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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    2011
    ISSN: 0272-4332 
    Language: English
    In: Risk analysis : an official publication of the Society for Risk Analysis, June 2011, Vol.31(6), pp.923-9
    Description: While prior literature has identified various effects of environmental policy, this note uses the example of a proposed carbon permit system to illustrate and discuss six different types of distributional effects: (1) higher prices of carbon-intensive products, (2) changes in relative returns to factors like labor, capital, and resources, (3) allocation of scarcity rents from a restricted number of permits, (4) distribution of the benefits from improvements in environmental quality, (5) temporary effects during the transition, and (6) capitalization of all those effects into prices of land, corporate stock, or house values. The note also discusses whether all six effects could be regressive, that is, whether carbon policy could place disproportionate burden on the poor.
    Subject(s): Environmental Policy
    ISSN: 0272-4332
    E-ISSN: 1539-6924
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  • 2
    In: American Journal of Agricultural Economics, January 2012, Vol.94(2), pp.347-353
    Description: We analyze both the uses side and the sources side incidence of domestic climate policy using an analytical general equilibrium model, taking into account the degree of government program indexing. When transfer programs such as Social Security are explicitly indexed to inflation, higher energy prices automatically lead to cost-of-living adjustments for recipients. We show results with no indexing, 100 percent indexing, and partial indexing based on our analysis of actual transfer programs. When households are classified by annual income, the indexing of U.S. transfers is not enough to offset the regressive uses side, but when they are classified by annual expenditures as a proxy for permanent income, transfer indexing does offset regressivity across the lowest income groups.
    Subject(s): Agriculture ; Economics;
    ISSN: 0002-9092
    E-ISSN: 1467-8276
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: American Economic Review, 2013, Vol.103(3), pp.332-337
    Description: We extend the model of Fullerton, Karney, and Baylis (2012) to explore cost-effectiveness of unilateral climate policy in the presence of leakage. We ignore the welfare gain from reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and focus on the welfare cost of the emissions tax or permit scheme. Whereas that prior paper solves for changes in emissions quantities and finds that leakage may be negative, we show here that all cases with negative leakage in that model are cases where a unilateral carbon tax results in a welfare loss. With positive leakage, however, a unilateral policy can improve welfare.
    Subject(s): Cost-Effectiveness ; Welfare Economics ; Taxes ; Carbon Emissions ; Economics;
    ISSN: 0002-8282
    E-ISSN: 19447981
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  • 4
    Article
    Article
    2010
    In: The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, 2010, Vol.10(2)
    E-ISSN: 1935-1682
    Source: Walter de Gruyter GmbH
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  • 5
    Article
    Article
    2010
    ISSN: 1935-1682 
    Language: English
    In: B.E. journal of economic analysis and policy, Dec 2010, Vol.10(2)
    Subject(s): Environmental Economics ; Climate Change ; Industrial Pollution ; Pollution Control ; Environmental Policy ; Environmental Management ; Economic Analysis ; Applied General Equilibrium Models ; Carbon Emissions ; Case Studies ; Economics
    ISSN: 1935-1682
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: ProQuest Business Collection
    Source: ProQuest Politics Collection
    Source: ProQuest Social Sciences Premium Collection
    Source: ProQuest Sociology Collection
    Source: Social Science Premium Collection
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  • 6
    In: The American economic review, 2013, Vol.103(3), p.332
    ISSN: 0002-8282
    Source: wiso Wirtschaftswissenschaften (GBI-Genios Deutsche Wirtschaftsdatenbank GmbH) 〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/wiso_logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 7
    Article
    Article
    2013
    ISSN: 0095-0696 
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, November 2013, Vol.66(3), pp.539-553
    Description: Pollution taxes are believed to burden low-income households that spend a greater than average share of income on pollution-intensive goods. Some proposals offset that effect by returning revenue to low-income workers via reduced labor tax. We build analytical general equilibrium models with both high-skilled and low-skilled labor, and we solve for the change in real net wage of each group. Decomposition shows the separate effects of the tax rebate, higher product prices, and the changes in relative wage rates. We also include numerical examples. Even though the pollution tax injures both types of labor, in most cases we find that returning all of the revenue to low-skilled workers is still not enough to offset higher product prices. Changes in relative wage rates may further hurt low-skilled labor. Protecting low-income workers is possible in this model only if they are defined as those below a relatively low wage threshold, but we discuss many possible elaborations of this model...
    Subject(s): Tax Incidence ; Distributional Effects ; Revenue Neutral Reform ; Tax Incidence ; Distributional Effects ; Revenue Neutral Reform ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    ISSN: 0095-0696
    E-ISSN: 1096-0449
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  • 8
    Article
    Article
    2014
    ISSN: 0928-7655 
    Language: English
    In: Resource and Energy Economics, January 2014, Vol.36(1), pp.6-21
    Description: One country or sector that tries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may fear that other countries or sectors will get a competitive advantage and increase emissions. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models such as Elliott et al. (2010a, 2010b) indicate that 15–25% of abatement might be offset by this “leakage.” Yet the Fullerton et al. (2012) simple two-sector analytical general equilibrium model shows an offsetting term with negative leakage. In this paper, we use a full CGE model with many countries and many goods to measure effects in a way that allows for this negative leakage term. We vary elasticities of substitution and confirm the analytical model's prediction that whether this negative leakage term offsets the positive leakage terms depends on the ability of consumers to substitute into the untaxed good relative to the ability of firms to substitute from carbon emissions into labor or capital.
    Subject(s): Climate Policy ; Greenhouse Gas Emissions ; Leakage ; Abatement Resource Effect ; Terms of Trade Effect ; F18 ; H23 ; Q27 ; Q48 ; Q54 ; Q56 ; Climate Policy ; Greenhouse Gas Emissions ; Leakage ; Abatement Resource Effect ; Terms of Trade Effect ; Economics
    ISSN: 0928-7655
    E-ISSN: 1873-0221
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: B.E. journal of economic analysis and policy, Jan 2011, Vol.10(2)
    Description: Using an analytical general equilibrium model, we find solutions for the effect of energy policy on factor prices as well as output prices. We calibrate the model to the U.S. economy, and we consider a tax on carbon dioxide. By looking at expenditure and income patterns across household groups, we quantify the uses-side and sources-side incidence of the tax. When households are categorized either by annual income or by total annual consumption as a proxy for permanent income, the uses-side incidence is regressive. This result is robust to sensitivity analysis over various parameter values. The sources-side incidence can be progressive, U-shaped, or regressive. Results on the sources side are sensitive to parameter values. Reprinted by permission of Berkeley Electronic Press
    Subject(s): Applied General Equilibrium Models ; Energy Prices ; Climate Change ; Permanent Income ; Energy Market ; Factor Prices ; Environmental Economics ; Economics
    ISSN: 1935-1682
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  • 10
    Article
    Article
    1998
    ISSN: 0028-0836 
    In: Nature, 1998, Vol.395(6701), p.433
    Description: Environmental scientists and economists have an often contentious relationship. However, many of the most pressing environmental problems can only be resolved through increased cooperation between practitioners from these different disciplines. Several of the most common myths associated with the way economists view the environment are examined. One of the most problematic myths is that economists believe that market forces will solve all environmental problems without the need for government intervention. However, these types of private markets only function well if there are no externalities, no information difficulties, no transaction costs, no taxes, and no common property. Difficulties with market solutions to market problems are examined.
    Subject(s): Economics, International ; Economics, International ; Env Management, International ; Env Management, International ; Ecology, Post-20th Century ; Ecology, Post-20th Century ; Policy And Planning, International ; Policy And Planning, International ; General ; General;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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