. Furthermore, isolates A70 and A176 produce siderophores under in vitro conditions. Based on these results we infer that the consortium of five bacterial isolates protects its host against fungal phytopathogens via complementary traits. The study should encourage researchers to create synthetic communities from native strains of different genera to improve bioprotection against wilting diseases.
    Subject(s): antibiosis ; Bacteria ; bacterial consortium ; Biochemistry & Molecular Biology ; biocontrol ; biofilm formation ; Biological control ; Consortia ; Ecology ; Environmental Sciences & Ecology ; Evolutionary Biology ; Life Sciences & Biomedicine ; niche colonization ; Nicotiana attenuata ; nutrient competition ; Pests ; Science & Technology ; sudden wilt disease
    ISSN: 0962-1083
    E-ISSN: 1365-294X
    Source: Web of Science - Science Citation Index Expanded - 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: eLife, 2020-06-30, Vol.9
    Description: The examination of phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics of the nervous system, such as behavior and neuroanatomy, can be utilized as a means to assess speciation. Recent studies have proposed a fundamental tradeoff between two sensory organs, the eye and the antenna. However, the identification of ecological mechanisms for this observed tradeoff have not been firmly established. Our current study examines several monophyletic species within the group, and asserts that despite their close relatedness and overlapping ecology, they deviate strongly in both visual and olfactory investment. We contend that both courtship and microhabitat preferences support the observed inverse variation in these sensory traits. Here, this variation in visual and olfactory investment seems to provide relaxed competition, a process by which similar species can use a shared environment differently and in ways that help them coexist. Moreover, that behavioral separation according to light gradients occurs first, and subsequently, courtship deviations arise.
    Subject(s): Anatomy ; Animal behavior ; Animals ; Arthropod Antennae - physiology ; behavior ; Compound Eye, Arthropod - physiology ; Courtship ; D. melanogaster ; Divergence ; Drosophila - genetics ; Drosophila - physiology ; Ecology ; Ecosystem ; evolution ; Evolutionary Biology ; Female ; Genetic Speciation ; Hypotheses ; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted ; Insects ; Male ; Microenvironments ; Morphology ; Nervous system ; neurobiology ; Neuroscience ; Niche overlap ; olfactory ; Other ; Phenotype ; Phylogeny ; Sense organs ; Sexual Behavior, Animal ; Smell ; Speciation ; Species Specificity ; Vinegar ; Vision, Ocular ; visual ; Wings, Animal - physiology
    ISSN: 2050-084X
    E-ISSN: 2050-084X
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Plant, cell and environment, 2021-03, Vol.44 (3), p.900-914
    Description: Flavonoids may mediate UV protection in plants either by screening of harmful radiation or by minimizing the resulting oxidative stress. To help distinguish between these alternatives, more precise knowledge of flavonoid distribution is needed. We used confocal laser scanning microscopy (cLSM) with the “emission fingerprinting” feature to study the cellular and subcellular distribution of flavonoid glucosides in the giant duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza), and investigated the fitness effects of these compounds under natural UV radiation and copper sulphate addition (oxidative stress) using common garden experiments indoors and outdoors. cLSM “emission fingerprinting” allowed us to individually visualize the major dihydroxylated B‐ring‐substituted flavonoids, luteolin 7‐O‐glucoside and luteolin 8‐C‐glucoside, in cross‐sections of the photosynthetic organs. While luteolin 8‐C‐glucoside accumulated mostly in the vacuoles and chloroplasts of mesophyll cells, luteolin 7‐O‐glucoside was predominantly found in the vacuoles of epidermal cells. In congruence with its cellular distribution, the mesophyll‐associated luteolin 8‐C‐glucoside increased plant fitness under copper sulphate addition but not under natural UV light treatment, whereas the epidermis‐associated luteolin 7‐O‐glucoside tended to increase fitness under both stresses across chemically diverse genotypes. Taken together, we demonstrate that individual flavonoid glucosides have distinct cellular and subcellular locations and promote duckweed fitness under different abiotic stresses. Individual flavonoid glucosides have distinct cellular and subcellular locations in the photosynthetic tissue layers of the giant duckweed and promote duckweed fitness under different abiotic stresses.
    Subject(s): 2‐aminoethyl diphenylborinate ; apigenin ; confocal laser scanning microscopy (cLSM) ; copper sulphate ; flavonoids ; glucosides ; heavy metal ; Isoflavones ; luteolin ; oxidative stress ; Photosynthesis ; Radiation ; UV light
    ISSN: 0140-7791
    E-ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: eLife, 2018-10-05, Vol.7
    Description: Plants produce many different specialized (secondary) metabolites that function in solving ecological challenges; few are known to function in growth or other primary processes. 17-Hydroxygeranylinalool diterpene glycosides (DTGs) are abundant herbivory-induced, structurally diverse and commonly malonylated defense metabolites in plants. By identifying and silencing a malonyltransferase, involved in DTG malonylation, we found that DTG malonylation percentages are normally remarkably uniform, but when disrupted, result in DTG-dependent reduced floral style lengths, which in turn result from reduced stylar cell sizes, IAA contents, and YUC activity; phenotypes that could be restored by IAA supplementation or by silencing the DTG pathway. Moreover, the genus-specific JA-deficient short-style phenotype also results from alterations in DTG malonylation patterns. Decorations of plant specialized metabolites can be tuned to remarkably uniform levels, and this regulation plays a central but poorly understood role in controlling the development of specific plant parts, such as floral styles.
    Subject(s): auxin ; Cell Size ; Chemical ecology ; diterpene glycoside ; Diterpenes - chemistry ; Diterpenes - metabolism ; Ecology ; Enzymes ; Flavonoids ; Flowers - cytology ; Flowers - growth & development ; Flowers - metabolism ; Gene expression ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; Gene Silencing ; Glucose ; Glycosides ; Glycosides - chemistry ; Glycosides - metabolism ; Herbivory ; Herbivory - genetics ; Herbivory - physiology ; malonylation ; Metabolism ; Metabolites ; Nicotiana attenuata ; Other ; Phenotypes ; Plant Biology ; Plant Growth Regulators - genetics ; Plant Growth Regulators - metabolism ; specialized metabolites ; stylar development ; Supplementation ; Tobacco - genetics ; Tobacco - growth & development ; Transferases - chemistry ; Transferases - genetics
    ISSN: 2050-084X
    E-ISSN: 2050-084X
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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