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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Hydrology and earth system sciences, 2018-01-25, Vol.22 (1), p.655-672
    Description: Many multi-site stochastic models have been proposed for the generation of daily precipitation, but they generally focus on the reproduction of low to high precipitation amounts at the stations concerned. This paper proposes significant extensions to the multi-site daily precipitation model introduced by Wilks, with the aim of reproducing the statistical features of extremely rare events (in terms of frequency and magnitude) at different temporal and spatial scales. In particular, the first extended version integrates heavy-tailed distributions, spatial tail dependence, and temporal dependence in order to obtain a robust and appropriate representation of the most extreme precipitation fields. A second version enhances the first version using a disaggregation method. The performance of these models is compared at different temporal and spatial scales on a large region covering approximately half of Switzerland. While daily extremes are adequately reproduced at the stations by all models, including the benchmark Wilks version, extreme precipitation amounts at larger temporal scales (e.g., 3-day amounts) are clearly underestimated when temporal dependence is ignored.
    Subject(s): Stochastic analysis ; Usage ; Models ; Precipitation (Meteorology) ; Extreme weather ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 1607-7938
    ISSN: 1027-5606
    E-ISSN: 1607-7938
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Water resources research, 2007-09-05, Vol.43 (9), p.W09401-n/a
    Description: Metaelliptical copulas are introduced as a flexible tool for modeling multivariate data in hydrology. The properties of this broad class of dependence functions are reviewed, along with associated rank‐based procedures for copula parameter estimation and goodness‐of‐fit testing. A new graphical diagnostic tool is also proposed for selecting an appropriate metaelliptical copula. Peak, volume, and duration of the annual spring flood for the Romaine River (Québec, Canada) are used for illustration purposes.
    Subject(s): Hydrology ; Estimation and forecasting ; Floods ; Stochastic hydrology ; frequency analysis ; metaelliptical class ; copula
    ISSN: 0043-1397
    E-ISSN: 1944-7973
    Source: Wiley Online Library All Backfiles
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: EBSCOhost EJS
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Water resources research, 2002-12-19, Vol.38 (12), p.1307-43-7
    Description: On the basis of the Neyman‐Scott process a model is proposed to generate rainfall at two sites simultaneously. This model takes into account the correlation, which is produced by generating bivariate correlated variates. The cross correlation between the sites has been computed in order to estimate the parameters. Finally, the model is validated for three pairs of stations situated in the Swiss Plateau region.
    Subject(s): Hydrology ; Precipitation ; Floods ; Stochastic processes ; multisite model ; Neyman‐Scott model ; rainfall generation ; Poisson process ; bivariate generation
    ISSN: 0043-1397
    E-ISSN: 1944-7973
    Source: Wiley Online Library All Backfiles
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: EBSCOhost EJS
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Water resources research, 2008-03-29, Vol.44 (3), p.W03433-n/a
    Description: A classical way to model rainfall is to use a Poisson process. Authors generally employed cluster of rectangular pulses to reproduce the hierarchical structure of rainfall storms. Although independence between cell intensity and duration turned out to be a nonrealistic assumption, only a few models link these variables. In this paper, a Neyman‐Scott cluster process considering dependence between cell depth and duration is developed. We introduce this link with a cubic copula. Copulas are multivariate distributions modeling the dependence structure between variables, preserving the marginal distributions. Thanks to this flexibility, we are able to introduce a global concept of dependence between cell depth and duration. We derive the aggregated moments (first‐, second‐, and third‐order moments) from the new model for several families of polynomial copulas and perform an application on Belgium and American data.
    Subject(s): Hydrology ; Precipitation ; Persistence, memory, correlations, clustering ; Mathematical Geophysics ; Modeling ; Stochastic processes ; dependence ; rainfall modeling ; extreme values ; point process
    ISSN: 0043-1397
    E-ISSN: 1944-7973
    Source: Wiley Online Library All Backfiles
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: EBSCOhost EJS
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Clinical and experimental allergy, 2013-07, Vol.43 (7), p.811-822
    Description: Summary Background The majority of fish‐allergic patients are sensitized to parvalbumin, known to be the cause of important IgE cross‐reactivity among fish species. Little is known about the importance of fish allergens other than parvalbumin. Objective The aim of this study was to characterize hitherto undefined fish allergens in three commonly consumed fish species, cod, salmon and tuna, and to evaluate their importance for in vitro IgE‐diagnosis in addition to parvalbumin and fish gelatin. Methods Sixty‐two patients were diagnosed by clinical history, skin prick tests and specific IgE to fish extracts. Two new fish allergens from cod, salmon and tuna were identified by microsequencing. These proteins were characterized by immunoblot, ELISA and mediator release assay. Purified parvalbumin, enolase, aldolase and fish gelatin were used for quantification of specific IgE in ELISA. Results Parvalbumin and two other allergens of 50 and 40 kDa were detected in IgE‐immunoblots of cod, salmon and tuna extracts by most patient sera. The 50 and 40 kDa proteins were identified as beta‐enolase and fructose‐bisphosphate aldolase A respectively. Both purified enzymes showed allergenic activity in the mediator release assay. Indeed, 72.6% of the patients were sensitized to parvalbumin, 20% of these had specific IgE to salmon parvalbumin only. IgE to enolases were found in 62.9% (0.5–95.0 kUA/L), to aldolases in 50.0% (0.4‐26.0 kUA/L) and to fish gelatin in 19.3% (0.4–20.0 kUA/L) of the patients. Inter‐species cross‐reactivity, even though limited, was found for enolases and aldolases by IgE‐inhibition ELISA. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Fish enolase and aldolase have been identified as important new fish allergens. In fish allergy diagnosis, IgE to enolase and aldolase are especially relevant when IgE to parvalbumin are absent.
    Subject(s): allergen ; tuna ; enolase ; parvalbumin ; salmon ; cod ; aldolase ; fish gelatin ; fish allergy diagnosis ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Child, Preschool ; Food Hypersensitivity - blood ; Male ; Immunoglobulin E - blood ; Food Hypersensitivity - immunology ; Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase - chemistry ; Immunoglobulin E - immunology ; Allergens - immunology ; Allergens - chemistry ; Phosphopyruvate Hydratase - chemistry ; Adult ; Female ; Child ; Gadus morhua ; Fish Products - analysis ; Fish Proteins - chemistry ; Fish Proteins - immunology ; Parvalbumins - chemistry ; Salmon ; Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase - immunology ; Cross Reactions - immunology ; Phosphopyruvate Hydratase - immunology ; Parvalbumins - immunology ; Animals ; Tuna ; Adolescent ; Enzymes ; Allergy ; Allergens ; Usage ; Fishes ; Immunoglobulin E ; Diagnosis ; Allergic reaction ; Fructose ; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0954-7894
    E-ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Hydrology and earth system sciences, 2019-01-08, Vol.23 (1), p.107-124
    Description: Floods often affect not only a single location, but also a whole region. Flood frequency analysis should therefore be undertaken at a regional scale which requires the considerations of the dependence of events at different locations. This dependence is often neglected even though its consideration is essential to derive reliable flood estimates. A model used in regional multivariate frequency analysis should ideally consider the dependence of events at multiple sites which might show dependence in the lower and/or upper tail of the distribution. We here seek to propose a simple model that on the one hand considers this dependence with respect to the network structure of the region and on the other hand allows for the simulation of stochastic event sets at both gauged and ungauged locations. The new Fisher copula model is used for representing the spatial dependence of flood events in the nested Thur catchment in Switzerland. Flood event samples generated for the gauged stations using the Fisher copula are compared to samples generated by other dependence models allowing for modeling of multivariate data including elliptical copulas, R-vine copulas, and max-stable models. The comparison of the dependence structures of the generated samples shows that the Fisher copula is a suitable model for capturing the spatial dependence in the data. We therefore use the copula in a way such that it can be used in an interpolation context to simulate event sets comprising gauged and ungauged locations. The spatial event sets generated using the Fisher copula well capture the general dependence structure in the data and the upper tail dependence, which is of particular interest when looking at extreme flood events and when extrapolating to higher return periods. The Fisher copula was for a medium-sized catchment found to be a suitable model for the stochastic simulation of flood event sets at multiple gauged and ungauged locations.
    Subject(s): Hydrology ; Models ; Flood forecasting ; Research ; Analysis
    ISSN: 1607-7938
    ISSN: 1027-5606
    E-ISSN: 1607-7938
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Hydrology and earth system sciences, 2018-01-12, Vol.22 (1), p.265-286
    Description: Statistical downscaling models (SDMs) are often used to produce local weather scenarios from large-scale atmospheric information. SDMs include transfer functions which are based on a statistical link identified from observations between local weather and a set of large-scale predictors. As physical processes driving surface weather vary in time, the most relevant predictors and the regression link are likely to vary in time too. This is well known for precipitation for instance and the link is thus often estimated after some seasonal stratification of the data. In this study, we present a two-stage analog/regression model where the regression link is estimated from atmospheric analogs of the current prediction day. Atmospheric analogs are identified from fields of geopotential heights at 1000 and 500 hPa. For the regression stage, two generalized linear models are further used to model the probability of precipitation occurrence and the distribution of non-zero precipitation amounts, respectively. The two-stage model is evaluated for the probabilistic prediction of small-scale precipitation over France. It noticeably improves the skill of the prediction for both precipitation occurrence and amount. As the analog days vary from one prediction day to another, the atmospheric predictors selected in the regression stage and the value of the corresponding regression coefficients can vary from one prediction day to another. The model allows thus for a day-to-day adaptive and tailored downscaling. It can also reveal specific predictors for peculiar and non-frequent weather configurations.
    Subject(s): Weather ; Models ; Precipitation (Meteorology) ; Analysis ; Hydrology ; Earth Sciences ; Sciences of the Universe ; Environmental Sciences ; Global Changes
    ISSN: 1607-7938
    ISSN: 1027-5606
    E-ISSN: 1607-7938
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Allergy (Copenhagen), 2014-10, Vol.69 (10), p.1420-1423
    Description: Nine cases of diclofenac hypersensitivity recorded by the Allergy Vigilance Network in France from 2002 to 2012 were studied. Data from history, symptoms, skin tests, basophil activation tests, and oral challenge (OC) were recorded. Grade 3 severe anaphylactic reactions occurred in seven cases of nine. IgE‐dependent anaphylaxis was confirmed in six cases: positive intradermal tests (n = 4), a syndromic reaction during skin tests (n = 1), and one case with grade 1 reaction and negative skin tests had an anaphylactic shock to the OC. A nonimmune reaction was suspected in one case. An IgE‐dependent mechanism may be the predominant cause of adverse reactions to diclofenac. Allergy skin tests must be carried out sequentially at the recommended concentrations. BATs may be helpful because they can support the diagnosis of anaphylaxis. Given the risks of a direct challenge to diclofenac, OC to aspirin should be performed first to exclude a nonimmunologic hypersensitivity to NSAIDs. Tests for specific IgEs to most frequently used NSAIDs such as diclofenac and ibuprofen are urgently needed.
    Subject(s): anaphylaxis ; basophil ; drug allergy ; diclofenac ; skin test ; Diclofenac - adverse effects ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal - immunology ; Male ; Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal - adverse effects ; Immunoglobulin E - immunology ; Drug Hypersensitivity - immunology ; Anaphylaxis - immunology ; Female ; Aged ; Diclofenac - immunology ; France ; Immunoglobulin E ; Anaphylaxis ; Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0105-4538
    E-ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Oncogene, 2010-07-08, Vol.29 (27), p.3964-3976
    Description: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) signalling pathway is essential for metabolism, cell growth and survival. It induces expression of the mitochondrial pyrimidine nucleotide carrier 1 (PNC1) in transformed cells, but the consequences of this for cell phenotype are unknown. Here we show that PNC1 is necessary to maintain mitochondrial function by controlling mitochondrial DNA replication and the ratio of transcription of mitochondrial genes relative to nuclear genes. PNC1 suppression causes reduced oxidative phosphorylation and leakage of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which activates the AMPK-PGC1alpha signalling pathway and promotes mitochondrial biogenesis. Overexpression of PNC1 suppresses mitochondrial biogenesis. Suppression of PNC1 causes a profound ROS-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereas overexpression of PNC1 suppresses both basal EMT and induction of EMT by TGF-beta. Overall, our findings indicate that PNC1 is essential for mitochondria maintenance and suggest that its induction by IGF-I facilitates cell growth whereas protecting cells from an ROS-promoted differentiation programme that arises from mitochondrial dysfunction.
    Subject(s): Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Biological and medical sciences ; Cell physiology ; Molecular and cellular biology ; Cell transformation and carcinogenesis. Action of oncogenes and antioncogenes ; Neoplasms - metabolism ; RNA, Small Interfering - genetics ; Reactive Oxygen Species - metabolism ; Humans ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Mitochondrial Proteins - genetics ; Adenosine Triphosphate - biosynthesis ; MAP Kinase Signaling System ; Cell Nucleus - metabolism ; Cell Respiration ; Neoplasms - genetics ; Mitochondrial Proteins - metabolism ; Mitochondrial Proteins - deficiency ; DNA, Mitochondrial - biosynthesis ; Neoplasm Invasiveness ; DNA Replication ; Epithelial Cells - pathology ; Mitochondria - metabolism ; Mitochondria - pathology ; Nucleotide Transport Proteins - metabolism ; Phenotype ; Animals ; Glycolysis ; Nucleotide Transport Proteins - genetics ; HeLa Cells ; Neoplasms - pathology ; Mesoderm - pathology ; Mitochondria ; Mitochondrial biogenesis ; Pyrimidine nucleotides ; Physiological aspects ; Cellular signal transduction ; Genetic aspects ; Research ; Health aspects ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0950-9232
    E-ISSN: 1476-5594
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 10
    Article
    Article
    2001
    ISSN: 0002-9327  ISSN: 1080-6377 
    Language: English
    In: American journal of mathematics, 2001-12-01, Vol.123 (6), p.1135-1169
    Description: We classify bimeromorphic self-maps of compact Kähler surfaces X in terms of their actions on cohomology. We observe that the growth rate of is invariant under bimeromorphic conjugacy, and that by conjugating one can always arrange that . We show that the sequence can be bounded, grow linearly, grow quadratically, or grow exponentially. In the first three cases, we show that after conjugating, f is an automorphism virtually isotopic to the identity, f preserves a rational fibration, or f preserves an elliptic fibration, respectively. In the last case, we show that there is a unique (up to scaling) expanding eigenvector for f*, that is nef, and that f is bimeromorphically conjugate to an automorphism if and only if = 0. We go on in this case to construct a dynamically natural positive current representing , and we study the growth rate of periodic orbits of f. We conclude by illustrating our results with a particular family of examples.
    Subject(s): Integers ; Algebra ; Maps ; Mathematical theorems ; Coordinate systems ; Polynomials ; Mathematical surfaces ; Entropy ; Automorphisms ; Morphisms (Mathematics) ; Surfaces, Algebraic ; Biholomorphic mappings ; Surfaces ; Research ; Mathematics ; Mathematical models
    ISSN: 0002-9327
    ISSN: 1080-6377
    E-ISSN: 1080-6377
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences I
    Source: Project MUSE - Premium Collection
    Source: JSTOR Early Journal Content
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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