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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of experimental botany, 2012-01-01, Vol.63 (8), p.3271-3277
    Description: Cambial injury has been reported to alter wood structure in broad-leaved trees. However, the duration and extension of associated anatomical changes have rarely been analysed thoroughly. A total of 18 young European ash ( L.) trees injured on the stem by a spring flood were sampled with the aim of comparing earlywood vessels and rays formed prior to and after the scarring event. Anatomical and hydraulic parameters were measured in five successive rings over one-quarter of the stem circumference. The results demonstrate that mechanical damage induces a decrease in vessel lumen size (up to 77%) and an increase in vessel number (up to 475%) and ray number (up to 115%). The presence of more earlywood vessels and rays was observed over at least three years after stem scarring. By contrast, abnormally narrow earlywood vessels mainly developed in the first ring formed after the event, increasing the thickness-to-span ratio of vessels by 94% and reducing both xylem relative conductivity and the index for xylem vulnerability to cavitation by 54% and 32%, respectively. These vessels accumulated in radial groups in a 30° sector immediately adjacent to the wound, raising the vessel grouping index by 28%. The wound-induced anatomical changes in wood structure express the functional need of trees to improve xylem hydraulic safety and mechanical strength at the expense of water transport. Xylem hydraulic efficiency was restored in one year, while xylem mechanical reinforcement and resistance to cavitation and decay lasted over several years.
    Subject(s): Trees ; Callus ; Xylem ; Wood ; Hydraulics ; Plant tissues ; Earlywood ; Wood structure ; Anatomy ; Growth rings ; RESEARCH PAPER ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Biological and medical sciences ; Plant physiology and development ; Forestry ; Organ Size ; Wood - anatomy & histology ; Analysis of Variance ; Time Factors ; Cambium - anatomy & histology ; Trees - anatomy & histology
    ISSN: 0022-0957
    E-ISSN: 1460-2431
    Source: JSTOR Ecology & Botany II
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Oxford Journals 2016 Current and Archive A-Z Collection
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    2012
    ISSN: 0028-646X 
    Language: English
    In: The New phytologist, 2012-09-01, Vol.195 (4), p.734-736
    Subject(s): Trees ; Climate change ; Xylem ; Hydraulics ; Meetings ; Wood structure ; Cavitation flow ; Plants ; Anatomy ; Ecophysiology ; Growth rings ; xylem ; acclimation ; scales ; intra‐specific variability ; adaptation ; plasticity ; wood anatomy ; climate change ; Carbon - metabolism ; Climate ; Xylem - physiology ; Biological Transport ; Models, Biological ; Xylem - anatomy & histology ; Water - metabolism ; Global temperature changes
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Trees (Berlin, West), 2013-06, Vol.27 (3), p.485-496
    Description: Thanks to acclimation, trees overcome environmental changes and endure for centuries. The anatomy of water conducting cells is an important factor determining plant success. Forming cells are coupled with the environment and their properties are naturally archived in the wood. Its variability across tree rings can thus provide a retrospective of plant’s hydraulic adjustments. In this work, we measured lumen and wall thickness of tracheids along tree-rings to explore how trees regulate their conducting system under variable plant-water conditions. Tracheids were measured along 51 dated rings of five mature Larix decidua and Picea abies trees from a low elevation site. Anatomical-based chronologies of annual growth performance, hydraulic conductance and safety, and construction costs were built. Similarities among chronologies and the relation to monthly climate data were analyzed. Most parameters displayed high annual plasticity which was partly coherent among trees and mostly associated with radial growth. In general, summer drought reduced growth and potential hydraulic conductivity of the forming ring, and increased hydraulic safety and construction costs. To evaluate the functional relevance of the annual acclimation, the conductivity of the forming ring relative to the entire sapwood needs to be assessed.
    Subject(s): Life Sciences ; Plant Pathology ; Plant Anatomy/Development ; Tree-ring anatomy ; Larix decidua ; Forestry ; Plant-water relations ; Agriculture ; Plant Physiology ; Plant Sciences ; Picea abies ; Tracheid-cell chronologies ; Climate ; Analysis ; Hydrogeology
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: ProQuest Central
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Polar biology, 2013-09, Vol.36 (9), p.1305-1318
    Description: Arctic ecosystems are important carbon sinks. Increasing temperatures in these regions might stimulate soil carbon release. Evidence suggests that deciduous shrubs might counteract these carbon losses because they positively respond to increasing temperature, but their role in ecosystem carbon budgets remains uncertain. Many studies dealing with large-scale tundra greening and carbon sequestration in relation to increasing temperature have usually based their estimations on the aboveground components, but very little is known about belowground growth. In this context, annual rings can provide a retrospective insight into intra-plant temperature responses and seasonal growth allocation. This study presents a 70-year-long and annually resolved intra-plant analysis of ring width and missing ring distribution from a comprehensive serial sectioning, including 142 cross-sections and the measurements of 471 radii from ten Salix polaris Wahlenb. dwarf shrubs growing in the high Arctic on Svalbard. Results indicate a high intra-plant and inter-annual growth variation, characterized by a high proportion of partially (13.6 %) and completely (11.2 %) missing rings. The annual growth and the frequency of completely missing rings were evenly distributed inside the plant and mainly controlled by summer temperatures. Radial growth in the belowground parts appeared to be proportionally higher during long and warm summers and lower in cold early growing seasons than in the aboveground parts. The results reveal a diverging allocation between aboveground and belowground growth depending on the climatic conditions. Favorable years promoted root allocation since root radial growth occurs after aboveground growth. The observed belowground responses suggest that shrub carbon allocation might be higher than estimated only from the aboveground compartments.
    Subject(s): Life Sciences ; Serial sectioning ; Microbiology ; Zoology ; Growth allocation ; Missing ring ; Intra-plant growth ; Annual rings ; Ecology ; Oceanography ; Arctic ; Plant Sciences ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Biological and medical sciences ; Synecology ; Animal and plant ecology ; Particular ecosystems ; Animal, plant and microbial ecology ; Soils ; Analysis ; Carbon content
    ISSN: 0722-4060
    E-ISSN: 1432-2056
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Ecography (Copenhagen), 2020-09, Vol.43 (9), p.1386-1399
    Description: Tree growth is an indicator of tree vitality and its temporal variability is linked to species resilience to environmental changes. Second‐order statistics that quantify the cross‐scale temporal variability of ecophysiological time series (statistical memory) could provide novel insights into species resilience. Species with high statistical memory in their tree growth may be more affected by disturbances, resulting in lower overall resilience and higher vulnerability to environmental changes. Here, we assessed the statistical memory, as quantified with the decay in standard deviation with increasing time scale, in tree water use and growth of co‐occurring European larch Larix decidua and Norway spruce Picea abies along an elevational gradient in the Swiss Alps using measurements of stem radius changes, sap flow and tree‐ring widths. Local‐scale interspecific differences between the two conifers were further explored at the European scale using data from the International Tree‐Ring Data Bank. Across the analysed elevational gradient, tree water use showed steeper variability decay with increasing time scale than tree growth, with no significant interspecific differences, highlighting stronger statistical memory in tree growth processes. Moreover, Norway spruce displayed slower decay in growth variability with increasing time scale (higher statistical memory) than European larch; a pattern that was also consistent at the European scale. The higher statistical memory in tree growth of Norway spruce in comparison to European larch is indicative of lower resilience of the former in comparison to the latter, and could potentially explain the occurrence of European larch at higher elevations at the Alpine treeline. Single metrics of resilience cannot often summarize the multifaceted aspects of ecosystem functioning, thus, second‐order statistics that quantify the strength of statistical memory in ecophysiological time series could complement existing resilience indicators, facilitating the assessment of how environmental changes impact forest growth trajectories and ecosystem services.
    Subject(s): temporal variability ; tree hydraulics and growth ; Picea abies (L) Karst ; forest resilience ; Larix decidua Mill ; tree-ring widths ; Water ; Environmental aspects ; Water use ; Growth ; Analysis
    ISSN: 0906-7590
    E-ISSN: 1600-0587
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The New phytologist, 2010-01-01, Vol.185 (1), p.42-53
    Description: Variability in xylem anatomy is of interest to plant scientists because of the role water transport plays in plant performance and survival. Insights into plant adjustments to changing environmental conditions have mainly been obtained through structural and functional comparative studies between taxa or within taxa on contrasting sites or along environmental gradients. Yet, a gap exists regarding the study of hydraulic adjustments in response to environmental changes over the life-times of plants. In trees, dated tree-ring series are often exploited to reconstruct dynamics in ecological conditions, and recent work in which wood-anatomical variables have been used in dendrochronology has produced promising results. Environmental signals identified in water-conducting cells carry novel information reflecting changes in regional conditions and are mostly related to short, sub-annual intervals. Although the idea of investigating environmental signals through wood anatomical time series goes back to the 1960s, it is only recently that low-cost computerized image-analysis systems have enabled increased scientific output in this field. We believe that the study of tree-ring anatomy is emerging as a promising approach in tree biology and climate change research, particularly if complemented by physiological and ecological studies. This contribution presents the rationale, the potential, and the methodological challenges of this innovative approach.
    Subject(s): Trees ; Research Reviews ; Xylem ; Wood ; Tracheids ; Hydraulics ; Wood structure ; Plants ; Anatomy ; Growth rings ; Dendrochronology ; fagus-sylvatica l ; water transport ; image-analysis ; earlywood vessels ; hydraulic architecture ; phenotypic plasticity ; scots pine ; wood anatomy ; pseudotsuga-menziesii ; summer temperature ; dendrochronology ; tree‐ring anatomy ; efficiency versus safety trade‐off ; cell chronologies ; xylem hydraulic responses ; Adaptation, Physiological ; Plant Transpiration - physiology ; Xylem - physiology ; Trees - physiology ; Climate Change ; Xylem - anatomy & histology ; Trees - anatomy & histology ; Water - physiology
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The New phytologist, 2014-09-01, Vol.203 (4), p.1231-1241
    Description: Conifer tree rings are generally composed of large, thin-walled cells of light earlywood followed by narrow, thick-walled cells of dense latewood. Yet, how wood formation processes and the associated kinetics create this typical pattern remains poorly understood. We monitored tree-ring formation weekly over 3 yr in 45 trees of three conifer species in France. Data were used to model cell development kinetics, and to attribute the relative importance of the duration and rate of cell enlargement and cell wall deposition on tree-ring structure. Cell enlargement duration contributed to 75% of changes in cell diameter along the tree rings. Remarkably, the amount of wall material per cell was quite constant along the rings. Consequently, and in contrast with widespread belief, changes in cell wall thickness were not principally attributed to the duration and rate of wall deposition (33%), but rather to the changes in cell size (67%). Cell enlargement duration, as the main driver of cell size and wall thickness, contributed to 56% of wood density variation along the rings. This mechanistic framework now forms the basis for unraveling how environmental stresses trigger deviations (e.g. false rings) from the normal tree-ring structure.
    Subject(s): Full papers ; Cell growth ; Tracheids ; Cell walls ; Conifers ; Pine trees ; Kinetics ; Wood density ; Growth rings ; Modeling ; Latewood ; xylogenesis ; cambial activity ; conifers ; generalized additive models (GAMs) ; tree‐ring structure ; wood density ; kinetics of tracheid development ; quantitative wood anatomy ; Wood - anatomy & histology ; Models, Biological ; Xylem - growth & development ; Trees - growth & development ; France ; Wood - growth & development ; Tracheophyta - growth & development ; Trees - anatomy & histology ; Tracheophyta - anatomy & histology ; Life Sciences ; Agricultural sciences ; Vegetal Biology
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Oecologia, 2013-12-01, Vol.173 (4), p.1587-1600
    Description: Environment and genetics combine to influence tree growth and should therefore be jointly considered when evaluating forest responses in a warming climate. Here, we combine dendroclimatology and population genetic approaches with the aim of attributing climatic influences on growth of European larch (Larix decidua) and Norway spruce (Picea abies). Increment cores and genomic DNA samples were collected from populations along a ~900-m elevational transect where the air temperature gradient encompasses a ~4 °C temperature difference. We found that low genetic differentiation among populations indicates gene flow is high, suggesting that migration rate is high enough to counteract the selective pressures of local environmental variation. We observed lower growth rates towards higher elevations and a transition from negative to positive correlations with growing season temperature upward along the elevational transect. With increasing elevation there was also a clear increase in the explained variance of growth due to summer temperatures. Comparisons between climate sensitivity patterns observed along this elevational transect with those from Larix and Picea sites distributed across the Alps reveal good agreement, and suggest that tree-ring width (TRW) variations are more climate-driven than genetics-driven at regional and larger scales. We conclude that elevational transects are an extremely valuable platform for understanding climatic-driven changes over time and can be especially powerful when working within an assessed genetic framework.
    Subject(s): Growing seasons ; Climate change ; Dendroclimatology ; Gene flow ; Tree growth ; Genetic variation ; Correlations ; Climate models ; GLOBAL CHANGE ECOLOGY ; Population genetics ; Growth rings ; Life Sciences ; Alps ; Climate impact ; Forest productivity ; Ecology ; Plant Sciences ; Dendrochronology ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; General forest ecology ; General aspects ; Animal, plant and microbial ecology ; Forestry ; Biological and medical sciences ; Animal and plant ecology ; Generalities. Production, biomass. Quality of wood and forest products. General forest ecology ; Genetics, Population ; Climate ; Temperature ; Gene Flow ; Trees - growth & development ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Switzerland ; Larix - genetics ; Picea - growth & development ; Picea - genetics ; Larix - growth & development ; Seasons ; DNA, Plant - genetics ; Altitude ; Trees - genetics ; Climate sensitivity ; Growth ; Analysis ; DNA ; Archaeological dating ; Genetics
    ISSN: 0029-8549
    E-ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: JSTOR Ecology & Botany II
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The New phytologist, 2017-11-01, Vol.216 (3), p.728-740
    Description: Interannual variability of wood density – an important plant functional trait and environmental proxy – in conifers is poorly understood. We therefore explored the anatomical basis of density. We hypothesized that earlywood density is determined by tracheid size and latewood density by wall dimensions, reflecting their different functional tasks. To determine general patterns of variability, density parameters from 27 species and 349 sites across the Northern Hemisphere were correlated to tree-ring width parameters and local climate. We performed the same analyses with density and width derived from anatomical data comprising two species and eight sites. The contributions of tracheid size and wall dimensions to density were disentangled with sensitivity analyses. Notably, correlations between density and width shifted from negative to positive moving from earlywood to latewood. Temperature responses of density varied intraseasonally in strength and sign. The sensitivity analyses revealed tracheid size as the main determinant of earlywood density, while wall dimensions become more influential for latewood density. Our novel approach of integrating detailed anatomical data with large-scale tree-ring data allowed us to contribute to an improved understanding of interannual variations of conifer growth and to illustrate how conifers balance investments in the competing xylem functions of hydraulics and mechanical support.
    Subject(s): Full papers ; ring width ; tracheid anatomy ; dendroclimatology ; tree‐ring network ; xylem function ; wood density ; Cell Wall ; Climate ; Temperature ; Wood - anatomy & histology ; Coniferophyta - cytology ; Europe ; Wood - cytology ; Cell Size ; Plant Cells ; Specific gravity ; Paleoclimatology ; Analysis ; tree-ring network ; time-series ; tree-ring width ; picea-abies ; climate ; Climate Research ; radial ; Klimatforskning ; pseudotsuga-menziesii mirb ; temperature ; growth ; douglas-fir ; carbon allocation ; Plant Sciences
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: The New phytologist, 2014-05-01, Vol.202 (3), p.772-783
    Description: For accurate interpretation of oxygen isotopes in tree rings (δ O), it is necessary to disentangle the mechanisms underlying the variations in the tree's internal water cycle and to understand the transfer of source versus leaf water δ O to phloem sugars and stem wood. We studied the seasonal transfer of oxygen isotopes from precipitation and soil water through the xylem, needles and phloem to the tree rings of at two alpine sites in the Lötschental (Switzerland). Weekly resolved δ O records of precipitation, soil water, xylem and needle water, phloem organic matter and tree rings were developed. Week-to-week variations in needle-water O enrichment were strongly controlled by weather conditions during the growing season. These short-term variations were, however, not significantly fingerprinted in tree-ring δ O. Instead, seasonal trends in tree-ring δ O predominantly mirrored trends in the source water, including recent precipitation and soil water pools. Modelling results support these findings: seasonal tree-ring δ O variations are captured best when the week-to-week variations of the leaf water signal are suppressed. Our results suggest that climate signals in tree-ring δ O variations should be strongest at temperate sites with humid conditions and precipitation maxima during the growing season.
    Subject(s): Growing seasons ; Full papers ; Dendroclimatology ; Precipitation ; Oxygen ; Phloem ; Xylem ; Soil water ; Timberlines ; Growth rings ; Oxygen isotopes ; Larix decidua ; xylem water ; phloem ; tree line ; dendroecology ; leaf water enrichment ; tree physiology ; oxygen isotopes ; Trees - metabolism ; Temperature ; Water - metabolism ; Larix - metabolism ; Calibration ; Switzerland ; Vapor Pressure ; Oxygen Isotopes ; Rain ; Plant Leaves - metabolism ; Xylem - metabolism ; Models, Biological ; Humidity ; Soil - chemistry ; Seasons ; Precipitation (Meteorology) ; Life Sciences ; Vegetal Biology
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
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