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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Social indicators research, 2019-07-15, Vol.144 (1), p.337-378
    Description: Income and hours worked are insufficient to measure job quality yet these domains dominate literature aimed at understanding its relationship with wellbeing. More so, literature considering job quality in any manner has an overwhelming tendency to look at advanced economies, despite “decent work” being a key policy aim of many agencies and organisations working in emerging countries. This article tests the validity of the concept of job quality as a determinant of welfare in the developing world by generating four six-component indices using bespoke and unique data collected in Kyrgyzstan. Cross-sectional analysis of the performance of these indices against ones comprising only income and hours worked show no relationship between job quality and wellbeing in the latter case but a strong and positive relationship in the former. Jointly, this shows both the importance of more suitably measuring job quality in all contexts and the importance of policy objectives that aim to stimulate better, as well as more, jobs in the developing world.
    Subject(s): Decent jobs ; Developing countries--LDCs ; Development economics ; Economic aspects ; Economic forecasting ; Employment ; Human Geography ; I31 ; Income ; J01 ; J81 ; Job quality ; Kyrgyzstan ; Labour economics ; Microeconomics ; Multidimensional indices ; O1 ; Public Health ; Quality ; Quality of life ; Quality of Life Research ; Social aspects ; Social research ; Social Sciences ; Social Sciences - Other Topics ; Social Sciences, Interdisciplinary ; Sociology ; Sociology, general ; Subjective wellbeing ; Weighting ; Welfare ; Well being ; Working hours
    ISSN: 0303-8300
    E-ISSN: 1573-0921
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Web of Science - Social Sciences Citation Index – 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
    Source: Sociological Abstracts
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Conflict management and peace science, 2020-09, Vol.37 (5), p.536-558
    Description: Efforts to evaluate third-party peacebuilding interventions are welcome but many studies rely on experimental approaches that might be at odds with the theories that underpin the discipline. Rigorously evaluating interventions ill-suited to experimental analyses is just as important, however, especially when programmes adopt novel approaches. In this article, we employ an instrumental variables approach to evaluate one such intervention – the EU Programme for Peace and Reconciliation (PEACE II). Following contemporary peacebuilding theories, PEACE II disseminated funds to grassroots organizations via unique intermediate funding bodies and an innovative open competition. Splitting Northern Ireland into 582 wards, we merge panel data on individuals’ perceptions of neighbourhood quality with PEACE II’s accounts. One-stage analyses show that individuals in treatment regions report significantly elevated perceptions. Two-stage approaches, accounting for biases arising from the rollout method, show no significant relationship. Post-estimation analyses imply that funding did not reach areas with the poorest observable indicators. We thus remain agnostic on the effectiveness of the funded projects but conclude that, despite solid theoretical foundations, weaknesses in the application of these theories hampered potential positive impacts. Future interventions can learn from this and should ensure stronger ties between the theoretical base and how these theories are applied to funding disbursement. JEL Codes: O18; F35
    ISSN: 0738-8942
    E-ISSN: 1549-9219
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of development studies, 2019-12-13, Vol.55 (sup1), p.55-74
    Description: A recent strand of aid programming aims to develop household assets by removing the stresses associated with meeting basic nutritional needs. In this study, the authors posit that such nutrition-sensitive programmes can reduce malnourishment by encouraging further investment in diet. To test this hypothesis, they analyse the World Food Programme's (WFP) Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation (PRRO), in Niger, a conflict-affected, low-income country with entrenched food insecurity. Under the PRRO, a household falls into one of three groups at end line: receiving no assistance, receiving nutrition-specific assistance, or receiving nutrition-specific assistance and nutrition-sensitive food for assets-based programming. If provided alone, food aid has no nutritional impact relative to receiving no assistance. However, the study observes pronounced positive effects if food aid is paired with assets-based programming. The authors conclude, first, that certain forms of food aid function well in complex, insecure environments; second, that assets-based programmes deliver positive nutritional spillovers; and, third, that there are theoretical grounds to believe that assets-based nutrition-sensitive programmes interact positively with nutrition-specific programming.
    Subject(s): Assets ; Assistance ; Business & Economics ; Development Studies ; Diet ; Economics ; Falls ; Food ; Food security ; Humanitarian aid ; Insecurity ; Intervention ; Low income groups ; National security ; Nutrition ; Relief ; Social Sciences
    ISSN: 0022-0388
    E-ISSN: 1743-9140
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: Taylor & Francis Open Access
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Web of Science - Social Sciences Citation Index – 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
    Source: Sociological Abstracts
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Terrorism and political violence, 2017-03-04, Vol.29 (2), p.296-322
    Description: Quantitative literature discussing violence in civil conflicts tends towards a typical model of engagement between governments and revolutionaries. Whilst recent work has shown the significant impact of multiple anti-government groups, a further feature remains understudied-the role of pro-state militants. This article theorizes a "violence premium" when such groups arise, which leads to all connected groups devoting greater energy to conflict than they would in isolation. Employing duration analysis and data from The Troubles in Northern Ireland, where Republicans act as revolutionary insurgents, Loyalists as pro-state militants, and the British Army as government forces, the violence premium is empirically confirmed. Both Loyalists and Republicans deviate from their underlying strategies to attack more frequently when violence by their rivals increases, with Republicans and the British Army engaging in the same way. An extended analysis, accounting for the status of the victim, shows that the violence premium resulting from interaction between Loyalists and Republicans targeted only the civilian population of Northern Ireland, elucidating the sectarian component of The Troubles. These results show that including all conflict parties and considering how they are linked are important features in studies that aim to determine the net level of violence in civil conflicts.
    Subject(s): Army ; civil conflict ; Civil war ; Conflict ; conflict micro-dynamics ; counter-insurgency ; Energy ; Insurgency ; Loyalists ; Militancy ; Northern Ireland ; Political parties ; Quantitative methods ; Rebellions ; Republicans ; Sectarianism ; The Troubles ; Violence
    ISSN: 0954-6553
    E-ISSN: 1556-1836
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Taylor & Francis:Master (3349 titles)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The World Bank research observer, 2020-09-30
    Description: AbstractIn the last decade, well over $10 billion has been spent on employment programs designed to contribute to peace and stability. Despite the outlay, whether these programs perform, and how they do so, remain open questions. This study conducts three reviews to derive the status quo of knowledge. First, it draws on academic literature on the microfoundations of instability to distill testable theories of how employment programs could affect stability at the micro level. Second, it analyses academic and grey literature that directly evaluates the impacts of employment programs on peace-related outcomes. Third, it conducts a systematic review of program-based learning from over 400 interventions. This study finds good theoretical reasons to believe that employment programs could contribute to peace. However, only very limited evidence exists on overall impacts on peace or on the pathways underlying the theories of change. At the program level, the review finds strong evidence that contributions to peace and stability are often simply assumed to have occurred. This provides a major challenge for the justification of continued spending on jobs for peace programs. Instead, systematic and rigorous learning on the impacts of jobs for peace programs needs to be scaled up urgently.
    ISSN: 0257-3032
    E-ISSN: 1564-6971
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: World Bank e-Library
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  • 6
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    2014
    ISBN: 1783508272  ISBN: 9781783508273 
    ISSN: 1572-8323 
    Language: English
    In: Understanding Terrorism, 2014-06-21, Vol.22, p.69-95
    Description: Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study is to define the interactions that determine how secure a society is from terrorism and to propose a method for measuring the threat of terrorism in an objective and spatio-temporally comparable manner. Methodology/approach Game-theoretic analysis of the determinants of security and discussion of how to implement these interactions into a measure of security. Findings We show that governments concerned with popularity have an incentive to over-invest in security and that, in certain situations, this leads to a deterioration in net security position. Our discussion provides an implementable means for measuring the levels of threat and protection, as well as individuals' perceptions of both, which we propose can be combined into an objective and scientific measure of security. Research limitations/implications The implication for researchers is the suggestion that efficiency, as well as scale of counter-terrorism, is important in determining a country's overall security position. Furthermore, we suggest that individuals' perceptions are at least as important in determining suitable counter-terrorism policy as objective measures of protection and threat. The limitations of this research are found in the vast data requirements that any attempt to measure security will need. Originality/value of the chapter We propose the first method for objectively measuring the net security position of a country, using economic and econometric means.
    Subject(s): Politics ; Public Policy & Environmental Management
    ISBN: 1783508272
    ISBN: 9781783508273
    ISSN: 1572-8323
    E-ISSN: 1572-8323
    Source: eBook Academic Collection - Worldwide
    Source: Ebook Central - Academic Complete
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  • 7
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    2016
    ISBN: 0199378290  ISBN: 9780199378296 
    Language: English
    In: Economic Aspects of Genocides, Other Mass Atrocities, and Their Preventions, 2016-07-01
    Description: The end of the so-called pax narcótica and the escalation of violence in Mexico’s drug war since 2007 has had devastating consequences for the civilian population. This chapter begins with a short history of the conflict, a discussion of the government’s strategy to fight drug trafficking organizations, an overview of current levels of violence, and evidence of violence targeting noncombatant civilians. The chapter then describes previous attempts to explicate the elevated homicide rates since 2007 and offers formal models that try to explain the behavior of organized crime groups. It then builds a cooperative game to explain first why the pax narcótica may have broken down, and second why that breakdown entailed so many civilian casualties.
    ISBN: 0199378290
    ISBN: 9780199378296
    Source: Oxford Scholarship Online
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Description: Provider: Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek - Institution: Deutsche Nationalbibliothek - Data provided by Europeana Collections- All metadata published by Europeana are available free of restriction under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. However, Europeana requests that you actively acknowledge and give attribution to all metadata sources including Europeana
    Subject(s): Wirtschaft
    Source: Europeana Collections
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 2016-02-02, Vol.315 (5), p.469-479
    Description: IMPORTANCE: Dupilumab has demonstrated efficacy in patients with asthma and atopic dermatitis, which are both type 2 helper T-cell–mediated diseases. OBJECTIVE: To assess inhibition of interleukins 4 and 13 with dupilumab in patients with chronic sinusitis and nasal polyposis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group study conducted at 13 sites in the United States and Europe between August 2013 and August 2014 in 60 adults with chronic sinusitis and nasal polyposis refractory to intranasal corticosteroids with 16 weeks of follow-up. INTERVENTIONS: Subcutaneous dupilumab (a 600 mg loading dose followed by 300 mg weekly; n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) plus mometasone furoate nasal spray for 16 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Change in endoscopic nasal polyp score (range, 0-8; higher scores indicate worse status) at 16 weeks (primary end point). Secondary end points included Lund-Mackay computed tomography (CT) score (range, 0-24; higher scores indicate worse status), 22-item SinoNasal Outcome Test score (range, 0-110; higher scores indicating worse quality of life; minimal clinically important difference ≥8.90), sense of smell assessed using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) score (range, 0-40; higher scores indicate better status), symptoms, and safety. RESULTS: Among the 60 patients who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 48.4 years [9.4 years]; 34 men [56.7%]; 35 with comorbid asthma), 51 completed the study. The least squares (LS) mean change in nasal polyp score was −0.3 (95% CI, −1.0 to 0.4) with placebo and −1.9 (95% CI, −2.5 to −1.2) with dupilumab (LS mean difference, −1.6 [95% CI, −2.4 to −0.7]; P 〈 .001). The LS mean difference between the 2 groups for the Lund-Mackay CT total score was −8.8 (95% CI, −11.1 to −6.6; P 〈 .001). Significant improvements with dupilumab were also observed for the 22-item SinoNasal Outcome Test (LS mean difference between groups, −18.1 [95% CI, −25.6 to −10.6]; P 〈 .001) and sense of smell assessed by UPSIT (LS mean difference, 14.8 [95% CI, 10.9 to 18.7]; P 〈 .001). The most common adverse events were nasopharyngitis (33% in the placebo group vs 47% in the dupilumab group), injection site reactions (7% vs 40%, respectively), and headache (17% vs 20%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among adults with symptomatic chronic sinusitis and nasal polyposis refractory to intranasal corticosteroids, the addition of subcutaneous dupilumab to mometasone furoate nasal spray compared with mometasone alone reduced endoscopic nasal polyp burden after 16 weeks. Further studies are needed to assess longer treatment duration, larger samples, and direct comparison with other medications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01920893
    Subject(s): Abridged Index Medicus ; Adult ; Aged ; Anti-Inflammatory Agents - administration & dosage ; Anti-Inflammatory Agents - adverse effects ; Antibodies, Monoclonal - administration & dosage ; Antibodies, Monoclonal - adverse effects ; Asthma - drug therapy ; Care and treatment ; Chronic Disease ; Dosage and administration ; Double-Blind Method ; Drug Administration Schedule ; Female ; Humans ; Injections, Subcutaneous ; Interleukin-13 - antagonists & inhibitors ; Interleukin-4 ; Interleukin-4 - antagonists & inhibitors ; Least-Squares Analysis ; Male ; Medicin och hälsovetenskap ; Middle Aged ; Mometasone ; Mometasone Furoate - administration & dosage ; Nasal Polyps - drug therapy ; Nasal Sprays ; Quality of Life ; Sinusitis ; Sinusitis - complications ; Sinusitis - drug therapy
    ISSN: 0098-7484
    ISSN: 1538-3598
    E-ISSN: 1538-3598
    Source: American Medical Association Journals Backfile (through 1997)
    Source: SWEPUB Freely available online
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: American journal of epidemiology, 2013, Vol.178 (9), p.1505-1512
    Description: The quantification of transmissibility during epidemics is essential to designing and adjusting public health responses. Transmissibility can be measured by the reproduction number R, the average number of secondary cases caused by an infected individual. Several methods have been proposed to estimate R over the course of an epidemic; however, they are usually difficult to implement for people without a strong background in statistical modeling. Here, we present a ready-to-use tool for estimating R from incidence time series, which is implemented in popular software including Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington). This tool produces novel, statistically robust analytical estimates of R and incorporates uncertainty in the distribution of the serial interval (the time between the onset of symptoms in a primary case and the onset of symptoms in secondary cases). We applied the method to 5 historical outbreaks; the resulting estimates of R are consistent with those presented in the literature. This tool should help epidemiologists quantify temporal changes in the transmission intensity of future epidemics by using surveillance data.
    Subject(s): Biological and medical sciences ; Disease transmission ; Epidemics ; Epidemics - statistics & numerical data ; Epidemiology ; Evaluation ; General aspects ; Human viral diseases ; Humans ; Incidence ; Infectious diseases ; influenza ; Management ; measles ; Medical sciences ; Miscellaneous ; Models, Statistical ; Planning ; Practice of Epidemiology ; Public health ; Public health movements ; Public health. Hygiene ; Public health. Hygiene-occupational medicine ; reproduction number ; Research ; SARS ; smallpox ; Software ; Technology application ; Time Factors ; United Kingdom ; Usage ; Viral diseases ; Viral diseases of the respiratory system and ent viral diseases ; Viral diseases with cutaneous or mucosal lesions and viral diseases of the eye ; Virus Diseases - epidemiology ; Virus Diseases - transmission
    ISSN: 0002-9262
    E-ISSN: 1476-6256
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Oxford Journals 2016 Current and Archive A-Z Collection
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