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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 2018-06, Vol.28 (4), p.1-5
    Description: In order to achieve higher magnetic fields and/or larger magnet apertures, next generation accelerator magnets will be based on high-J c Nb 3 Sn Rutherford cables. For the HighLuminosity LHC project, CERN is manufacturing dipole and quadrupole magnets based on state-of-the-art high-J c Nb 3 Sn superconductor. Furthermore, a design study has been launched to develop 16 T Nb 3 Sn dipole magnets in the framework of the Future Circular Collider (FCC). These magnets will require prestresses significantly larger than 100 MPa. In particular, the FCC 16 T dipoles are presently designed assuming a stress on the superconductor of up to 200 MPa. Because Nb 3 Sn has extreme sensitivity to strain, these high values of stress are a significant challenge for the superconductor and the design of the magnets. In the framework of the European Circular Energy-Frontier Collider Study project (EuroCirCol), a conceptual design study for FCC, CERN has launched a campaign of critical current measurements of Nb 3 Sn Rutherford cables under transverse loads up to 200 MPa. These measurements are carried out on 2-m-long samples in the FRESCA test station, where background magnetic fields up to 10 T can be applied. In this paper, we report and discuss the results obtained on 18-strand 10-mm-wide cable samples based on a 1-mm-diameter RRP wire.
    Subject(s): Superconducting cables ; Magnetic field measurement ; Nb〈inline-formula xmlns:ali="http://www.niso.org/schemas/ali/1.0/" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"〉 〈tex-math notation="LaTeX"〉 _{3}〈/tex-math〉 〈/inline-formula〉Sn ; Critical current density (superconductivity) ; Critical current ; Current measurement ; Magnetomechanical effects ; Niobium-tin ; Superconducting magnets ; rutherford cable ; transversal pressure
    ISSN: 1051-8223
    E-ISSN: 1558-2515
    Source: IEEE Electronic Library (IEL)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 2019-08, Vol.29 (5), p.1-5
    Description: The goal of this study is to propose an alternative FCC quadrupole design where the risk from both their fabrication and their operation in the machine is reduced compared to previous analysis. Therefore, the number of coil layers has been reduced from four to two and the load-line margin has been increased from 14% to 20% compared to previous investigations ("Design of a Nb3Sn 400 T/m quadrupole for the future circular collider," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 28, no. 3, p. 4004905, Apr. 2018). Indeed, the idea is to only challenge the ~5000 FCC main dipoles and stay at a relatively low complexity for the ~700 FCC main quadrupoles so they have a limiting impact on the machine operation and reliability. An exploration of the strand diameter (0.7-0.9 mm), the cable size (40-60 strands), as well as the protection delay (30-40 ms) is performed on two-dimensional (2-D) magnetic designs of the FCC main quadrupole. A discussion on cable windability allows for the selection of one design generating 367 T/m. The design is mechanically constrained with a conventional collar structure leading to collaring peak stress of 115 MPa. A single coupling-loss-induced quench unit ensures a safe magnet operation with a 300 K hotspot temperature.
    Subject(s): Superconducting cables ; CLIQ protection system ; collar structure ; FCC ; Superconducting magnets ; Apertures ; Conductors ; Delays ; Nb〈inline-formula xmlns:ali="http://www.niso.org/schemas/ali/1.0/" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"〉 〈tex-math notation="LaTeX"〉 _{3}〈/tex-math〉 〈/inline-formula〉Sn coil ; Saturation magnetization
    ISSN: 1051-8223
    E-ISSN: 1558-2515
    Source: IEEE Electronic Library (IEL)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 2019-08, Vol.29 (5), p.1-6
    Description: High field superconducting magnets for particle accelerators often exhibit premature quenches. Once a normal zone is generated within the conductor, the quench may propagate causing temperature and resistive voltage rise along the coil. The resulting thermal gradients can potentially cause new peak stresses that might exceed the tolerable limits, degrading the conductor. The computation of the strain state in the coils during quench then becomes of paramount importance for magnet design, and requires a complete three-dimensional (3-D) analysis of quench phenomena. The objective of this paper is to present the first multiphysics modeling activities towards a new full 3-D methodology for the analysis of magnet mechanics during quench. As a first step, a 3-D thermal-electric finite element model of a Nb 3 Sn superconducting coil is developed and explained here. The model uses direct coupled-field elements to solve the system of thermal and electrical equations. A solving algorithm has also been implemented in order to investigate the physics behind quench transients. The output from this model, built in ANSYS APDL, can be easily coupled in a later stage to a mechanical model in order to estimate the strain state in the coil windings. A very good agreement has been observed between the numerical results and experimental tests performed in individual superconducting cables and real superconducting magnets.
    Subject(s): Superconducting cables ; Three-dimensional displays ; Power cables ; Computational modeling ; finite element model ; superconducting coil ; Superconducting magnets ; Conductors ; Quench ; Finite element analysis ; thermal-electric
    ISSN: 1051-8223
    E-ISSN: 1558-2515
    Source: IEEE Electronic Library (IEL)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 2019-08, Vol.29 (5), p.1-9
    Description: Among the components to be upgraded in LHC interaction regions for the HiLumi-LHC projects are the inner triplet (or low-β) quadrupole magnets, denoted as Q1, Q2a, Q2b, and Q3. The new quadrupole magnets, called MQXF, are based on Nb3Sn superconducting magnet technology and operate at a gradient of 132.6 T/m, with a conductor peak field of 11.4 T. Q1 and Q3 are composed of magnets (called MQXFA) fabricated by the U.S. Accelerator Upgrade Project (AUP), with a magnetic length of 4.2 m. Q2a and Q2b consist of magnets (called MQXFB) fabricated by CERN, with a magnetic length of 7.15 m. After a series of short models, constructed in close collaboration by the US and CERN, the development program is now entering in the prototyping phase, with CERN on one side and BNL, FNAL, and LBNL on the other side assembling and testing their first long magnets We provide in this paper a description of the status of the MQXF program, with a summary of the short model test results, including quench performance, and mechanics, and an update on the fabrication, assembly, and test of the long prototypes.
    Subject(s): Coils ; Fabrication ; Critical current density (superconductivity) ; Large Hadron Collider ; Nb3Sn magnets ; Prototypes ; Superconducting magnets ; High Luminosity LHC ; Cable insulation ; Interaction Regions ; Low-β Quadrupoles ; PARTICLE ACCELERATORS
    ISSN: 1051-8223
    E-ISSN: 1558-2515
    Source: IEEE Electronic Library (IEL)
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  • 5
    Article
    Article
    2017
    ISSN: 1051-8223 
    Language: English
    In: IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 2017-06, Vol.27 (4), p.1-5
    Description: Low resistance electrical splices between rare-earth barium copper oxide (REBCO) coated conductors are key technology for high temperature superconductor magnets. A splice must satisfy two main requirements: 1) reproducible low electrical resistance; and 2) high mechanical strength. Systematic measurements of the splices are required because the internal interface resistances of the REBCO-coated conductor (e.g., REBCO/Ag interface) are difficult to be predicted. In this paper, the electrical resistance of lap joints made from REBCO tapes produced by different manufacturers has been experimentally investigated at 4.2 K and in fields of up to 12.4 T. The same sample splices were also measured at 77 K and in self-field in order to define a lift factor correlating joints resistances at 77 and 4.2 K. As expected, a strong effect on the conductor orientation in the splice was found.
    Subject(s): Resistance ; REBCO coated conductor ; High-temperature superconductors ; Magnetic field measurement ; Conductors ; Contact resistance ; splices ; HTS tapes ; Electrical resistance measurement ; Copper ; Substrates ; superconducting joints
    ISSN: 1051-8223
    E-ISSN: 1558-2515
    Source: IEEE Electronic Library (IEL)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Superconductor science & technology, 2013-06, Vol.26 (6), p.65014
    Description: In the quest for high-current high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cables suitable for application to high-field magnets, the Roebel cable made from (RE)-Ba2Cu3O7−δ (RE for rare earth: Y, Sm, Gd, Dy or a mixture of them) coated conductors is identified as meeting the requirements for high-current capability, compactness, transposition and good mechanical properties. In accelerator high-field magnets, Roebel cables will be operated in liquid helium at 4.2 K or lower temperatures. Previous papers have reported on the electrical characterization of Roebel cables at 77 K, but measurements at 4.2 K have not been published yet. This paper summarizes the results of the critical current measurements performed at CERN on (RE)-Ba2Cu3O7−δ Roebel cables at 4.2 K and in external fields of up to 9.6 T.
    Subject(s): Mechanical and acoustical properties ; Mechanical and acoustical properties of condensed matter ; Cuprates superconductors (high tc and insulating parent compounds) ; Magnetic properties and materials ; Exact sciences and technology ; Condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties ; Superconductivity ; Physical properties of thin films, nonelectronic ; Condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties ; Surfaces and interfaces; thin films and whiskers (structure and nonelectronic properties) ; Physics ; Studies of specific magnetic materials ; Engineering Sciences ; Electric power
    ISSN: 0953-2048
    E-ISSN: 1361-6668
    Source: IOPscience extra
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 2007-06, Vol.17 (2), p.1263-1268
    Description: During operation of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, heat will be generated inside the coils of its superconducting magnets as a consequence of ramping of magnetic field, and of the interaction of lost beam particles with the magnet mass. Heat has to be transferred from the conductor into the He II coolant and removed from the magnet environment. During the LHC R&D stage, this transfer has been extensively studied on simulated coil segments at CEA/Saclay, and by analyzing dynamic behavior of short model magnets at CERN. Owing to the importance of efficient cooling for the design of future superconducting accelerator magnets, study of heat transfer has been restored at CERN and in frame of the Next European Dipole Collaboration. The article features two recently performed works: 1) Attempt to analyse archived high ramp rate quench data of 1-m-long LHC model dipole magnets of the 2nd generation. 2) Development of a method for direct measurement of heat transfer on segments of production LHC dipole magnet coils.
    Subject(s): Particle beams ; Cooling ; Large Hadron Collider ; Colliding beam devices ; He II ; Superconducting magnets ; Conductors ; Magnetic analysis ; Helium ; Superconducting coils ; Magnetic fields ; high ramp rate quenching ; Heat transfer ; Electrical engineering. Electrical power engineering ; Cyclic accelerators and storage rings ; Exact sciences and technology ; Electronics ; Design. Technologies. Operation analysis. Testing ; Physics ; Semiconductor electronics. Microelectronics. Optoelectronics. Solid state devices ; Integrated circuits ; Experimental methods and instrumentation for elementary-particle and nuclear physics ; Applied sciences ; Electromagnets ; Nuclear physics ; Various equipment and components ; Thermal properties ; Particle accelerators ; Electric properties
    ISSN: 1051-8223
    E-ISSN: 1558-2515
    Source: IEEE Electronic Library (IEL)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 2009-06, Vol.19 (3), p.2253-2256
    Description: As part of the Iseult/Inumac project, the development of a 500 MHz whole body MRI magnet has been launched in 2006. This magnet with a central field of 11.7 T in a warm bore of 900 mm has outstanding specifications with respect to usual MRI systems. During the design process of this magnet, an innovative winding method using double pancakes has been made up which allows to reach the MRI required field homogeneity, i.e. 0.5 ppm peak-to-peak in a 22 cm diameter sphere. As the field homogeneity is a key issue of this project, a reduced scale prototype magnet has been designed in order to demonstrate the magnet manufacturing feasibility at the required accuracy, and to analyse the field quality of such a design taking into account the manufacturing errors. Dedicated tooling machines with on line measurement controls have been built with the objective of having a full geometrical description of each turn of each pancake. In addition to these toolings, an algorithm has been implemented in order to estimate the effect of the winding deformation, compared to the ideal pancake, on the field homogeneity. These results will be used to estimate the prototype bare magnet homogeneity before its cryogenic test.
    Subject(s): Process design ; MRI ; Superconducting magnets ; Iron ; Boring ; Superconducting coils ; high field ; Magnetic field measurement ; Double pancake ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Prototypes ; winding process ; Manufacturing ; Electrical engineering. Electrical power engineering ; Applied sciences ; Electromagnets ; Various equipment and components ; Exact sciences and technology ; Design and construction ; Magnetic fields ; Analysis
    ISSN: 1051-8223
    E-ISSN: 1558-2515
    Source: IEEE Electronic Library (IEL)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 2017-06, Vol.27 (4), p.1-5
    Description: The quadrupole and dipole magnets for the high-luminosity large hadron collider (HL-LHC) upgrade will be based on Nb 3 Sn Rutherford cables that operate at 1.9 K and experience magnetic fields of up to about 12 T. An important step in the design of these magnets is the development of the high-aspect-ratio Nb 3 Sn cables to achieve the nominal field with sufficient margin. The strong plastic deformation of unreacted Nb 3 Sn strands during the Rutherford cabling process may induce non-negligible I c and Residual Resistivity Ratio degradation. In this paper, the cabling degradation is investigated as a function of the cable geometry for both Powder-in-Tube and Restack Rod Process conductors. Based on this analysis, new baseline geometries for both 11 T and quadrupole magnets of HL-LHC are proposed.
    Subject(s): Integrated circuits ; Superconducting cables ; Degradation ; Geometry ; Rutherford cable ; High-luminosity large hadron collider (HL-LHC) ; Superconducting magnets ; Conductors ; 〈named-content xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:ali="http://www.niso.org/schemas/ali/1.0/" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" content-type="math" xlink:type="simple"〉 〈inline-formula〉 〈tex-math notation="LaTeX"〉 {\rm Nb}_{3}{\rm Sn}〈/tex-math〉 〈/inline-formula〉 〈/named-content〉 ; Compaction
    ISSN: 1051-8223
    E-ISSN: 1558-2515
    Source: IEEE Electronic Library (IEL)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 2018-06, Vol.28 (4), p.1-5
    Description: The quadrupole and dipole magnets for the LHC high luminosity upgrade will be based on Nb3Sn Rutherford cables that operate at 1.9 K and experience magnetic fields larger than 12 T. The Nb3Sn Rutherford cables are assembled via a planetary machine able to produce the trapezoidal geometry with the required mechanical tolerances (about ±0.01 mm) and low critical current degradation (〈;5%). One of the critical aspects of Rutherford cable production is the control of the tension that is applied to each strand of the cable during the cabling process. If the strands are too loose during cabling, strands cross-over can be induced with a consequent locally high mechanical deformation and potential performance degradation. In this paper, the processes implemented at CERN for preventing and detecting strands cross-over during cables production are presented. The effect of cross-over on the electrical performance of a restack rod process Rutherford cable is also reported and discussed.
    Subject(s): Superconducting cables ; Integrated circuits ; Rutherford cable ; Mechanical cables ; Production ; Niobium-tin ; Nb〈sub xmlns:ali="http://www.niso.org/schemas/ali/1.0/" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"〉3 Sn ; Superconducting magnets ; Strain ; HL-LHC
    ISSN: 1051-8223
    E-ISSN: 1558-2515
    Source: IEEE Electronic Library (IEL)
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