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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    2016
    ISSN: 02573032 
    Language: English
    In: The World Bank Research Observer, Feb 2016, Vol.31(1), p.135
    Description: The longstanding "cash versus food" debate has received renewed attention in both research and practice. This paper reviews key issues shaping the debate and presents new evidence from randomized and quasi-experimental evaluations that deliberately compare cash and in-kind food transfers in ten developing...
    Subject(s): Effectiveness Studies ; Research ; Efficiency ; Consumption ; Counties ; Money ; Effectiveness ; Antipoverty Programs ; Food Consumption ; Public Welfare ; Developing Countries–Ldcs ; International Comparisons ; Transfer of Funds ; Food Stamps ; Cost Analysis ; Vouchers ; Social Policy ; International ; Experiment/Theoretical Treatment
    ISSN: 02573032
    E-ISSN: 15646971
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    2016
    ISSN: 1564-6971 
    Language: English
    In: World Bank Research Observer, February 2016
    Description: The longstanding “cash versus food” debate has received renewed attention in both research and practice. This paper reviews key issues shaping the debate and presents new evidence from randomized and quasi-experimental evaluations that deliberately compare cash and in-kind food transfers in ten developing counties. Findings show that relative effectiveness cannot be generalized: although some differences emerge in terms of food consumption and dietary diversity, average impacts tend to depend on context, specific objectives, their measurement, and program design. Costs for cash transfers and vouchers tend to be significantly lower relative to in-kind food. Yet the consistency and robustness of methods for efficiency analyses varies greatly.
    Subject(s): Food Security ; Cash Transfers ; Safety NET ; Social Protection ; Political Economy ; In-Kind Transfers ; Food AID ; Vouchers ; Food Stamps ; IMPACT Evaluation ; Cost-Effectiveness ; Business ; Economics
    ISSN: 1564-6971
    E-ISSN: 1564-6971
    Source: Open Knowledge Repository (World Bank Group)
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  • 3
    In: The World Bank Research Observer, 2016, Vol. 31(1), pp.135-167
    Description: The longstanding “cash versus food” debate has received renewed attention in both research and practice. This paper reviews key issues shaping the debate and presents new evidence from randomized and quasi-experimental evaluations that deliberately compare cash and in-kind food transfers in ten developing counties. Findings show that relative effectiveness cannot be generalized: although some differences emerge in terms of food consumption and dietary diversity, average impacts tend to depend on context, specific objectives, their measurement, and program design. Costs for cash transfers and vouchers tend to be significantly lower relative to in-kind food. Yet the consistency and robustness of methods for efficiency analyses varies greatly.
    Subject(s): Social Protection ; Safety Nets ; Food Security ; Political Economy ; Cash Transfers ; In - Kind Transfers ; Food Aid ; Vouchers ; Food Stamps ; Impact Evaluations ; Cost - Effectiveness ; D610 ; H530 ; O120 ; O130 ; Q180
    ISSN: 0257-3032
    E-ISSN: 1564-6971
    Source: Oxford University Press
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  • 4
    Article
    Article
    2013
    ISSN: 1353-6141 
    In: IDS Working Papers, January 2013, Vol.2013(415), pp.1-18
    Description: Food banks provide food to charities and other grassroots organisations for supporting vulnerable populations. As such, they tend to complement more institutionalised, state‐provided safety net programmes. This paper is a first attempt to estimate the total number of people supported by food banks in high‐income countries (HICs). The analysis shows that nearly 60 million people turn annually to food banks in ‘rich’ nations – that is, a level similar to the entire population of France or Italy and representing about 7.2 per cent of the HIC population. Such level could be considered a conservative estimate. This scenario suggests a number of implications for social protection policy, as well as opening new frontiers for food assistance practice, partnerships and applied research. The paper concludes that (i) the need for food banks will likely stay high or even increase further in the coming future; (ii) food bank models, activities and operations require further review, appraisal and documentation; (iii) debates should not confuse responses to and causes of poverty, food insecurity and socio‐economic marginalisation; and (iv) the nature, context and objectives of food assistance in advanced economies are different from those in developing countries, although scope for galvanising cooperation exists.
    Subject(s): Food Assistance ; Food Banks ; Food Security ; High‐Income Countries ; Poverty ; Safety Nets ; Social Protection
    ISSN: 1353-6141
    E-ISSN: 2040-0209
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  • 5
    Lexicon Article
    Lexicon Article
    2016
    ISSN: 0257-3032 
    In: The World Bank research observer, 2016, Vol.31(1), p.135
    Subject(s): Soziale Sicherheit
    ISSN: 0257-3032
    Source: wiso Wirtschaftswissenschaften (GBI-Genios Deutsche Wirtschaftsdatenbank GmbH) 〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/wiso_logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 6
    Article
    Article
    2012
    ISSN: 1353-6141 
    In: IDS Working Papers, June 2012, Vol.2012(392), pp.1-48
    Description: The basic question about ‘how many poor people are there in the world?’ generally assumes that poverty is measured according to international poverty lines (IPLs). Yet, an equally relevant question could be ‘how many poor people are there in the world, based on how poverty is defined where those people live?’ In short, rather than a comparison based on monetary values, the latter question is germane to estimates based on a concept –‘poverty’– as defined by countries’ specific circumstances and institutions. Estimates of poverty by national poverty lines (NPLs) and international poverty lines (IPLs) may vary in terms of technical grounds. But how similar are they? How different is poverty captured by comparable (in PPP monetary value) cross‐country measures as embodied by the IPL compared to that viewed in NPLs? This paper offers a new perspective on global poverty. It does so by estimating the distribution of poverty across countries, regions and income categories based on national poverty lines (NPLs). Even though comparing NPLs across countries means comparing poverty lines of different monetary value, we argue that exploring “poverty” as a nationally defined concept by countries at different stages of development unveils important and often unnoticed findings. By addressing the question of poverty as defined where those poor people live, this paper seeks to offer a new perspective on global poverty and at the same time extend thinking on the ‘middle‐income countries poverty paradox’– meaning that most of the world's poor do not live in the world's poorest countries Using data from 160 countries covering nearly 92 per cent of world population, we estimate that globally 1.5 billion people live in poverty as defined within their own countries (by NPLs), a billion of which are in middle‐income countries (MICs) and – surprisingly perhaps – one in ten of world's poor live in high‐income countries (HICs). Our analysis shows that NPL and IPL‐based estimates lead to similar poverty estimates only in a limited number of cases. In particular, we conclude that (i) there is a considerable difference between regional and national poverty estimates based on IPLs and NPLs – that is, differences for a same country could be as high as 55 percentage points in poverty rates, or about 45 million in the number of poor people; (ii) NPLs may be particularly important for analysis of poverty in MICs: indeed, their NPLs don't feed into the construction of IPLs. Hence, poverty at national level may not be adequately captured by IPLs themselves; (iii) NPLs are not substitutes for IPLs, but instead enrich and complement international analyses. Yet, there could be trade‐offs between the two, especially in terms of different development actors tracking different poverty estimates. Our findings also have implications for debates about global poverty targets and international assistance.
    Subject(s): Poverty ; Inequality ; Aid ; Middle‐Income ; Low‐Income Countries
    ISSN: 1353-6141
    E-ISSN: 2040-0209
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: World Bank Studies
    Description: Over 60 million people are currently displaced due to conflict or violence, and about 140 million are exposed to natural disasters. As part of humanitarian responses to those affected populations, growing attention is paid to cash transfers as a form of assistance. Cash is being strongly advocated by several actors, and for good reasons: they have the potential to provide choice, empower people, and spark economic multipliers. But what is their comparative performance relative to in-kind transfers? Are there objectives for which there are particular evidence gaps? And what should be considered when choosing between those forms of assistance? This paper is one of the first reviews examining those questions across humanitarian sectors and in relation to multiple forms of assistance, including cash, vouchers, and in-kind assistance (food and non-food). These were assessed based on solid impact evaluations and through the lens of food security, nutrition, livelihoods, health, education, and shelter objectives. The paper finds that there is large variance in the availability of comparative evidence across sectors. This ranges from areas where evidence is substantial (i.e., food security) to realms where it is limited (i.e., nutrition) or where not a single comparative evaluation was available (i.e., health, education, and shelter). Where evidence is substantial, data shows that the effectiveness of cash and in-kind transfers is similar on average. In terms of costs, cash is generally more efficient to delivery. However, overall costs would hinge on the scale of interventions, crisis context, procurement practices, and a range of ‘hidden costs’. In other words, the appropriateness of transfers cannot be predetermined and should emerge from response analysis that considers program objectives, the level of market functionality, predicted cost-effectiveness, implementation capacity, the management of key risks such as on protection and gender, political economy, beneficiary preferences, and resource availability. Finally, it seems possible (and necessary) to reconcile humanitarian imperatives with solid research to inform decision-making, especially on dimensions beyond food security.
    Subject(s): Cash Transfers ; Costs ; Disasters ; Food AID ; Impacts ; Delivery ; Humanitarian Assistance ; Crises ; Risk ; Vouchers ; Shocks ; Markets ; Social Welfare & Social Work
    ISBN: 9781464809101
    ISBN: 1464809100
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Food Security, 2015, Vol.7(3), pp.479-492
    Description: Attention to nutrition continues to grow. The recent surge in interest has included widening agreement on two major issues: first, nutrition goals cannot be achieved through targeted actions alone; nutrition-sensitive interventions are needed as well. Second, the multiple actions required to address all forms of malnutrition through the lifecycle cannot be proxied by a single target or metric. Although the Millennium Development Goals included one concrete measure of nutrition (children underweight), the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals will include multiple measures that better inform a diversity of policy and programming actions. This suggests a need for improved understanding of how multiple forms of malnutrition are linked, how public investments may affect one form of malnutrition but possibly not others, and how best to measure progress on multiple nutrition fronts, including through nutrition-sensitive actions, such as investments in agriculture. This paper proposes a composite index that highlights the state of nutrition across six separate nutrition goals endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012, allowing for ranking (comparison among countries) and monitoring of change (within countries) over time. Establishing an index that captures gains or losses in nutrition across all six goals simultaneously highlights the complexity of nutrition problems and required solutions. Such an index can be used to track progress towards goals set for 2025, but also support dialogue on the individual index components and how investments should be prioritized for maximum impact.
    Subject(s): Nutrition ; Policies ; Developing country ; Metrics ; Indicators
    ISSN: 1876-4517
    E-ISSN: 1876-4525
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  • 9
    Article
    Article
    2009
    ISSN: 0950-6764 
    In: Development Policy Review, March 2009, Vol.27(2), pp.147-166
    Description: Social protection has evolved rapidly both conceptually and in practice, and is now a key policy issue in humanitarian and development debates. However, debates have sometimes been misled by approaches that pay inadequate attention to context‐specific factors, do not fully consider the sequence of interventions, and are too instrument‐centred. This article presents a conceptual framework to tailor social‐protection policy and implementation more closely to country contexts. Four stylised models of social protection are identified, corresponding to scenarios where social‐protection systems are absent, where elements of such systems exist, and where systems are emerging or have been consolidated. Each model is shown to lead to different challenges, implications and areas for further research.
    Subject(s): Social Protection ; Safety‐Nets ; Vulnerability ; Cash Transfers ; Food Transfers ; Risk Management
    ISSN: 0950-6764
    E-ISSN: 1467-7679
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Policy Research Working Papers
    Description: The paper reviews the evidence on a “hot” and yet underexplored question—that is, whether and how social assistance programs (especially cash transfers) affect domestic and international migration. Out an initial sample of 269 papers, 10 relevant empirical studies examine the question. The programs are classified into three clusters: (i) social assistance that implicitly deters migration centering on place-based programs, (ii) social assistance that implicitly facilitates migration by relaxing liquidity constraints and reducing transaction costs, and (iii) social assistance that is explicitly conditioned on spatial mobility. The paper finds that impacts on migration generally align with the implicit or explicit goals of interventions. Under cluster (i), the likelihood of moving declined between 0.22 and 11 percentage points; among schemes in clusters (ii) and (iii), the probability to move soared between 0.32–25 and 20–55 percentage points, respectively. The analysis also finds spillover effects within households and communities. While social assistance seems not to determine migration decisions per se, it nonetheless enters the broader calculous of mobility decision making. As such, social protection can be an important part of public policy packages to manage mobility. More research is needed to improve understanding of the role of social protection in structural transformation—a process underpinned by domestic mobility and the performance of which may ultimately affect international migration.
    Subject(s): Migration ; Mobility ; Cash Transfers ; Social Assistance ; Social Protection ; Poverty Reduction–Labor Markets ; Social Protections and Labor–Labor Markets
    Source: World Bank eLibrary (The World Bank Group)
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