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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    2006
    ISSN: 1543-5008 
    Language: English
    In: Annual review of plant biology, 2006, Vol.57 (1), p.303-333
    Description: Glucosinolates are sulfur-rich, anionic natural products that upon hydrolysis by endogenous thioglucosidases called myrosinases produce several different products (e.g., isothiocyanates, thiocyanates, and nitriles). The hydrolysis products have many different biological activities, e.g., as defense compounds and attractants. For humans these compounds function as cancer-preventing agents, biopesticides, and flavor compounds. Since the completion of the Arabidopsis genome, glucosinolate research has made significant progress, resulting in near-complete elucidation of the core biosynthetic pathway, identification of the first regulators of the pathway, metabolic engineering of specific glucosinolate profiles to study function, as well as identification of evolutionary links to related pathways. Although much has been learned in recent years, much more awaits discovery before we fully understand how and why plants synthesize glucosinolates. This may enable us to more fully exploit the potential of these compounds in agriculture and medicine.
    Subject(s): Glucosinolates - biosynthesis ; Glucosinolates - metabolism ; Plants - metabolism ; Glucosinolates - chemistry ; Anions ; Phytochemistry ; Research
    ISSN: 1543-5008
    E-ISSN: 1545-2123
    Source: Annual Reviews Complete A-Z List
    Source: Electronic Back Volume Collection (EBVC)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Nature chemical biology, 2007-07, Vol.3 (7), p.408-414
    Description: As the largest class of natural products, terpenes have a variety of roles in mediating antagonistic and beneficial interactions among organisms. They defend many species of plants, animals and microorganisms against predators, pathogens and competitors, and they are involved in conveying messages to conspecifics and mutualists regarding the presence of food, mates and enemies. Despite the diversity of terpenes known, it is striking how phylogenetically distant organisms have come to use similar structures for common purposes. New natural roles undoubtedly remain to be discovered for this large class of compounds, given that such a small percentage of terpenes has been investigated so far.
    Subject(s): Terpenes - chemistry ; Animals ; Antimalarials - chemistry ; Defense Mechanisms ; Biological Factors - chemistry ; Molecular Structure ; Plant Physiological Phenomena ; Biological Factors - biosynthesis
    ISSN: 1552-4450
    E-ISSN: 1552-4469
    Source: Single Journals
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Nature Journals Online
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Plant, cell and environment, 2019-10, Vol.42 (10), p.2827-2843
    Description: Plants emit a large variety of volatile organic compounds during infection by pathogenic microbes, including terpenes, aromatics, nitrogen‐containing compounds, and fatty acid derivatives, as well as the volatile plant hormones, methyl jasmonate, and methyl salicylate. Given the general antimicrobial activity of plant volatiles and the timing of emission following infection, these compounds have often been assumed to function in defence against pathogens without much solid evidence. In this review, we critically evaluate current knowledge on the toxicity of volatiles to fungi, bacteria, and viruses and their role in plant resistance as well as how they act to induce systemic resistance in uninfected parts of the plant and in neighbouring plants. We also discuss how microbes can detoxify plant volatiles and exploit them as nutrients, attractants for insect vectors, and inducers of volatile emissions, which stimulate immune responses that make plants more susceptible to infection. Although much more is known about plant volatile–herbivore interactions, knowledge of volatile–microbe interactions is growing and it may eventually be possible to harness plant volatiles to reduce disease in agriculture and forestry. Future research in this field can be facilitated by making use of the analytical and molecular tools generated by the prolific research on plant–herbivore interactions. We critically evaluate current knowledge on plant volatiles as direct defences against microbes and as signals that trigger defence responses. We also describe how microbes detoxify plant volatiles and use them for their own benefit as nutrients and attractants for insect vectors.
    Subject(s): green leaf volatiles ; direct defence ; insect vectors ; terpenes ; aromatic volatiles ; detoxification ; systemic induced resistance ; Life Sciences & Biomedicine ; Plant Sciences ; Science & Technology ; Volatile organic compounds ; Drug resistance in microorganisms ; Pathogenic microorganisms ; Disease susceptibility ; Health aspects ; Fatty acids ; Methyl salicylate
    ISSN: 0140-7791
    E-ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Web of Science - Science Citation Index Expanded - 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Phytochemistry reviews, 2009-01, Vol.8 (1), p.149-170
    Description: Like many other plant defense compounds, glucosinolates are present constitutively in plant tissues, but are also induced to higher levels by herbivore attack. Of the major glucosinolate types, indolic glucosinolates are most frequently induced regardless of the type of herbivore involved. Over 90% of previous studies found that herbivore damage to glucosinolate-containing plants led to an increased accumulation of indolic glucosinolates at levels ranging up to 20-fold. Aliphatic and aromatic glucosinolates are also commonly induced by herbivores, though usually at much lower magnitudes than indolic glucosinolates, and aliphatic and aromatic glucosinolates may even undergo declines following herbivory. The glucosinolate defense system also requires another partner, the enzyme myrosinase, to hydrolyze the parent glucosinolates into biologically active derivatives. Much less is known about myrosinase induction after herbivory compared to glucosinolate induction, and no general trends are evident. However, it is clear that insect feeding stimulates the formation of various myrosinase associated proteins whose function is not yet understood. The biochemical mechanism of glucosinolate induction involves a jasmonate signaling cascade that leads eventually to increases in the transcript levels of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes. Several recently described transcription factors controlling glucosinolate biosynthesis are activated by herbivory or wounding. Herbivore induction of glucosinolates has sometimes been demonstrated to increase protection against subsequent herbivore attack, but more research is needed to evaluate the costs and benefits of this phenomenon.
    Subject(s): Life Sciences ; Biochemistry, general ; Transcription factors ; Chemistry/Food Science, general ; Indolic glucosinolates ; Jasmonate signaling ; Myrosinase associated proteins ; Systemic induction ; Plant Sciences ; Organic Chemistry ; Plant Genetics & Genomics ; Physiological aspects ; Environmental aspects ; Enzymes ; Defense industry ; DNA binding proteins ; Glucosinolates ; Herbivory ; Biosynthesis ; Cost benefit analysis ; Biological activity ; Aliphatic compounds ; Wounding ; Insects ; Plant tissues ; Herbivores ; Trends ; Damage accumulation ; Jasmonic acid
    ISSN: 1568-7767
    E-ISSN: 1572-980X
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: ProQuest Central
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Nature chemical biology, 2009-05, Vol.5 (5), p.283-291
    Description: The sessile nature of plants has resulted in the evolution of an extraordinarily diverse suite of protective mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses. Though volatile isoprenoids are known to be involved in many types of biotic interactions, they also play important but relatively unappreciated roles in abiotic stress responses. We review those roles, discuss the proposed mechanistic explanations and examine the evolutionary significance of volatile isoprenoid emission. We note that abiotic stress responses generically involve production of reactive oxygen species in plant cells, and volatile isoprenoids mitigate the effects of oxidative stress by mediating the oxidative status of the plant. On the basis of these observations, we propose a 'single biochemical mechanism for multiple physiological stressors' model, whereby the protective effect against abiotic stress is exerted through direct or indirect improvement in resistance to damage by reactive oxygen species.
    Subject(s): Terpenes - chemistry ; Plant Physiological Phenomena ; Volatile Organic Compounds - chemistry ; Stress, Physiological
    ISSN: 1552-4450
    E-ISSN: 1552-4469
    Source: Single Journals
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Nature Journals Online
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  • 6
    Article
    Article
    2004
    ISSN: 0032-0889 
    Language: English
    In: Plant physiology (Bethesda), 2004-08-01, Vol.135 (4), p.1893-1902
    Subject(s): Enzymes ; Pollutant emissions ; Leaves ; Update on Biochemistry of Plant Volatiles ; Biosynthesis ; Monoterpenes ; Gene expression regulation ; Plants ; Flowers ; Terpenes ; Alcohols ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Biological and medical sciences ; Metabolism ; Metabolism. Physicochemical requirements ; Plant physiology and development ; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System - metabolism ; Plants - metabolism ; Terpenes - metabolism ; Methylation ; Volatilization ; Acylation ; Physiological aspects ; Genetic aspects ; Research ; Botany
    ISSN: 0032-0889
    E-ISSN: 1532-2548
    Source: American Society of Plant Biologists
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: JSTOR Ecology & Botany II
    Source: PubMed Central
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Nature communications, 2019-03-20, Vol.10 (1), p.1243-1243
    Description: Mutation rate and effective population size (N-e) jointly determine intraspecific genetic diversity, but the role of mutation rate is often ignored. Here we investigate genetic diversity, spontaneous mutation rate and N-e in the giant duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza). Despite its large census population size, whole-genome sequencing of 68 globally sampled individuals reveals extremely low intraspecific genetic diversity. Assessed under natural conditions, the genome-wide spontaneous mutation rate is at least seven times lower than estimates made for other multicellular eukaryotes, whereas N-e is large. These results demonstrate that low genetic diversity can be associated with large-N-e species, where selection can reduce mutation rates to very low levels. This study also highlights that accurate estimates of mutation rate can help to explain seemingly unexpected patterns of genome-wide variation.
    Subject(s): Science & Technology - Other Topics ; Multidisciplinary Sciences ; Science & Technology ; Genetic Variation ; Americas ; Plant Dispersal - genetics ; Asia ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Europe ; Phylogeography ; Africa ; Araceae - genetics ; Mutation Rate ; Genome, Plant ; Araceae - classification
    ISSN: 2041-1723
    E-ISSN: 2041-1723
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: Web of Science - Science Citation Index Expanded - 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 8
    Article
    Article
    2017
    ISSN: 0036-8075 
    Language: English
    In: Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 2017-06-30, Vol.356 (6345), p.1334-1335
    Subject(s): Volatile Organic Compounds ; ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters ; Flowers ; Plants ; Petunia
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
    Source: Single Journals
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Molecular ecology, 2017-08, Vol.26 (15), p.4099-4110
    Description: The pine weevil (Hylobius abietis), a major pest of conifer forests throughout Europe, feeds on the bark and cambium, tissues rich in terpenoid resins that are toxic to many insect herbivores. Here, we report the ability of the pine weevil gut microbiota to degrade the diterpene acids of Norway spruce. The diterpene acid levels present in ingested bark were substantially reduced on passage through the pine weevil gut. This reduction was significantly less upon antibiotic treatment, and supplementing the diet with gut suspensions from untreated insects restored the ability to degrade diterpenes. In addition, cultured bacteria isolated from pine weevil guts were shown to degrade a Norway spruce diterpene acid. In a metagenomic survey of the insect's bacterial community, we were able to annotate several genes of a previously described diterpene degradation (dit) gene cluster. Antibiotic treatment disrupted the core bacterial community of H. abietis guts and eliminated nearly all dit genes concordant with its reduction in diterpene degradation. Pine weevils reared on an artificial diet spiked with diterpenes, but without antibiotics, were found to lay more eggs with a higher hatching rate than weevils raised on diets with antibiotics or without diterpenes. These results suggest that gut symbionts contribute towards host fitness, but not by detoxification of diterpenes, as these compounds do not show toxic effects with or without antibiotics. Rather the ability to thrive in a terpene‐rich environment appears to allow gut microbes to benefit the weevil in other ways, such as increasing the nutritional properties of their diet.
    Subject(s): microbiota ; pine weevil ; terpene degradation ; plant secondary metabolites ; symbiosis ; Animals ; Genetic Fitness ; Picea - chemistry ; Weevils - genetics ; Europe ; Gastrointestinal Microbiome ; Diterpenes - metabolism ; Weevils - microbiology ; Microbiota (Symbiotic organisms) ; Coniferous forests ; Plant metabolites
    ISSN: 0962-1083
    E-ISSN: 1365-294X
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Plant physiology (Bethesda), 2012-07-01, Vol.159 (3), p.1159-1175
    Description: In the interaction between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the generalist herbivorous insect Spodoptera littoralis, little is known about early events in defense signaling and their link to downstream phytohormone pathways. S. littoralis oral secretions induced both Ca²⁺ and phytohormone elevation in Arabidopsis. Plant gene expression induced by oral secretions revealed upregulation of a gene encoding a calmodulin-like protein, CML42. Functional analysis of cml42 plants revealed more resistance to herbivory than in the wild type, because caterpillars gain less weight on the mutant, indicating that CML42 negatively regulates plant defense; cml42 also showed increased aliphatic glucosinolate content and hyperactivated transcript accumulation of the jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes VSP2 and Thi2.1 upon herbivory, which might contribute to increased resistance. CML42 up-regulation is negatively regulated by the jasmonate receptor Coronatine Insensitivel (COI1), as loss of functional COI1 resulted in prolonged CML42 activation. CML42 thus acts as a negative regulator of plant defense by decreasing COI1-mediated JA sensitivity and the expression of JA-responsive genes and is independent of herbivory-induced JA biosynthesis. JA-induced Ca²⁺ elevation and root growth inhibition were more sensitive in cml42, also indicating higher JA perception. Our results indicate that CML42 acts as a crucial signaling component connecting Ca²⁺ and JA signaling. CML42 is localized to cytosol and nucleus. CML42 is also involved in abiotic stress responses, as kaempferol glycosides were down-regulated in cml42, and impaired in ultraviolet B resistance. Under drought stress, the level of abscisic acid accumulation was higher in cml42 plants. Thus, CML42 might serve as a Ca²⁺ sensor having multiple functions in insect herbivory defense and abiotic stress responses.
    Subject(s): Leaves ; Insect larvae ; Calcium ; Plant growth regulators ; Genes ; Gene expression regulation ; Trichomes ; Plants ; Herbivores ; Phytophagous insects ; PLANTS INTERACTING WITH OTHER ORGANISMS ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Biological and medical sciences ; Plant physiology and development ; Arabidopsis - physiology ; Intracellular Calcium-Sensing Proteins - genetics ; Calcium - metabolism ; Herbivory - physiology ; Cytosol - drug effects ; Glucosinolates - metabolism ; Protein Transport - drug effects ; RNA, Messenger - metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins - metabolism ; Cell Nucleus - metabolism ; Spodoptera - drug effects ; Stress, Physiological - drug effects ; Arabidopsis Proteins - genetics ; Arabidopsis - drug effects ; Spodoptera - physiology ; Subcellular Fractions - drug effects ; RNA, Messenger - genetics ; Signal Transduction - genetics ; Cyclopentanes - pharmacology ; Intracellular Calcium-Sensing Proteins - metabolism ; Mutation - genetics ; Herbivory - drug effects ; Subcellular Fractions - metabolism ; Arabidopsis - genetics ; Oxylipins - metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant - drug effects ; Animals ; Signal Transduction - drug effects ; Calcium Signaling - drug effects ; Oxylipins - pharmacology ; Arabidopsis - parasitology ; Cyclopentanes - metabolism ; Cytosol - metabolism ; Cell Nucleus - drug effects ; Arabidopsis thaliana ; Arabidopsis ; Plant genetics ; Genetic aspects ; Instrument industry ; Chemical properties ; Gene expression
    ISSN: 0032-0889
    ISSN: 1532-2548
    E-ISSN: 1532-2548
    Source: American Society of Plant Biologists
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: JSTOR Ecology & Botany II
    Source: PubMed Central
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