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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: eLife, 2014-04-08, Vol.3, p.e02131-e02131
    Description: Membrane trafficking is essential to fundamental processes in eukaryotic life, including cell growth and division. In plant cytokinesis, post-Golgi trafficking mediates a massive flow of vesicles that form the partitioning membrane but its regulation remains poorly understood. Here, we identify functionally redundant Arabidopsis ARF guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs) BIG1-BIG4 as regulators of post-Golgi trafficking, mediating late secretion from the trans-Golgi network but not recycling of endocytosed proteins to the plasma membrane, although the TGN also functions as an early endosome in plants. In contrast, BIG1-4 are absolutely required for trafficking of both endocytosed and newly synthesized proteins to the cell-division plane during cytokinesis, counteracting recycling to the plasma membrane. This change from recycling to secretory trafficking pathway mediated by ARF-GEFs confers specificity of cargo delivery to the division plane and might thus ensure that the partitioning membrane is completed on time in the absence of a cytokinesis-interphase checkpoint. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02131.001.
    Subject(s): Arabidopsis ; Arabidopsis - metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins - metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins - secretion ; ARF-GEF ; Cell Biology ; Cell Division ; Cytokinesis ; Endocytosis ; Flowers & plants ; gegulation of vesicle traffic ; Golgi apparatus ; Golgi Apparatus - metabolism ; Guanine ; Guanine nucleotide exchange factor ; Localization ; Membrane trafficking ; Microscopy ; Molecular biology ; Phylogenetics ; Physiology ; Plant Biology ; post-Golgi trafficking ; Protein Transport ; Proteins ; Recycling ; secretion ; Seeds ; Software
    ISSN: 2050-084X
    E-ISSN: 2050-084X
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Nature plants, 2016-08-08, Vol.2 (9), p.16120-16120
    Description: Cell shape is defined by the surrounding cell walls in plants. Thus, spatial control over cell division planes and cell expansion polarity are essential to maintain cell morphology. In eukaryotes, cell polarity and expansion are controlled by Rho GTPase signalling, regulating cytoskeletal reorganization and vesicle trafficking(1). However, until now, Rho signalling was not implicated in mitotic events in plants. Here, we report a pair of putative Rho GTPase activating proteins (RhoGAPs) that interact with the mitosis-specific kinesin-12 POK1, a core component of the cortical division zone/site (CDZ/CDS) that is required for division plane maintenance in Arabidopsis(2-4). The designated pleckstrin homology GAPs (PHGAPs) are cytoplasmic and plasma membrane associated in interphase, but during mitosis they additionally localize to the CDZ/CDS in a POK-dependent manner. In contrast to pok1 pok2 mutants, phgap1 phgap2 double mutants show moderate cell wall positioning defects as a consequence of inaccurate positioning of the cortical division zone marker POK1. We conclude that loss of PHGAP function interferes with division plane selection in proliferative cell divisions.
    Subject(s): Arabidopsis - genetics ; Arabidopsis - metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins - genetics ; Arabidopsis Proteins - metabolism ; Cell division ; Cell morphology ; Cell Polarity ; Cell Shape ; Cell size ; Cell walls ; Cytokinesis ; Cytology ; Cytoskeleton ; Eukaryotes ; GTPase-Activating Proteins - genetics ; GTPase-Activating Proteins - metabolism ; Homology ; Kinesin ; Kinesin - genetics ; Kinesin - metabolism ; Mitosis ; Mutants ; Pleckstrin ; Polarity ; Protein Transport ; Proteins ; Signaling
    ISSN: 2055-0278
    E-ISSN: 2055-0278
    Source: ProQuest Central
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Development (Cambridge), 2011-01, Vol.138 (1), p.117-126
    Description: Flowering-plant embryogenesis generates the basic body organization, including the apical and basal stem cell niches, i.e. shoot and root meristems, the major tissue layers and the cotyledon(s). gnom mutant embryos fail to initiate the root meristem at the early-globular stage and the cotyledon primordia at the late globular/transition stage. Tissue-specific GNOM expression in the gnom mutant embryo revealed that both apical and basal embryo organization depend on GNOM provascular expression and a functioning apical-basal auxin flux: GNOM provascular expression in gnom mutant background resulted in non-cell-autonomous reconstitution of apical and basal tissues which could be linked to changes in auxin responses in those tissues, stressing the importance of apical-basal auxin flow for overall embryo organization. Although reconstitution of apical-basal auxin flux in gnom results in the formation of single cotyledons (monocots), only additional GNOM epidermal expression is able to induce wild-type apical patterning. We conclude that provascular expression of GNOM is vital for both apical and basal tissue organization, and that epidermal GNOM expression is required for radial-to-bilateral symmetry transition of the embryo. We propose GNOM-dependent auxin sinks as a means to generate auxin gradients across tissues.
    Subject(s): Arabidopsis - genetics ; Arabidopsis - metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins - genetics ; Arabidopsis Proteins - metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant - genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant - physiology ; Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors - genetics ; Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors - metabolism ; Membrane Transport Proteins - genetics ; Membrane Transport Proteins - metabolism ; Meristem - genetics ; Meristem - metabolism ; Microscopy, Confocal ; Models, Biological ; Plant Roots - embryology ; Plant Roots - genetics ; Plant Roots - metabolism ; Promoter Regions, Genetic - genetics
    ISSN: 0950-1991
    E-ISSN: 1477-9129
    Source: HighWire Press (Free Journals)
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
    Source: Company of Biologists
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 2018-07, Vol.99 (1), p.33-42
    Description: A decade after the Global Malaria Eradication Program, El Salvador had the highest burden of malaria in Mesoamerica, with approximately 20% due to . A resurgence of malaria in the 1970s led El Salvador to alter its national malaria control strategy. By 1995, El Salvador recorded its last autochthonous case with fewer than 20 cases annually since 2011. By contrast, its immediate neighbors continue to have the highest incidences of malaria in the region. We reviewed and evaluated the policies and interventions implemented by the Salvadoran National Malaria Program that likely contributed to this progress toward malaria elimination. Decentralization of the malaria program, early regional stratification by risk, and data-driven stratum-specific actions resulted in the timely and targeted allocation of resources for vector control, surveillance, case detection, and treatment. Weekly reporting by health workers and volunteer collaborators-distributed throughout the country by strata and informed via the national surveillance system-enabled local malaria teams to provide rapid, adaptive, and focalized program actions. Sustained investments in surveillance and response have led to a dramatic reduction in local transmission, with most current malaria cases in El Salvador due to importation from neighboring countries. Additional support for systematic elimination efforts in neighboring countries would benefit the region and may be needed for El Salvador to achieve and maintain malaria elimination. El Salvador's experience provides a relevant case study that can guide the application of similar strategies in other countries committed to malaria elimination.
    Subject(s): Abridged Index Medicus ; Amèrica Central ; Central America ; Malaria ; Malària ; Surveillance
    ISSN: 0002-9637
    E-ISSN: 1476-1645
    Source: HighWire Press (Free Journals)
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 2018-08, Vol.99 (2), p.297-302
    Description: spp. are emerging infectious pathogens, especially in the Americas. Although is primarily a parasite of dogs, polymerase chain reaction-confirmed human infections have been reported from Mexico, Venezuela, and Costa Rica. This study reports the presence of DNA in 13.7% of 205 dogs from urban areas in Peru and of those, five were analyzed for phylogenetic variation using the Tandem Repeat Protein 36 (TRP36) gene. The use of the TRP36 gene for such analysis was validated against 16S rRNA and heat shock protein genes using Shannon's entropy bioinformatic approach. When compared with other strains previously reported, three unique and novel strains were detected. In addition, the TRP36 amino acid tandem repeat sequences of the Peruvian strains share close similarity to an strain detected from four human blood bank samples in Costa Rica. This study reports for the first time domestic dogs infected with strains closely related to a zoonotic strain, which may be of public health concern as dogs can be chronically infected with this pathogen.
    Subject(s): Abridged Index Medicus ; Proteins
    ISSN: 0002-9637
    E-ISSN: 1476-1645
    Source: HighWire Press (Free Journals)
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 6
    Language: English
    Description: A decade after the Global Malaria Eradication Program, El Salvador had the highest burden of malaria in Mesoamerica, with approximately 20% due to Plasmodium falciparum. A resurgence of malaria in the 1970s led El Salvador to alter its national malaria control strategy. By 1995, El Salvador recorded its last autochthonous P. falciparum case with fewer than 20 Plasmodium vivax cases annually since 2011. By contrast, its immediate neighbors continue to have the highest incidences of malaria in the region. We reviewed and evaluated the policies and interventions implemented by the Salvadoran National Malaria Program that likely contributed to this progress toward malaria elimination. Decentralization of the malaria program, early regional stratification by risk, and data-driven stratum-specific actions resulted in the timely and targeted allocation of resources for vector control, surveillance, case detection, and treatment. Weekly reporting by health workers and volunteer collaborators-distributed throughout the country by strata and informed via the national surveillance system-enabled local malaria teams to provide rapid, adaptive, and focalized program actions. Sustained investments in surveillance and response have led to a dramatic reduction in local transmission, with most current malaria cases in El Salvador due to importation from neighboring countries. Additional support for systematic elimination efforts in neighboring countries would benefit the region and may be needed for El Salvador to achieve and maintain malaria elimination. El Salvador's experience provides a relevant case study that can guide the application of similar strategies in other countries committed to malaria elimination.
    Subject(s): Amèrica Central ; Central America ; Malaria ; Malària
    ISSN: 0002-9637
    E-ISSN: 1476-1645
    Source: HighWire Press (Free Journals)
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Diposit Digital de la Universitat de Barcelona
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 2013, Vol.7 (9), p.e2393-e2393
    Description: Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1∶64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ≥1∶256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii.
    Subject(s): Animals ; Antibodies, Bacterial - blood ; Arachnids ; Asymptomatic Diseases ; Bacteria ; Bartonella ; Bartonella - classification ; Bartonella - genetics ; Bartonella - isolation & purification ; Bartonella Infections - epidemiology ; Bartonella Infections - microbiology ; Bartonella Infections - veterinary ; Biology ; Carrier State - epidemiology ; Carrier State - microbiology ; Carrier State - veterinary ; Colleges & universities ; Cross-Sectional Studies ; Deoxyribonucleic acid ; Disease ; Disease prevention ; DNA ; DNA, Bacterial - blood ; DNA, Bacterial - chemistry ; DNA, Bacterial - genetics ; Dog Diseases - epidemiology ; Dog Diseases - microbiology ; Dogs ; Female ; Fever ; Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect ; Genetic aspects ; Health aspects ; Health sciences ; Insect bites ; Male ; Mammals ; Medicine ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Peru - epidemiology ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Population ; Prevalence ; Prevalence studies (Epidemiology) ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Usage ; Veterinary medicine ; Veterinary Science
    ISSN: 1935-2735
    ISSN: 1935-2727
    E-ISSN: 1935-2735
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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