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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 2012-06-29, Vol.336 (6089), p.1704-1708
    Description: Noscapine is an antitumor alkaloid from opium poppy that binds tubulin, arrests metaphase, and induces apoptosis in dividing human cells. Elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway will enable improvement in the commercial production of noscapine and related bioactive molecules. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the exclusive expression of 10 genes encoding five distinct enzyme classes in a high noscapine-producing poppy variety, HN1. Analysis of an F₂ mapping population indicated that these genes are tightly linked in HN1, and bacterial artificial chromosome sequencing confirmed that they exist as a complex gene cluster for plant alkaloids. Virus-induced gene silencing resulted in accumulation of pathway intermediates, allowing gene function to be linked to noscapine synthesis and a novel biosynthetic pathway to be proposed.
    Subject(s): Alkaloids ; Anticancer properties ; Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic - biosynthesis ; Biological and medical sciences ; Biosynthesis ; Capsules ; Classical genetics, quantitative genetics, hybrids ; Clusters ; Cough ; Enzymes ; Flowers & plants ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Gene silencing ; Genes ; Genes, Plant ; Genetic aspects ; Genetics of eukaryotes. Biological and molecular evolution ; Genomes ; Latex ; Libraries ; Low level ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Morphinans ; Multigene Family ; Narcotics ; Noscapine - metabolism ; Open reading frames ; Papaver - enzymology ; Papaver - genetics ; Papaver - metabolism ; Papaver somniferum ; Pharmaceutical sciences ; Physiological aspects ; Plant biology ; Poppies ; Pteridophyta, spermatophyta ; REPORTS ; Research ; Synthesis ; Vegetals
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant physiology (Bethesda), 2012-09-01, Vol.160 (1), p.215-225
    Description: Triacylglycerol (TAG) levels and oil bodies persist in sucrose (Suc)-rescued Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings disrupted in seed oil catabolism. This study set out to establish if TAG levels persist as a metabolically inert pool when downstream catabolism is disrupted, or if other mechanisms, such as fatty acid (FA) recycling into TAG are operating. We show that TAG composition changes significantly in Suc-rescued seedlings compared with that found in dry seeds, with 18:2 and 18:3 accumulating. However, 20:1 FA is not efficiently recycled back into TAG in young seedlings, instead partitioning into the membrane lipid fraction and diacylglycerol. In the lipolysis mutant sugar dependent1 and the β-oxidation double mutant acx1acx2 (for acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase), levels of TAG actually increased in seedlings growing on Suc. We performed a transcriptomic study and identified up-regulation of an acyltransferase gene, DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE3 (DGAT3), with homology to a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) cytosolic acyltransferase. The acyl-Coenzyme A substrate for this acyltransferase accumulates in mutants that are blocked in oil breakdown postlipolysis. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana confirmed involvement in TAG synthesis and specificity toward 18:3 and 18:2 FAs. Double-mutant analysis with the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter mutant peroxisomal ABC transporter1 indicated involvement of DGAT3 in the partitioning of 18:3 into TAG in mutant seedlings growing on Suc. Fusion of the DGAT3 protein with green fluorescent protein confirmed localization to the cytosol of N. benthamiana. This work has demonstrated active recycling of 18:2 and 18:3 FAs into TAG when seed oil breakdown is blocked in a process involving a soluble cytosolic acyltransferase.
    Subject(s): Agrobacterium tumefaciens - genetics ; Agrobacterium tumefaciens - metabolism ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Arabidopsis - enzymology ; Arabidopsis - genetics ; Arabidopsis Proteins - genetics ; Arabidopsis Proteins - metabolism ; Arachis - enzymology ; Arachis - genetics ; BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES AND MACROMOLECULAR STRUCTURES ; Biological and medical sciences ; Biosynthesis ; Cytosol - enzymology ; Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase - genetics ; Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase - metabolism ; Diglycerides ; Fatty acids ; Fatty Acids - metabolism ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Gene Expression Profiling - methods ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; Genes ; Genes, Plant ; Germination ; Lipid bodies ; Lipid Metabolism ; Lipids ; Observations ; Peroxisomes ; Peroxisomes - enzymology ; Plant lipids ; Plant Oils - metabolism ; Plant physiology and development ; Plants ; Research ; Seedlings ; Seedlings - metabolism ; Seeds ; Seeds - genetics ; Seeds - metabolism ; Sequence Homology, Amino Acid ; Sucrose - metabolism ; Tobacco - genetics ; Tobacco - metabolism ; Triglycerides ; Triglycerides - biosynthesis
    ISSN: 0032-0889
    E-ISSN: 1532-2548
    Source: American Society of Plant Biologists
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: JSTOR Ecology & Botany II
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 2012-02-08, Vol.60 (5), p.1300-1307
    Description: The aim of the present work was to establish the limiting factors affecting the biosynthesis of volatile esters present in virgin olive oil (VOO). Oil volatile fractions of the main Spanish olive cultivars, Arbequina and Picual, were analyzed. It was observed that acetate esters were the most abundant class of volatile esters in the oils, in concordance with the high content of acetyl-CoA found in olive fruit, and that the content of C6 alcohols is limited for the synthesis of volatile esters during the production of VOO. Thus, the increase of C6 alcohol availability during VOO production produced a significant increase of the corresponding ester in the oils in both cultivars at two different maturity stages. However, the increase of acetyl-CoA availability had no effect on the VOO volatile fraction. The low synthesis of these C6 alcohols seems not to be due to a shortage of precursors or cofactors for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity because their increase during VOO production had no effect on the C6 alcohol levels. The experimental findings are compatible with a deactivation of ADH activity during olive oil production in the cultivars under study. In this sense, a strong inhibition of olive ADH activity by compounds present in the different tissues of olive fruit has been observed.
    Subject(s): Biological and medical sciences ; Esters - chemistry ; Esters - metabolism ; Fat industries ; Food industries ; Fruit and vegetable industries ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Olea - chemistry ; Olea - metabolism ; Olive Oil ; Plant Oils - chemistry ; Plant Oils - metabolism ; Volatilization
    ISSN: 0021-8561
    E-ISSN: 1520-5118
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Plant physiology (Bethesda), 2012-07-03, Vol.160 (1), p.215-225
    Description: Triacylglycerol ( TAG ) levels and oil bodies persist in sucrose (Suc)-rescued Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) seedlings disrupted in seed oil catabolism. This study set out to establish if TAG levels persist as a metabolically inert pool when downstream catabolism is disrupted, or if other mechanisms, such as fatty acid ( FA ) recycling into TAG are operating. We show that TAG composition changes significantly in Suc-rescued seedlings compared with that found in dry seeds, with 18:2 and 18:3 accumulating. However, 20:1 FA is not efficiently recycled back into TAG in young seedlings, instead partitioning into the membrane lipid fraction and diacylglycerol. In the lipolysis mutant sugar dependent1 and the β-oxidation double mutant acx1acx2 (for acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase ), levels of TAG actually increased in seedlings growing on Suc. We performed a transcriptomic study and identified up-regulation of an acyltransferase gene, DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE3 ( DGAT3 ), with homology to a peanut ( Arachis hypogaea ) cytosolic acyltransferase. The acyl-Coenzyme A substrate for this acyltransferase accumulates in mutants that are blocked in oil breakdown postlipolysis. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana confirmed involvement in TAG synthesis and specificity toward 18:3 and 18:2 FAs . Double-mutant analysis with the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter mutant peroxisomal ABC transporter1 indicated involvement of DGAT3 in the partitioning of 18:3 into TAG in mutant seedlings growing on Suc. Fusion of the DGAT3 protein with green fluorescent protein confirmed localization to the cytosol of N. benthamiana . This work has demonstrated active recycling of 18:2 and 18:3 FAs into TAG when seed oil breakdown is blocked in a process involving a soluble cytosolic acyltransferase.
    Subject(s): Biochemical Processes and Macromolecular Structures
    ISSN: 0032-0889
    E-ISSN: 1532-2548
    Source: American Society of Plant Biologists
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: JSTOR Ecology & Botany II
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 2022-04-01, Vol.12 (7), p.1178
    Description: Magnetization reversal processes in the NiFe/FeMn exchange biased structures with various antiferromagnetic layer thicknesses (0-50 nm) and glass substrate temperatures (17-600 °C) during deposition were investigated in detail. Magnetic measurements were performed in the temperature range from 80 K up to 300 K. Hysteresis loop asymmetry was found at temperatures lower than 150 K for the samples with an antiferromagnetic layer thickness of more than 10 nm. The average grain size of FeMn was found to increase with the AFM layer increase, and to decrease with the substrate temperature increase. Hysteresis loop asymmetry was explained in terms of the exchange spring model in the antiferromagnetic layer.
    Subject(s): AFM grain size ; Anisotropy ; Antiferromagnetism ; Asymmetry ; Bias ; Corrosion resistance ; exchange bias ; exchange spring ; Glass substrates ; Grain size ; Growth conditions ; Hysteresis ; hysteresis loop asymmetry ; Hysteresis loops ; Iron compounds ; Magnetic measurement ; Magnetization ; Magnetization reversal ; Nickel compounds ; substrate temperature ; Substrates ; Thickness ; Thin films
    ISSN: 2079-4991
    E-ISSN: 2079-4991
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
    Source: ProQuest Central
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