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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition, 29 September 2015
    Description: Chemical pleurodesis with povidone-iodine (PVI) in neonates has been first described by Brissaud et al1 in four cases of congenital chylothorax (CCT). Since this report, a few more cases of PVI pleurodesis have been reported in the literature.2–5 Adding our own experience of a fatal case of CCT with histologically proven pulmonary lymphangiectasis, we aimed to summarise the current evidence for PVI pleurodesis in case of CCT by means of a literature review.
    Subject(s): Neonatology ; Clinical Procedures ; Pharmacology ; Respiratory
    ISSN: 1359-2998
    ISSN: 13592998
    E-ISSN: 1468-2052
    E-ISSN: 14682052
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Pediatrics and neonatology, 01 April 2018, Vol.59(2), pp.184-188
    Description: Background: To evaluate the risk of RSV infection in infants and children with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) over two consecutive RSV seasons. Methods: Retrospective, single-center cohort study from southern Austria including infants with CDH born between 1993 and 2012. Infants were retrieved by searching via ICD-10 codes Q79.0 and Q79.1 and by using a local electronic database. Children were followed over 2 years of life including at least two consecutive RSV seasons (November to April). We also defined a group of hypothetical RSV infections with the following criteria: 70% of the admissions due to a respiratory infection (diagnosis of bronchiolitis and/or LRI score ≥3) during the RSV seasons over the first 2 years of life, when no test for RSV was performed. Results: Twenty-nine of 45 infants with CDH comprised the study population (6 were lost to follow-up and 10 died) of whom 9 (31%) exhibited 17 hospitalizations due to respiratory illness. Two hospitalized infants...
    Subject(s): Medicine
    ISSN: 1875-9572
    E-ISSN: 22121692
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Neonatology, February 2015, Vol.107(2), pp.100-107
    Description: Background: The fetal-to-neonatal transition is a complex process that includes changes in cardiac and respiratory systems. Objective: The aim of this study is to review the different methods of cardiocirculatory monitoring during the immediate neonatal transition period. Methods: A systematic search of PubMed and Ovid Embase was performed using the following terms: infant, newborn, newborn infant, neonate, neonates, heart, cardiac, blood pressure, haemodynamic, hemodynamics, blood circulation, circulation, echocardiography, ultrasonography, sonography, electrocardiography, ECG, oximetry, pulse, pulse oximetry, monitoring, measurement, acclimatization, adaptation, transition, after birth and delivery room. Additional articles were identified by manual search of cited references. Only human studies describing cardiocirculatory monitoring during the first 15 min after birth were included. Results: Thirteen studies were identified that described heart rate (HR). Additional five studies were identified that measured blood pressure. Four studies performed functional echocardiography during neonatal transition; two in addition to blood pressure monitoring and three in addition to HR monitoring. Conclusion: Routine HR monitoring using electrocardiography or pulse oximetry is used to evaluate adequate hemodynamic transition, and reference ranges have been established. Measuring blood pressure noninvasively though noncontinuously might be of some value in future, considering that the normative data have been established recently. Echocardiographic monitoring during the immediate transition period will improve the knowledge about cardiac function changes, but introduction in clinical routine remains questionable. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
    Subject(s): Review ; Neonate ; Transition ; Heart ; Circulation ; Heart Rate ; Blood Pressure ; Cardiac Function ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1661-7800
    E-ISSN: 1661-7819
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  • 4
    In: Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2015, Vol.2015, 6 pages
    Description: Laser acupuncture bears a potential risk for the skin surface, especially in neonates whose skin has histological and physiological peculiarities. We evaluated thermal changes of skin temperature in neonates during laser acupuncture by using a thermal camera (Flir i5, Flir Systems Inc., Portland, USA). Laserneedles (Laserneedle GmbH, Glienicke/Nordbahn, Germany) were fixed to the skin at Large Intestine 4 (LI 4, ), bilaterally. Before application of laser acupuncture (685 nm, 15 mW, 500 m), as well as after 1, 5, and 10 min, thermographic pictures of both hands were taken. The measuring was carried out on the 23rd day after birth (20 neonates, mean postmenstrual gestational age 38 + 2, mean weight 2604 g). Compared to the initial temperature of 34.2°C on the right hand, the skin temperature had increased to 35.3°C () after 5 min and up to 36.1°C () after 10 min of stimulation. Equally, on the left hand, an increase of the skin temperature from 34.5°C to 35.9°C () and 35.9°C () was measured. The highest measured skin temperature after 10 min of stimulation amounted to 38.7°C, without any clinically visible changes on the skin surface.
    Subject(s): Newborn Infants -- Physiological Aspects ; Acupuncture -- Physiological Aspects ; Skin -- Physiological Aspects;
    ISSN: 1741-427X
    E-ISSN: 1741-4288
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Twin research and human genetics : the official journal of the International Society for Twin Studies, December 2011, Vol.14(6), pp.573-9
    Description: To examine the effect of twin-to-twin delivery time (TTDT) on neonatal outcome. We evaluated twin deliveries 〉34 weeks of gestation. Twin pregnancies with both twins delivered by cesarean section and pregnancies with antenatal complications were excluded. We analyzed TTDT and neonatal outcomes of the second twin (umbilical arterial pH value (pH(art)), Apgar scores at 1, 5 and 10 minutes, need for intensive care). The study population was divided into two homogenous groups based on the mode of delivery: (A) vertex presentation and vaginal delivery of both twins, (B) vertex presentation and vaginal or vaginal operative delivery of twin I, breech or transverse presentation and vaginal breech delivery or cesarean section (CS) of twin II. A total of 207 twin pairs were included in our study. In Group A (n = 151) there were no significant correlations between TTDT and pH(art) or Apgar scores at 1,5 and 10 minutes of twin II (p = .156; 0.861; 0.151 and 0.384, respectively). In Group B (n = 56), the mean pH(art) of twin II was inversely correlated to TTDT, but not significantly (p = .417). TTDT was inversely related to 1-min and 5-min Apgar scores, but not significantly (p = .330; p = .138, respectively). The 10-min Apgar score showed no correlation with TTDT (p = .638). Increasing TTDT was not associated with adverse fetal outcome. Expectant management of the second twin appears possible and elapsed time alone does not appear to be an indication for intervention.
    Subject(s): Pregnancy Outcome ; Pregnancy, Twin ; Delivery, Obstetric -- Methods
    ISSN: 1832-4274
    E-ISSN: 18392628
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Neonatology, 2017, Vol.111(1), pp.55-60
    Description: Substantial haemodynamic changes occur during the first minutes after birth. Currently, only heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation are routinely used to monitor haemodynamic transition after birth. The aim of the present study was to continuously assess haemodynamic changes during transition in term infants for the first time by using electrical velocimetry (EV), a new method of non-invasive cardiac output monitoring (NICOM), based on impedance cardiography technology. In this prospective observational study, term neonates delivered by elective caesarean section underwent NICOM measurements within the first 15 min after birth. The beat-to-beat measurement over a 10-second period was used to calculate cardiac output (CO) for each minute after birth. The data of CO were only accepted when the signal quality index (SQI) remained 〉80% during the measurement period of 10 s. 100 term neonates underwent 1,500 NICOM measurements. 1,143 (76.2%) measurements were excluded because of a SQI 〈80%. HR and CO showed a trend to increase within the first minutes, and decreased significantly from minute 3 (HR) and 4 (CO), until minute 12 and 10, respectively. Stroke volume remained stable during the observation period. The present study was the first using EV for NICOM during the transition period in a larger cohort of newborn infants. Results of NICOM were similar to available echocardiography data. The possibility of NICOM offers continuous CO measurement. The present study supports the idea that CO is closely related to HR in newborn infants.
    Subject(s): Cardiography, Impedance -- Methods ; Heart Rate -- Physiology ; Monitoring, Physiologic -- Instrumentation ; Stroke Volume -- Physiology
    ISSN: 1661-7800
    E-ISSN: 1661-7819
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  • 7
    In: British Journal of Nutrition, 2010, Vol.103(12), pp.1830-1835
    Description: The objective was to examine the effect of BMI on the incidence of various infectious diseases in institutionalised, geriatric subjects. In a retrospective cohort study we analysed medical records of 619 patients aged 75 years and older (mean age 87·6 ( sd 6·4) years) who were treated in a geriatric hospital in Vienna, Austria. The total incidence rate of infection in this population was 0·80 per person-year. The most frequent infections were urinary tract infections (0·30 per person-year), followed by infections of the lower respiratory tract (0·19 per person-year), diarrhoea (0·12 per person-year) and other infections (0·20 per person-year). Incidence risk ratios were obtained by a multiplicative Poisson regression model. There was a J-shaped curve in the incidence of infections recorded by BMI with a nadir at 27–28 kg/m 2 . Compared with the reference group with a BMI of 24–27·9 kg/m 2 , subjects with a lower BMI had a higher incidence rate of infections. The incidence risk ratios, adjusted for sex, age and chronic diseases, were 1·62 (95 % CI 1·21, 2·17) for those with a BMI of 〈 20 kg/m 2 and 1·84 (95 % CI 1·40, 2·42) for those with a BMI of 20–23·9 kg/m 2 . However, also patients with a BMI of 28 kg/m 2 and above had a higher incidence rate of infections, with an incidence risk ratio of 1·54 (95 % CI 1·07, 2·22). These results show that both underweight and obesity are associated with a higher risk of infections in institutionalised geriatric patients.
    Subject(s): Dietary Surveys And Nutritional Epidemiology; Malnutrition; Obesity; Pneumonia; Urinary Tract Infections; Underweight
    ISSN: 0007-1145
    E-ISSN: 1475-2662
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 15 February 2017, Vol.198(4), pp.1685-1695
    Description: More than 40% of allergic patients suffer from grass pollen allergy. Phl p 1, the major timothy grass pollen allergen, belongs to the cross-reactive group 1 grass pollen allergens that are thought to initiate allergic sensitization to grass pollen. Repeated allergen encounter boosts allergen-specific IgE production and enhances clinical sensitivity in patients. To investigate immunological mechanisms underlying the boosting of allergen-specific secondary IgE Ab responses and the allergen epitopes involved, a murine model for Phl p 1 was established. A B cell epitope-derived peptide of Phl p 1 devoid of allergen-specific T cell epitopes, as recognized by BALB/c mice, was fused to an allergen-unrelated carrier in the form of a recombinant fusion protein and used for sensitization. This fusion protein allowed the induction of allergen-specific IgE Ab responses without allergen-specific T cell help. Allergen-specific Ab responses were subsequently boosted with molecules containing the B cell...
    Subject(s): Allergens -- Immunology ; Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte -- Immunology ; Immunoglobulin E -- Biosynthesis ; Peptide Fragments -- Immunology ; Plant Proteins -- Immunology ; Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal -- Immunology ; T-Lymphocytes -- Immunology
    ISSN: 0022-1767
    E-ISSN: 1550-6606
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  • 9
    In: Health & Social Work, 2015, Vol. 40(2), pp.e51-e58
    Description: Previous research has shown health behavior, socioeconomic status (SES), and environmental factors to be risk factors for obesity. Social capital has been defined as current or possible social resources a person has access to. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social capital and obesity. An adjusted binary logistic regression model was used to test the association of social capital with obesity. Data came from a subsample of the Austrian Health Interview Survey (2006–2007) with 9,615 participants. In a model adjusted for age, income, education, migration status, physical activity, and eating habits, the odds ratio of being obese was 1.47 (95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.17–1.86) for women with the lowest social capital compared with women in the highest social capital quintile. For men, the corresponding value was 1.58 (95% CI = 1.19–2.11). Results show that low social capital is associated with a high risk of being obese, even after adjustment of the SES and lifestyle factors. This fact could have an impact on prevention and on the treatment of obesity. Policies to enhance the improvement of neighborhoods and to support individuals social capital should be implemented.
    Subject(s): Exercise ; Gender Differences ; Obesity ; Social Capital
    ISSN: 0360-7283
    E-ISSN: 1545-6854
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  • 10
    In: The European Journal of Public Health, 2014, Vol. 24(5), pp.856-861
    Description: Background : The purpose of this study was to determine whether psychosocial work demands have a different impact on sickness absence and presenteeism in countries with a high vs. countries with a low Human Development Index (HDI). Methods : This article is based on an analysis of the fifth European Working Conditions Survey. We investigated single items as well as complex constructs and indices. Sickness absence and presenteeism were measured as outcome variables. Following the model of Karasek and Theorell, we measured the HDI at the macro level and psychosocial job demands at the micro level as independent variables. Results : The multivariate multilevel analysis reveals a significant association between the HDI and the number of days recorded for sickness absence. In countries with a higher HDI, people report a lower number of days with sickness absence. Higher psychosocial job demands are associated with poorer health. There are significant cross-level interaction effects between psychosocial job demands and the HDI for these associations. Psychosocial job demands are stronger associated with sickness absence and presenteeism in high-HDI than in low-HDI countries. Conclusions and implications for public health: We argue that Public Health Actions that are connected to work characteristics need to take into consideration the level of HDI of the countries. In low- and high-HDI countries, different actions could be necessary to reach the needs of the working population.
    Subject(s): Public Health;
    ISSN: 1101-1262
    E-ISSN: 1464-360X
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