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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    2019
    ISSN: 0013-0133  ISSN: 1468-0297 
    Language: English
    In: The Economic journal (London), 2019-01-01, Vol.129 (617), p.172-208
    Description: We study a Chilean programme that combines home visits to households in extreme poverty with guaranteed access to social services. Its goal was to connect marginalised families to the social system to improve their living conditions. Programme impacts are identified using regression discontinuity exploring the fact that eligibility is a discontinuous function of an index of family income and assets. There is no evidence of short or long-term effects on employment or housing. However, we find short and medium-term impacts on the take-up of subsidies and employment services among families without access to the welfare system prior to the intervention.
    Subject(s): Economics ; Samhällsvetenskap ; Economics and Business ; Social Sciences ; Nationalekonomi ; Ekonomi och näringsliv
    ISSN: 0013-0133
    ISSN: 1468-0297
    E-ISSN: 1468-0297
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Oxford Journals A-Z Collection
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of nutrition, 2020-04-01, Vol.150 (4), p.958-966
    Description: ABSTRACT Background Iron deficiency anemia affects hundreds of millions of women and children worldwide and is associated with impaired infant outcomes. Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) have been found to reduce the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency in some trials. Objectives We evaluated the effectiveness of daily LNS supplementation on child anemia and micronutrient status in Madagascar within the context of an existing, scaled-up nutrition program. Methods We cluster-randomized 125 communities to (T0) a routine program with monthly growth monitoring and nutrition education; (T1) T0 + home visits for intensive nutrition counselling; (T2) T1 + LNS for children aged 6–18 mo; (T3) T2 + LNS for pregnant/lactating women; or (T4) T1 + parenting messages. Pregnant women and infants aged 〈12 mo were enrolled in 2014 and followed for 2 y. Child outcome measures included hemoglobin and anemia assessed using the HemoCue 301 system (n = 3561), and serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor as markers of iron status, retinol-binding protein as a marker of vitamin A status, and C-reactive protein and α-1 acid glycoprotein from a finger stick blood draw among a subsample (n = 387). We estimated mean difference using linear regression and prevalence ratios using modified Poisson regression accounting for the clustered design. All analyses were intention-to-treat. Results Children in the LNS groups (T2 and T3) had ∼40% lower prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency anemia and 25% lower prevalence of iron deficiency than children in the control group (T0) (P 〈 0.05 for all). There were no differences in any of the biomarkers when comparing children in the T4 group with those in T0; nor were there differences between T3 and T2. Conclusions Our findings suggest the provision of LNS in the context of a large-scale program offers significant benefits on anemia and iron status in young children. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN14393738.
    Subject(s): Madagascar - epidemiology ; Anemia - epidemiology ; Humans ; Child, Preschool ; Anemia - prevention & control ; Infant ; Lipids - administration & dosage ; Pregnancy ; Young Adult ; Adult ; Female ; Nutritional Status ; Micronutrients - administration & dosage ; Dietary Supplements ; Longitudinal Studies ; Infant, Newborn ; Cluster Analysis ; Transferrin ; C-reactive protein ; Childrens health ; Ferritin ; Lipids ; Iron ; Infants ; Proteins ; Vitamin A ; Randomization ; Motivation ; Nutrient status ; Hemoglobin ; Clusters ; Nutrients ; Children ; Supplementation ; Context ; Nutrient deficiency ; Nutrition ; Anemia ; Dietary supplements ; Vitamin deficiency ; Glycoproteins ; Regression analysis ; Design modifications ; Biomarkers ; Retinol-binding protein ; Index Medicus ; MED00060 ; Community and International Nutrition ; SCI00960 ; children ; program evaluation ; lipid-based nutrient supplement ; Madagascar ; iron deficiency ; AcademicSubjects ; anemia
    ISSN: 0022-3166
    E-ISSN: 1541-6100
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: BMC public health, 2019-09-11, Vol.19 (1), p.1256-1256
    Description: Human capital (the knowledge, skills, and health that accumulate over life) can be optimized by investments in early childhood to promote cognitive and language development. Parents and caregivers play a crucial role in the promotion and support of cognitive development in their children. Thus, understanding caregiver perceptions of a child's capabilities and attributes, including intelligence, may enhance investments early in life. To explore this question, we asked caregivers to rank their child's intelligence in comparison with other children in the community, and compared this ranking with children's scores on an assessment of developmental abilities across multiple domains. Our study examined cross-sectional data of 3361 children aged 16-42 months in rural Madagascar. Child intelligence, as perceived by their caregiver, was captured using a ladder ranking scale based on the MacArthur Scale for Subjective Social Status. Children's developmental abilities were assessed using scores from the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Inventory (ASQ-I), which measures cognitive, language, and socio-emotional development. Ranked percentiles of the ASQ-I were generated within communities and across the whole sample. We created categories of under-estimation, matched, and over-estimation by taking the differences in rankings between caregiver-perceived child intelligence and ASQ-I. Child nutritional status, caregiver belief of their influence on child intelligence, and sociodemographic factors were examined as potential correlates of discordance between the measures using multinomial logistic regressions. We found caregiver perceptions of intelligence in Madagascar did not align consistently with the ASQ-I, with approximately 8% of caregivers under-estimating and almost 50% over-estimating their children's developmental abilities. Child nutritional status, caregiver belief of their influence on child intelligence, caregiver education, and wealth were associated with under- or over-estimation of children's developmental abilities. Our findings suggest parents may not always have an accurate perception of their child's intelligence or abilities compared with other children. The results are consistent with the limited literature on parental perceptions of child nutrition, which documents a discordance between caregiver perceptions and objective measures. Further research is needed to understand the common cues caregivers that use to identify child development milestones and how these may differ from researcher-observed measures in low-income settings. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN14393738 . Registered June 23, 2015.
    Subject(s): Rural Population - statistics & numerical data ; Cross-Sectional Studies ; Caregivers - psychology ; Humans ; Child, Preschool ; Infant ; Male ; Madagascar ; Parents - psychology ; Child Health - statistics & numerical data ; Cognition - physiology ; Female ; Surveys and Questionnaires ; Child Development ; Child ; Caregivers ; Psychological aspects ; Services ; Child development ; Analysis ; Clinical trials ; Management ; Index Medicus ; Ages and stages questionnaire: Inventory ; Early child development ; Intelligence ; Caregiver perceptions ; Sub-Saharan Africa
    ISSN: 1471-2458
    E-ISSN: 1471-2458
    Source: BioMedCentral Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Estudios de economia, 2011-06-01, Vol.38 (1), p.101-127
    Description: This paper evaluates the effect of an anti-poverty program, Chile Solidario, during its first two years of operation. We find that the program tends to increases significantly their take-up of cash assistance programs and of social programs for housing and employment, and to improve education and health outcomes for participating households. There is no evidence that the participation to employment program translates into improved employment or income outcomes in the short term. Finally, we provide suggestive evidence of the key role that the psycho-social support had in enabling this change, by increasing awareness of social services in the community as well as households' orientation towards the future. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
    ISSN: 0304-2758
    E-ISSN: 0718-5286
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: BMC public health, 2016-06-03, Vol.16 (1), p.466-466
    Description: Over half of the world's children suffer from poor nutrition, and as a consequence they experience delays in physical and mental health, and cognitive development. There is little data evaluating the effects of delivery of lipid-based, nutrition supplementation on growth and development during pregnancy and early childhood within the context of a scaled-up program. Furthermore, there is limited evidence on effects of scaled-up, home-visiting programs that focus on the promotion of child development within the context of an existing, national nutrition program. The MAHAY ("smart" in Malagasy) study uses a multi-arm randomized-controlled trial (RCT) to test the effects and cost-effectiveness of combined interventions to address chronic malnutrition and poor child development. The arms of the trial are: (T0) existing program with monthly growth monitoring and nutritional/hygiene education; (T1) is T0 + home visits for intensive nutrition counseling within a behavior change framework; (T2) is T1 + lipid-based supplementation (LNS) for children 6-18 months old; (T3) is T2 + LNS supplementation of pregnant/lactating women; and (T4) is T1 + intensive home visiting program to support child development. There are anticipated to be n = 25 communities in each arm (n = 1250 pregnant women, n = 1250 children 0-6 months old, and n = 1250 children 6-18 months old). Primary outcomes include growth (length/height-for-age z-scores) and child development (mental, motor and social development). Secondary outcomes include care-giver reported child morbidity, household food security and diet diversity, micro-nutrient status, maternal knowledge of child care and feeding practices, and home stimulation practices. We will estimate unadjusted and adjusted intention-to-treat effects. Study protocols have been reviewed and approved by the Malagasy Ethics Committee at the Ministry of Health in Madagascar and by the institutional review board at the University of California, Davis. This study is funded by the Strategic Impact Evaluation Fund (SIEF), the World Bank Innovation Grant, the Early Learning Partnership Grant, the Japan Scaling-up for Nutrition Trustfund, and Grand Challenges Canada. The implementation of the study is financed by Madagascar's National Nutrition Office. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN14393738 . Registered June 23, 2015.
    Subject(s): Parenting ; Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena ; Humans ; Breast Feeding ; Infant ; Madagascar ; Prenatal Care - economics ; Health Promotion - economics ; Pregnancy ; Malnutrition - prevention & control ; Cost-Benefit Analysis ; Female ; House Calls - economics ; Child Development ; Dietary Supplements ; Research Design ; Infant, Newborn ; Maternal-Child Health Services ; Cluster Analysis ; Evaluation ; Nutrition policy ; Child development ; Child care ; Analysis ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 1471-2458
    E-ISSN: 1471-2458
    Source: BioMedCentral Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet global health, 2019-09, Vol.7 (9), p.e1257-e1268
    Description: Evidence from efficacy trials suggests that lipid-based nutrient supplementation (LNS) and home visits can be effective approaches to preventing chronic malnutrition and promoting child development in low-income settings. We tested the integration of these approaches within an existing, large-scale, community-based nutrition programme in Madagascar. We randomly allocated 125 programme sites to five intervention groups: standard-of-care programme with monthly growth monitoring and nutrition education (T0); T0 plus home visits for intensive nutrition counselling through an added community worker (T1); T1 plus LNS for children aged 6–18 months (T2); T2 plus LNS for pregnant or lactating women (T3); or T1 plus fortnightly home visits to promote and encourage early stimulation (T4). Pregnant women (second or third trimester) and infants younger than 12 months were enrolled in the trial. Primary outcomes were child growth (length-for-age and weight-for-length Z scores) and development at age 18–30 months. Analyses were by intention to treat. The trial was registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN14393738. The study enrolled 3738 mothers: 1248 pregnant women (250 women in each of the T0, T1, T2, and T4 intervention groups and 248 in the T3 intervention group) and 2490 children aged 0–11 months (497 children in T0, 500 in T1, 494 in T2, 499 in T3, and 500 in T4) at baseline who were assessed at 1-year and 2-year intervals. There were no main effects of any of the intervention groups on any measure of anthropometry or any of the child development outcomes in the full sample. However, compared with children in the T0 intervention group, the youngest children (〈6 months at baseline) in the T2 and T3 intervention groups who were fully exposed to the child LNS dose had higher length-for-age Z scores (a significant effect of 0·210 SD [95% CI −0·004 to 0·424] for T2 and a borderline effect of 0·216 SD [0·043 to 0·389] for T3) and lower stunting prevalence (−9·0% [95% CI −16·7 to −1·2] for T2 and −8·2% [−15·6 to −0·7] for T3); supplementing mothers conferred no additional benefit. LNS for children for a duration of 12 months only benefited growth when it began at an early age, suggesting the need to supplement infants at age 6 months in a very low-income context. The lack of effect of the early stimulation messages and home visits might be due to little take-up of behaviour-change messages and delivery challenges facing community health workers. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development, Strategic Impact Evaluation Fund, World Bank Innovation Grant, Early Learning Partnership Grant, World Bank Research Budget, Japan Nutrition Trust Fund, Power of Nutrition, and the National Nutrition Office of Madagascar.
    Subject(s): Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena ; Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena ; Humans ; Child, Preschool ; Infant ; Male ; Lipids - administration & dosage ; Madagascar ; Pregnancy ; House Calls ; Female ; Child Development - physiology ; Dietary Supplements ; Infant, Newborn ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 2214-109X
    E-ISSN: 2214-109X
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 7
    Article
    Article
    2004
    ISSN: 0258-6770  ISSN: 1564-698X 
    Language: English
    In: The World Bank economic review, 2004-01-01, Vol.18 (3), p.367-399
    Description: The article assesses the impact of Argentina's main social policy response to the severe economic crisis of 2002. The program was intended to provide direct income support for families with dependents and whose head had become unemployed because of the crisis. Counterfactual comparisons are based on a matched subset of applicants not yet receiving program assistance. Panel data spanning the crisis are also used. The program reduced aggregate unemployment, though it attracted as many people into the workforce from inactivity as it did people who otherwise would have been unemployed. Although there was substantial leakage to formally ineligible families and incomplete coverage of those who were eligible, the program did partially compensate many losers from the crisis and reduced extreme poverty.
    Subject(s): Income estimates ; Income distribution ; Contrafactuals ; Poverty ; Household income ; Poverty line ; Unemployment rates ; World Bank ; Unemployment ; Interval estimators
    ISSN: 0258-6770
    ISSN: 1564-698X
    E-ISSN: 1564-698X
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: World Bank e-Library
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences VI
    Source: Oxford Journals 2016 Current and Archive A-Z Collection
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: BMJ global health, 2019-11-19, Vol.4 (6), p.e001724-e001724
    Description: IntroductionEarly childhood development can be described by an underlying latent construct. Global comparisons of children’s development are hindered by the lack of a validated metric that is comparable across cultures and contexts, especially for children under age 3 years. We constructed and validated a new metric, the Developmental Score (D-score), using existing data from 16 longitudinal studies.MethodsStudies had item-level developmental assessment data for children 0–48 months and longitudinal outcomes at ages 〉4–18 years, including measures of IQ and receptive vocabulary. Existing data from 11 low-income, middle-income and high-income countries were merged for 〉36 000 children. Item mapping produced 95 ‘equate groups’ of same-skill items across 12 different assessment instruments. A statistical model was built using the Rasch model with item difficulties constrained to be equal in a subset of equate groups, linking instruments to a common scale, the D-score, a continuous metric with interval-scale properties. D-score-for-age z-scores (DAZ) were evaluated for discriminant, concurrent and predictive validity to outcomes in middle childhood to adolescence.ResultsConcurrent validity of DAZ with original instruments was strong (average r=0.71), with few exceptions. In approximately 70% of data rounds collected across studies, DAZ discriminated between children above/below cut-points for low birth weight (〈2500 g) and stunting (−2 SD below median height-for-age). DAZ increased significantly with maternal education in 55% of data rounds. Predictive correlations of DAZ with outcomes obtained 2–16 years later were generally between 0.20 and 0.40. Correlations equalled or exceeded those obtained with original instruments despite using an average of 55% fewer items to estimate the D-score.ConclusionThe D-score metric enables quantitative comparisons of early childhood development across ages and sets the stage for creating simple, low-cost, global-use instruments to facilitate valid cross-national comparisons of early childhood development.
    Subject(s): global health ; child development ; psychometrics ; Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health ; item response theory ; Health Policy
    ISSN: 2059-7908
    E-ISSN: 2059-7908
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Estudios de economia, 2016-03-01, Vol.38 (1), p.101-127
    Description: This paper evaluates the effect of an anti-poverty program, Chile Solidario, during its first two years of operation. We find that the program tends to increases significantly their take-up of cash assistance programs and of social programs for housing and employment, and to improve education and health outcomes for participating households. There is no evidence that the participation to employment program translates into improved employment or income outcomes in the short term. Finally, we provide suggestive evidence of the key role that the psycho-social support had in enabling this change, by increasing awareness of social services in the community as well as households’ orientation towards the future.
    ISSN: 0304-2758
    E-ISSN: 0718-5286
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Developmental science, 2011-07, Vol.14 (4), p.832-847
    Description: Our objectives were to document and examine socioeconomic gradients across a comprehensive set of child development measures in a population living in extreme poverty, and to interpret these gradients in light of findings from the neuroscience literature. We assessed a nationally representative sample of 3–6‐year‐old children (n = 1332) from 150 communities of Madagascar using standard tests of development. We found that children whose families were in the top wealth quintile or whose mothers had secondary education performed significantly better across almost all measures of cognitive and language development and had better linear growth compared with children of women in the lowest wealth quintile or women with no education. These differences between children of low and high socioeconomic position were greatest for receptive language, working memory, and memory of phrases. The mean difference in the scores between children in the highest and lowest socioeconomic status categories doubled between age 3 and age 6, and the biggest gaps across socioeconomic position by age 6 were in receptive language and sustained attention. Our results suggest that even within the context of extreme poverty, there are strong associations between family socioeconomic status and child development outcomes among preschool children, and that the language and executive function domains exhibit the largest gradients.
    Subject(s): Poverty ; Humans ; Language Development ; Middle Aged ; Child, Preschool ; Male ; Cognition ; Educational Status ; Madagascar ; Socioeconomic Factors ; Adolescent ; Adult ; Female ; Child Development ; Memory, Short-Term ; Child ; Executive Function ; Family ; Neurosciences ; Child development ; Language acquisition ; Public health ; Families & family life ; Language ; Socioeconomic factors ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 1363-755X
    E-ISSN: 1467-7687
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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