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  • 1
    Language: English
    Description: Universal basic income (UBI) is emerging as one of the most hotly debated issues in development and social protection policy. But what are the features of UBI? What is it meant to achieve? How do we know, and what don’t we know, about its performance? What does it take to implement it in practice? Drawing from global evidence, literature, and survey data, this volume provides a framework to elucidate issues and trade-offs in UBI with a view to help inform choices around its appropriateness and feasibility in different contexts. Specifically, the book examines how UBI differs from or complements other social assistance programs in terms of objectives, coverage, incidence, adequacy, incentives, effects on poverty and inequality, financing, political economy, and implementation. It also reviews past and current country experiences, surveys the full range of existing policy proposals, provides original results from micro—tax benefit simulations, and sets out a range of considerations around the analytics and practice of UBI.
    Subject(s): UNVIVERSAL BASIC INCOME ; JOB GUARANTEE PROGRAM ; POLITICAL ECONOMY ; INEQUALITY ; LABOR MARKET ; SUBSIDIES REFORM ; PUBLIC WORKS PROGRAM ; WAGE SUBSIDY ; SOCIAL ASSISTANCE ; PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT ; TAXATION ; SOCIAL PROTECTION ; POVERTY ALLEVIATION
    ISBN: 9781464814587
    ISBN: 1464814589
    ISSN: 9939-1157
    Source: Ebook Central - Academic Complete
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    2009
    ISSN: 0950-6764 
    Language: English
    In: Development policy review, 2009-03, Vol.27 (2), p.147-166
    Description: Social protection has evolved rapidly both conceptually and in practice, and is now a key policy issue in humanitarian and development debates. However, debates have sometimes been misled by approaches that pay inadequate attention to context‐specific factors, do not fully consider the sequence of interventions, and are too instrument‐centred. This article presents a conceptual framework to tailor social‐protection policy and implementation more closely to country contexts. Four stylised models of social protection are identified, corresponding to scenarios where social‐protection systems are absent, where elements of such systems exist, and where systems are emerging or have been consolidated. Each model is shown to lead to different challenges, implications and areas for further research.
    Subject(s): Social protection ; food transfers ; risk management ; vulnerability ; safety-nets ; cash transfers ; safety‐nets
    ISSN: 0950-6764
    E-ISSN: 1467-7679
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of development studies, 2019-12-13, Vol.55, p.1-6
    Description: Effective social protection is increasingly as essential to supporting affected populations in situations of protracted instability and displacement. Despite the growing use of social protection in these settings, there is comparatively little rigorous research on what works, for whom, and why. This special issue contributes by adding seven high-quality studies that raise substantially our understanding of the role of social protection in fragile contexts and in settings of forced displacement and migration. Together, these studies fill knowledge gaps, help support informed decision-making by policy-makers and practitioners, and demonstrate that impact evaluation and the analysis of social protection in challenging humanitarian settings are possible. The studies provide evidence that design choices in implementation, such as which population to target, choice of transfer modality or which messages are delivered with programmes, can make a substantial difference in the realisation of positive benefits among vulnerable populations. Furthermore, the findings of the studies underline the relevance of tailoring programme components to populations, which may benefit more or less from traditional programme implementation models.
    ISSN: 0022-0388
    E-ISSN: 1743-9140
    Source: Taylor & Francis Open Access
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  • 4
    Language: English
    Description: Over 60 million people are currently displaced due to conflict or violence, and about 140 million are exposed to natural disasters. As part of humanitarian responses to those affected populations, growing attention is paid to cash transfers as a form of assistance. Cash is being strongly advocated by several actors, and for good reasons: they have the potential to provide choice, empower people, and spark economic multipliers. But what is their comparative performance relative to in-kind transfers? Are there objectives for which there are particular evidence gaps? And what should be considered when choosing between those forms of assistance? This paper is one of the first reviews examining those questions across humanitarian sectors and in relation to multiple forms of assistance, including cash, vouchers, and in-kind assistance (food and non-food). These were assessed based on solid impact evaluations and through the lens of food security, nutrition, livelihoods, health, education, and shelter objectives. The paper finds that there is large variance in the availability of comparative evidence across sectors. This ranges from areas where evidence is substantial (i.e., food security) to realms where it is limited (i.e., nutrition) or where not a single comparative evaluation was available (i.e., health, education, and shelter). Where evidence is substantial, data shows that the effectiveness of cash and in-kind transfers is similar on average. In terms of costs, cash is generally more efficient to delivery. However, overall costs would hinge on the scale of interventions, crisis context, procurement practices, and a range of ‘hidden costs’. In other words, the appropriateness of transfers cannot be predetermined and should emerge from response analysis that considers program objectives, the level of market functionality, predicted cost-effectiveness, implementation capacity, the management of key risks such as on protection and gender, political economy, beneficiary preferences, and resource availability. Finally, it seems possible (and necessary) to reconcile humanitarian imperatives with solid research to inform decision-making, especially on dimensions beyond food security.
    Subject(s): Development ; BUSINESS & ECONOMICS ; Business Development ; Economic aspects ; Humanitarian assistance ; FOOD AID ; COSTS ; CASH TRANSFERS ; HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE ; MARKETS ; RISK ; VOUCHERS ; IMPACTS ; SHOCKS ; CRISES ; DISASTERS ; DELIVERY
    ISBN: 9781464809101
    ISBN: 1464809100
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 5
    Article
    Article
    2016
    ISSN: 1564-6971  ISSN: 0257-3032 
    Language: English
    In: The World Bank research observer, 2016-02, Vol.31 (1), p.135-167
    Description: The longstanding “cash versus food” debate has received renewed attention in both research and practice. This paper reviews key issues shaping the debate and presents new evidence from randomized and quasi-experimental evaluations that deliberately compare cash and in-kind food transfers in ten developing counties. Findings show that relative effectiveness cannot be generalized: although some differences emerge in terms of food consumption and dietary diversity, average impacts tend to depend on context, specific objectives, their measurement, and program design. Costs for cash transfers and vouchers tend to be significantly lower relative to in-kind food. Yet the consistency and robustness of methods for efficiency analyses varies greatly.
    Subject(s): FOOD AID ; SAFETY NET ; COST-EFFECTIVENESS ; FOOD SECURITY ; POLITICAL ECONOMY ; CASH TRANSFERS ; IMPACT EVALUATION ; SOCIAL PROTECTION ; IN-KIND TRANSFERS ; VOUCHERS ; FOOD STAMPS
    ISSN: 1564-6971
    ISSN: 0257-3032
    E-ISSN: 1564-6971
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: World Bank e-Library
    Source: Oxford Journals 2016 Current and Archive A-Z Collection
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  • 6
    Book
    Book
    2017
    ISBN: 9781464810879  ISBN: 1464810877 
    Language: English
    Description: This book addresses the thorny and fascinating question of how food and voucher programs, despite theory and evidence generally favoring cash, remain relevant, have evolved, and, in most circumstances, have improved over time. In doing so, we take an evolutionary and pragmatic view; we are interested in understanding why food-based programs exist and how countries can benefit from transformations such as that of Chhattisgarh, not in determining whether those programs should exist.
    Subject(s): Economics ; BUSINESS & ECONOMICS ; Macroeconomics ; SAFETY NETS ; SOCIAL ASSISTANCE ; CASH TRANSFERS ; AGRICULTURAL SUPPORT ; IN-KIND TRANSFERS ; SOCIAL PROTECTION ; TARGETING ; VOUCHERS ; FOOD STAMPS ; FOOD PRICES ; FOOD ASSISTANCE ; FOOD SUBSIDIES
    ISBN: 9781464810879
    ISBN: 1464810877
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 7
    Language: English
    Description: “Socially inclusive growth is the talk of the town in developing countries. But to go from talk to walk these countries face a critical task: reconstructing their welfare states given the failures of the standard Bismarckian model and the challenges posed by rapid technological change. This book—known to many as the White Paper—is indispensable for tackling this task. It develops a clear conceptual framework to help policy makers understand this complex issue, set clear objectives, evaluate trade-offs, and chart a coherent path of reform. A much-needed and very welcome contribution.” —Santiago Levy, Senior Fellow—Global Economy and Development, Brookings Economic and Social Policy in Latin America Initiative, Brookings Institution “Most countries have failed to support people adequately as the combination of globalization and technology changes the structure of their economies and their jobs. This has fostered a backlash in which economic insecurity is widespread and support for populist policies is on the rise. We can do much better than this by sharing risks and providing a guaranteed minimum to everyone. This important book lays out a set of policies that strikes a new balance between economic flexibility and individual security that is relevant to both advanced and developing countries.” —Minouche Shafik, Director, London School of Economics and Political Science “Economic insecurity confronts working people around the world today. To overcome this insecurity through suitable risk-sharing interventions is a policy challenge of the first order. This exceptionally thoughtful and clearly written book charts a course for replacing employment-based risk-sharing policies with social insurance–based ones, financed by general revenues with the broadest possible base. The resultant Flexicurity model promises ‘a more robust and resilient policy response to a diverse and fluid world of work.’” —Gary Fields, Professor of International and Comparative Labor and Professor of Economics, Cornell University “Protecting All presents thoughtful, thorough, and bold proposals to achieve universal social protection in a modern welfare state. This lucid document identifies implementable policies for poverty prevention, coping with livelihood shocks, and managing labor market risks that range from state-guaranteed publicly funded income floors to mandated consumption-smoothing mechanisms funded by individual contributions to privately financed incentivized and purely voluntary consumption-smoothing schemes. Clearly written, rich with ideas, and relevant for countries at all income levels, Protecting All is bound to become an essential reference for policy makers and policy analysts focused on (re)designing social protection systems that achieve key social goals in ways consistent with fast-changing labor markets, fiscal sustainability, and economic efficiency and growth.” —Nora Lustig, Professor of Latin American Economics and Director of the Commitment to Equity Institute, Tulane University
    Subject(s): Employment (Economic theory) ; SOCIAL ASSISTANCE ; JOBS ; LABOR MARKETS ; LABOR PROGRAMS ; FUTURE OF WORK ; INFORMAL ECONOMY ; RISK SHARING ; SOCIAL PROTECTION ; LABOR REGULATION ; LABOR INSTITUTIONS ; SOCIAL INSURANCE ; INFORMAL EMPLOYMENT
    ISBN: 1464814279
    ISBN: 9781464814273
    ISSN: 9977-4156
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 8
    Book
    Book
    2017
    ISBN: 9781464810879  ISBN: 1464810877 
    Language: English
    Subject(s): Food relief ; Public welfare
    ISBN: 9781464810879
    ISBN: 1464810877
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Food security, 2015-06, Vol.7 (3), p.479-492
    Description: Attention to nutrition continues to grow. The recent surge in interest has included widening agreement on two major issues: first, nutrition goals cannot be achieved through targeted actions alone; nutrition-sensitive interventions are needed as well. Second, the multiple actions required to address all forms of malnutrition through the lifecycle cannot be proxied by a single target or metric. Although the Millennium Development Goals included one concrete measure of nutrition (children underweight), the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals will include multiple measures that better inform a diversity of policy and programming actions. This suggests a need for improved understanding of how multiple forms of malnutrition are linked, how public investments may affect one form of malnutrition but possibly not others, and how best to measure progress on multiple nutrition fronts, including through nutrition-sensitive actions, such as investments in agriculture. This paper proposes a composite index that highlights the state of nutrition across six separate nutrition goals endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012, allowing for ranking (comparison among countries) and monitoring of change (within countries) over time. Establishing an index that captures gains or losses in nutrition across all six goals simultaneously highlights the complexity of nutrition problems and required solutions. Such an index can be used to track progress towards goals set for 2025, but also support dialogue on the individual index components and how investments should be prioritized for maximum impact.
    Subject(s): Life Sciences ; Environment, general ; Metrics ; Food Science ; Policies ; Nutrition ; Developing country ; Social Sciences, general ; Agriculture ; Social Policy ; Plant Sciences ; Indicators ; Measurement ; Developing countries ; Malnutrition ; Sustainable development ; Analysis
    ISSN: 1876-4517
    E-ISSN: 1876-4525
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 10
    Language: English
    Description: Most of the people in low and middle-income countries covered by social protection receive assistance in the form of in-kind food. The origin of such support is rooted in countries’ historical pursuit of three interconnected objectives, namely attaining self-sufficiency in food, managing domestic food prices, and providing income support to the poor. This volume sheds light on the complex, bumpy and non-linear process of how some flagship food-based social protection programs have evolved over time, and how they currently work. In particular, it lays out the broad trends in reforms, including a growing move from in-kind modalities to cash transfers, from universality to targeting, and from agriculture to social protection. Case studies from Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Sri Lanka, and United States document the specific experiences of managing the process of reform and implementation, including enhancing our understanding of the opportunities and challenges with different social protection transfer modalities.
    Subject(s): Food security ; Food relief ; Public welfare
    ISBN: 9781464810879
    ISBN: 1464810877
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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