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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    2008
    ISSN: 1543-5008  ISSN: 1040-2519 
    Language: English
    In: Annual review of plant biology, 2008, Vol.59 (1), p.115-142
    Description: Storage oil mobilization starts with the onset of seed germination. Oil bodies packed with triacylglycerol (TAG) exist in close proximity with glyoxysomes, the single membrane-bound organelles that house most of the biochemical machinery required to convert fatty acids derived from TAG to 4-carbon compounds. The 4-carbon compounds in turn are converted to soluble sugars that are used to fuel seedling growth. Biochemical analysis over the last 50 years has identified the main pathways involved in this process, including beta-oxidation, the glyoxylate cycle, and gluconeogenesis. In the last few years molecular genetic dissection of the overall process in the model oilseed species Arabidopsis has provided new insight into its complexity, particularly with respect to the specific role played by individual enzymatic steps and the subcellular compartmentalization of the glyoxylate cycle. Both abscisic acid (ABA) and sugars inhibit storage oil mobilization and a substantial degree of the control appears to operate at the transcriptional level.
    Subject(s): Abscisic acid ; Acetyl Coenzyme A - metabolism ; Arabidopsis ; Biochemistry ; Botany ; Carbohydrates - physiology ; Carbon ; Cell metabolism ; Chemical properties ; Composition ; Fatty Acids - metabolism ; Germination ; Germination - physiology ; Lipids - physiology ; Lipolysis ; Oils & fats ; Oils - metabolism ; Peroxisomes - metabolism ; Plant Development ; Plant Proteins - metabolism ; Plants - metabolism ; Research ; Seeds ; Seeds - metabolism ; Seeds - physiology ; Vegetable oils
    ISSN: 1543-5008
    ISSN: 1040-2519
    E-ISSN: 1545-2123
    E-ISSN: 2331-0960
    Source: Get It Now
    Source: Electronic Back Volume Collection (EBVC)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Plant cell, 2011-07-01, Vol.23 (7), p.2568-2580
    Description: Summer annuals overwinter as seeds in the soil seed bank. This is facilitated by a cold-induced increase in dormancy during seed maturation followed by a switch to a state during seed imbibition in which cold instead promotes germination. Here, we show that the seed maturation transcriptome in Arabidopsis thaliana is highly temperature sensitive and reveal that low temperature during seed maturation induces several genes associated with dormancy, including DELAY OF GERMINATI0N1 [DOG1), and influences gibberellin and abscisic acid levels in mature seeds. Mutants lacking DOG1, or with altered gibberellin or abscisic acid synthesis or signaling, in turn show reduced ability to enter the deeply dormant states in response to low seed maturation temperatures. In addition, we find that DOG1 promotes gibberellin catabolism during maturation. We show that C-REPEAT BINDING FACTORS (CBFs) are necessary for regulation of dormancy and of GA2OX6 and DOG1 expression caused by low temperatures. However, the temperature sensitivity of CBF transcription is markedly reduced in seeds and is absent in imbibed seeds. Our data demonstrate that inhibition of CBF expression is likely a critical feature allowing cold to promote rather than inhibit germination and support a model in which CBFs act in parallel to a low-temperature signaling pathway in the regulation of dormancy.
    Subject(s): Abscisic acid ; Abscisic Acid - metabolism ; Arabidopsis - physiology ; Arabidopsis Proteins - genetics ; Arabidopsis Proteins - metabolism ; Arabidopsis thaliana ; Cold Temperature ; Core Binding Factors - genetics ; Core Binding Factors - metabolism ; DNA binding proteins ; Dormancy ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene expression regulation ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; Genes ; Genetic aspects ; Germination ; Gibberellins - metabolism ; Low temperature ; Microarray Analysis ; Models, Biological ; Physiological aspects ; Plant cells ; Plant Dormancy - genetics ; Plant genetics ; Plants ; Research ; Seasons ; Seed dormancy ; Seed maturation ; Seeds ; Signal Transduction - genetics ; Transcription, Genetic ; Transcriptome
    ISSN: 1040-4651
    E-ISSN: 1532-298X
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: JSTOR Ecology & Botany II
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Plant cell, 2006-08-01, Vol.18 (8), p.1887-1899
    Description: Regulation of seed germination requires coordinate action by the embryo and surrounding endosperm. We used Arabidopsis thaliana to establish the relative roles of embryo and endosperm in the control of seed germination and seedling establishment. We previously showed that endospermic oil reserves are used postgerminatively via gluconeogenesis to fuel seedling establishment and that lipid breakdown is repressed by abscisic acid (ABA) in embryo but not endosperm tissues. Here, we use RNA amplification to describe the transcriptome of the endosperm and compare the hormone responses of endosperm and embryo tissues. We show that the endosperm responds to both ABA and gibberellin but that ABA in particular regulates nuclear but not plastid-encoded photosynthetic gene expression in the embryo. We also show that ABA INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) expression is confined to the embryo, accounts for the major differences in embryo response to ABA, and defines a role for ABI4 as a repressor of lipid breakdown. Furthermore, ABI5 expression in the endosperm defines a second region of altered ABA signaling in the micropylar endosperm cap. Finally, embryo and endosperm ABA signaling mutants demonstrate the spatial specificity of ABA action in seed germination. We conclude that the single cell endosperm layer plays an active role in the regulation of seed germination in Arabidopsis.
    Subject(s): Abscisic Acid - biosynthesis ; Abscisic Acid - metabolism ; Arabidopsis ; Arabidopsis - embryology ; Arabidopsis - genetics ; Arabidopsis - metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins - genetics ; Arabidopsis Proteins - metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins - physiology ; Arabidopsis thaliana ; Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors - metabolism ; Biomarkers ; Embryos ; Endosperm ; Gene expression ; Gene expression regulation ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; Genes ; Genetic aspects ; Germination ; Germination - physiology ; Gibberellins - biosynthesis ; Lipid Metabolism ; Lipids ; Physiological aspects ; Plant cells ; Plants ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Research ; RNA, Messenger - metabolism ; Seed germination ; Seeds - anatomy & histology ; Seeds - growth & development ; Seeds - metabolism ; Signal Transduction - physiology ; Transcription Factors - genetics ; Transcription Factors - metabolism ; Transcription Factors - physiology
    ISSN: 1040-4651
    E-ISSN: 1532-298X
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: JSTOR Ecology & Botany II
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in plant science, 2012, Vol.3, p.42-42
    Description: Oxylipins are lipid-derived compounds, many of which act as signals in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stress. They include the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) and related jasmonate metabolites cis-(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA), methyl jasmonate, and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile). Besides the defense response, jasmonates are involved in plant growth and development and regulate a range of processes including glandular trichome development, reproduction, root growth, and senescence. cis-OPDA is known to possess a signaling role distinct from JA-Ile. The non-enzymatically derived phytoprostanes are structurally similar to cis-OPDA and induce a common set of genes that are not responsive to JA in Arabidopsis thaliana. A novel role for cis-OPDA in seed germination regulation has recently been uncovered based on evidence from double mutants and feeding experiments showing that cis-OPDA interacts with abscisic acid (ABA), inhibits seed germination, and increases ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5) protein abundance. Large amounts of cis-OPDA are esterified to galactolipids in A. thaliana and the resulting compounds, known as Arabidopsides, are thought to act as a rapidly available source of cis-OPDA.
    Subject(s): 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid ; jasmonates ; jasmonic acid ; lipid signaling ; oxylipins ; phytoprostanes ; Plant Science ; seed dormancy ; seed germination
    ISSN: 1664-462X
    E-ISSN: 1664-462X
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Plant cell, 2010-05-01, Vol.22 (5), p.1549-1563
    Description: The process of dark-induced senescence in plants is relatively poorly understood, but a functional electron-transfer flavoprotein/electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) complex, which supports respiration during carbon starvation, has recently been identified. Here, we studied the responses of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in the expression of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase to extended darkness and other environmental stresses. Evaluations of the mutant phenotypes following carbon starvation induced by extended darkness identify similarities to those exhibited by mutants of the ETF/ETFQO complex. Metabolic profiling and isotope tracer experimentation revealed that isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase is involved in degradation of the branched-chain amino acids, phytol, and Lys, while 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase is involved exclusively in Lys degradation. These results suggest that isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase is the more critical for alternative respiration and that a series of enzymes, including 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase, plays a role in Lys degradation. Both physiological and metabolic phenotypes of the isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase mutants were not as severe as those observed for mutants of the ETF/ETFQO complex, indicating some functional redundancy of the enzymes within the process. Our results aid in the elucidation of the pathway of plant Lys catabolism and demonstrate that both isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase act as electron donors to the ubiquinol pool via an ETF/ETFQO-mediated route.
    Subject(s): Acyl Coenzyme A - metabolism ; Alcohol Oxidoreductases - metabolism ; Amino acid metabolism ; Amino acids ; Arabidopsis - enzymology ; Arabidopsis thaliana ; Carbohydrate Metabolism ; Catabolism ; Chlorophylls ; Darkness ; Dehydrogenases ; DNA, Bacterial - genetics ; Electron Transport ; Electrons ; Enzymes ; Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry ; Genetic aspects ; Glutamine ; Growth ; Isotope Labeling ; Isovaleryl-CoA Dehydrogenase - metabolism ; Leaves ; Leucine - metabolism ; Lysine - metabolism ; Metabolome ; Mitochondria - enzymology ; Models, Biological ; Mutagenesis, Insertional - genetics ; Mutation - genetics ; Observations ; Phenotype ; Phenotypes ; Phytol - metabolism ; Plant cells ; Plant Leaves - metabolism ; Plant mitochondria ; Plants ; Properties
    ISSN: 1040-4651
    E-ISSN: 1532-298X
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: JSTOR Ecology & Botany II
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 2018-10-19, Vol.362 (6412), p.343-347
    Description: Morphinan-based painkillers are derived from opium poppy ( L.). We report a draft of the opium poppy genome, with 2.72 gigabases assembled into 11 chromosomes with contig N50 and scaffold N50 of 1.77 and 204 megabases, respectively. Synteny analysis suggests a whole-genome duplication at ~7.8 million years ago and ancient segmental or whole-genome duplication(s) that occurred before the Papaveraceae-Ranunculaceae divergence 110 million years ago. Syntenic blocks representative of phthalideisoquinoline and morphinan components of a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid cluster of 15 genes provide insight into how this cluster evolved. Paralog analysis identified P450 and oxidoreductase genes that combined to form the gene fusion essential for morphinan biosynthesis in opium poppy. Thus, gene duplication, rearrangement, and fusion events have led to evolution of specialized metabolic products in opium poppy.
    Subject(s): Addiction ; Analgesics ; Benzylisoquinolines - metabolism ; Biological evolution ; Biosynthesis ; Chemical properties ; Chromosomes ; Clusters ; Divergence ; Drug abuse ; Drug trafficking ; Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Duplication ; Gene Fusion ; Gene Order ; Gene rearrangement ; Genes ; Genetic aspects ; Genome, Plant ; Genomes ; Metabolism ; Morphinans - metabolism ; Multigene Family ; NADPH-Ferrihemoprotein Reductase - genetics ; Narcotics ; Opiates ; Opioids ; Opium poppy ; Oxidoreductase ; Papaver - genetics ; Papaver - metabolism ; Papaver somniferum ; Phthalideisoquinoline ; Plant Proteins - genetics ; Production processes ; Proteins ; Reproduction (copying) ; Synteny
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The Plant cell, 2011-02-01, Vol.23 (2), p.583-599
    Description: Arabidopsis thaliana COMATOSE (CTS) encodes an ABC transporter involved in peroxisomal import of substrates for β-oxidation. Various cts alleles and mutants disrupted in steps of peroxisomal β-oxidation have previously been reported to exhibit a severe block on seed germination. Oxylipin analysis on cts, acyl CoA oxidase1 acyl CoA oxidase2 (acx1 acx2), and keto acyl thiolase2 dry seeds revealed that they contain elevated levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), jasmonic acid (JA), and JA-lle. Oxylipin and transcriptomic analysis showed that accumulation of these oxylipins occurs during late seed maturation in cts. Analysis of double mutants generated by crossing cts with mutants in the JA biosynthesis pathway indicate that OPDA, rather than JA or JA-lle, contributes to the block on germination in cts seeds. We found that OPDA was more effective at inhibiting wild-type germination than was JA and that this effect was independent of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 but was synergistic with abscisic acid (ABA). Consistent with this, OPDA treatment increased ABA INSENSITIVE5 protein abundance in a manner that parallels the inhibitory effect of OPDA and OPDA+ABA on seed germination. These results demonstrate that OPDA acts along with ABA to regulate seed germination in Arabidopsis.
    Subject(s): Abscisic Acid - metabolism ; Analysis ; Arabidopsis - drug effects ; Arabidopsis - genetics ; Arabidopsis - growth & development ; Arabidopsis thaliana ; Baker, Alison ; Biosynthesis ; Cyclopentanes - metabolism ; Endosperm ; Fatty acids ; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - pharmacology ; Gene expression regulation ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; Genes ; Germination ; Germination - drug effects ; Mutation ; Oxylipins - metabolism ; Phenotypes ; Plant cells ; Seed germination ; Seeds ; Seeds - drug effects ; Seeds - growth & development
    ISSN: 1040-4651
    E-ISSN: 1532-298X
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: JSTOR Ecology & Botany II
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 2015-07-17, Vol.349 (6245), p.309-312
    Description: Morphinan alkaloids from the opium poppy are used for pain relief. The direction of metabolites to morphinan biosynthesis requires isomerization of (S)- to (R)-reticuline. Characterization of high-reticuline poppy mutants revealed a genetic locus, designated STORR [(S)- to (R)-reticuline] that encodes both cytochrome P450 and oxidoreductase modules, the latter belonging to the aldo-keto reductase family. Metabolite analysis of mutant alleles and heterologous expression demonstrate that the P450 module is responsible for the conversion of (S)-reticuline to 1,2-dehydroreticuline, whereas the oxidoreductase module converts 1,2-dehydroreticuline to (R)-reticuline rather than functioning as a P450 redox partner. Proteomic analysis confirmed that these two modules are contained on a single polypeptide in vivo. This modular assembly implies a selection pressure favoring substrate channeling. The fusion protein STORR may enable microbial-based morphinan production.
    Subject(s): Biosynthesis ; Enzymes ; Metabolites ; Modules ; Morphine ; Narcotics ; Pathways ; Poppies ; Proteins ; REPORTS
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of experimental botany, 2016-01-01, Vol.67 (8), p.2277-2284
    Description: We previously demonstrated that the oxylipin 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) acts along with abscisic acid to regulate seed germination in , but the mechanistic details of this synergistic interaction remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that OPDA acts through the germination inhibition effects of abscisic acid, the abscisic acid-sensing ABI5 protein, and the gibberellin-sensing RGL2 DELLA protein. We further demonstrate that OPDA also acts through another dormancy-promoting factor, MOTHER-OF-FT-AND-TFL1 (MFT). Both abscisic acid and MFT positively feed back into the OPDA pathway by promoting its accumulation. These results confirm the central role of OPDA in regulating seed dormancy and germination in and underline the complexity of interactions between OPDA and other dormancy-promoting factors such as abscisic acid, RGL2, and MFT.
    Subject(s): Abscisic acid ; Abscisic Acid - metabolism ; Arabidopsis - drug effects ; Arabidopsis - growth & development ; Arabidopsis Proteins - metabolism ; Biosynthetic Pathways - drug effects ; Carrier Proteins - metabolism ; dormancy ; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - pharmacology ; germination ; Germination - drug effects ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins ; MFT ; Models, Biological ; Mutation - genetics ; OPDA ; Oxylipins - metabolism ; Plant Dormancy - drug effects ; Protein Binding - drug effects ; RESEARCH PAPER ; RGL2
    ISSN: 0022-0957
    E-ISSN: 1460-2431
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: JSTOR Ecology & Botany II
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 2012-06-29, Vol.336 (6089), p.1704-1708
    Description: Noscapine is an antitumor alkaloid from opium poppy that binds tubulin, arrests metaphase, and induces apoptosis in dividing human cells. Elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway will enable improvement in the commercial production of noscapine and related bioactive molecules. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the exclusive expression of 10 genes encoding five distinct enzyme classes in a high noscapine-producing poppy variety, HN1. Analysis of an F₂ mapping population indicated that these genes are tightly linked in HN1, and bacterial artificial chromosome sequencing confirmed that they exist as a complex gene cluster for plant alkaloids. Virus-induced gene silencing resulted in accumulation of pathway intermediates, allowing gene function to be linked to noscapine synthesis and a novel biosynthetic pathway to be proposed.
    Subject(s): Alkaloids ; Anticancer properties ; Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic - biosynthesis ; Biological and medical sciences ; Biosynthesis ; Capsules ; Classical genetics, quantitative genetics, hybrids ; Clusters ; Cough ; Enzymes ; Flowers & plants ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Gene silencing ; Genes ; Genes, Plant ; Genetic aspects ; Genetics of eukaryotes. Biological and molecular evolution ; Genomes ; Latex ; Libraries ; Low level ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Morphinans ; Multigene Family ; Narcotics ; Noscapine - metabolism ; Open reading frames ; Papaver - enzymology ; Papaver - genetics ; Papaver - metabolism ; Papaver somniferum ; Pharmaceutical sciences ; Physiological aspects ; Plant biology ; Poppies ; Pteridophyta, spermatophyta ; REPORTS ; Research ; Synthesis ; Vegetals
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Get It Now
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