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  • 1
    In: Journal of Avian Biology, January 2015, Vol.46(1), pp.81-88
    Description: Climate and landscape change are expected to significantly affect trophic interactions, which will especially harm top predators such as the golden eagle . Availability of optimal prey is recognized to influence reproductive success of raptors on a regional scale. For the golden eagle, medium‐sized prey species between 0.5 and 5 kg are widely considered to be optimal prey during the breeding season, whereas smaller and larger species are deemed as energetically sub‐optimal. However, knowledge about the effects of optimal prey availability is still scarce on larger scales. To decrease this apparent knowledge gap, we combined biogeographical information on range margins with information about the foraging behaviour and reproductive success of golden eagles from 67 studies spanning the Northern Hemisphere. We hypothesized that availability of optimal prey will affect foraging behaviour and breeding success and, thus, distribution patterns of the golden eagle not only on a local but also on a continental scale. We correlated the diet breadth quantifying foraging generalism, breeding success and proportions of small ( 5 kg) prey species within the diet with the minimum distance of the examined eagles to the actual species distribution boundary. Closer to the range edge, we observed decreased proportions of medium‐sized prey species and decreasing breeding success of golden eagles. Diet breadth as well as proportions of small and large‐sized prey species increased, however, towards the range edge. Thus, availability of optimal‐sized prey species seems to be a crucial driver of foraging behaviour, breeding success and distribution of golden eagles on a continental scale. However, underlying effects of landscape characteristics and human influence on optimal prey availability has to be investigated in further large‐scale studies to fully understand the major threats facing the golden eagle and possibly other large terrestrial birds of prey.
    ISSN: 0908-8857
    E-ISSN: 1600-048X
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Avian Biology, 01/2015, Vol.46(1), pp.81-88
    Description: Climate and landscape change are expected to significantly affect trophic interactions, which will especially harm top predators such as the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos. Availability of optimal prey is recognized to influence reproductive success of raptors on a regional scale. For the golden eagle, medium‐sized prey species between 0.5 and 5 kg are widely considered to be optimal prey during the breeding season, whereas smaller and larger species are deemed as energetically sub‐optimal. However, knowledge about the effects of optimal prey availability is still scarce on larger scales. To decrease this apparent knowledge gap, we combined biogeographical information on range margins with information about the foraging behaviour and reproductive success of golden eagles from 67 studies spanning the Northern Hemisphere. We hypothesized that availability of optimal prey will affect foraging behaviour and breeding success and, thus, distribution patterns of the golden eagle not only on a local but also on a continental scale. We correlated the diet breadth quantifying foraging generalism, breeding success and proportions of small ( 5 kg) prey species within the diet with the minimum distance of the examined eagles to the actual species distribution boundary. Closer to the range edge, we observed decreased proportions of medium‐sized prey species and decreasing breeding success of golden eagles. Diet breadth as well as proportions of small and large‐sized prey species increased, however, towards the range edge. Thus, availability of optimal‐sized prey species seems to be a crucial driver of foraging behaviour, breeding success and distribution of golden eagles on a continental scale. However, underlying effects of landscape characteristics and human influence on optimal prey availability has to be investigated in further large‐scale studies to fully understand the major threats facing the golden eagle and possibly other large terrestrial birds of prey. ; p. 81-88.
    Subject(s): Birds Of Prey ; Diet ; Breeding ; Reproductive Behavior ; Foraging ; Aquila Chrysaetos ; Breeding Season ; Biogeography ; Landscapes ; Eagles ; Climate;
    ISSN: Journal of Avian Biology
    E-ISSN: 09088857
    E-ISSN: 1600048X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Ornithology, 4/2007, Vol.148(2), pp.173-177
    Description: Byline: Norbert Kenntner (1), Yvon Crettenand (2), Hans-Joachim Funfstuck (3), Martin Janovsky (4,5), Frieda Tataruch (6) Keywords: Aquila chrysaetos; Cadmium; Golden eagle; Lead poisoning; Mercury Abstract: Lead poisoning and organ levels of the non-essential heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury of seven free-ranging golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the European Alps, and of one 23-year-old captive golden eagle are reported. All birds were found dead or moribund during the years 2000 and 2001 in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. One golden eagle from Switzerland with extraordinarily high lead residues in its liver and kidney was clearly identified as lethally lead poisoned. Another bird from the same region was found still alive and died in a wildlife rehabilitation center, showing lead residues in its organs known for acute lead poisoning with detrimental physiological effects, such as nervous disorders and the inhibition of the hemoglobine synthesis. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and lead residues in the organs of the other five free-ranging birds, and in the long-lived captive golden eagle, were low and represent the natural background levels in birds of prey of the terrestrial food web. This is the first published report of lead poisoning in golden eagles from Switzerland. Sources for lead poisoning in golden eagles in the Alpine region are discussed. Author Affiliation: (1) Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Alfred-Kowalke-Strasse 17, 10315, Berlin, Germany (2) Game, Fishery and Wildlife Service, Canton of Valais, Rue de l'Industrie 29, 1951, Sion, Switzerland (3) Bavarian Environmental Agency/Bird Protection Station Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Gsteigstrasse 43, 82467, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (4) Center for Fish and Wildlife Health, Institute of Animal Pathology, University of Berne, 3012, Berne, Switzerland (5) Office of the Tyrolean Government, Wilhelm-Greil-Strasse 25, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria (6) Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Savoyenstrasse 1, 1160, Vienna, Austria Article History: Registration Date: 08/11/2006 Received Date: 29/03/2006 Accepted Date: 31/10/2006 Online Date: 21/12/2006 Article note: Communicated by F. Bairlein.
    Subject(s): Lead Poisoning ; Heavy Metals;
    ISSN: 0021-8375
    E-ISSN: 1439-0361
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Ornithology, 2007, Vol.148(2), pp.173-177
    Description: Lead poisoning and organ levels of the non-essential heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury of seven free-ranging golden eagles ( Aquila chrysaetos ) from the European Alps, and of one 23-year-old captive golden eagle are reported. All birds were found dead or moribund during the years 2000 and 2001 in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. One golden eagle from Switzerland with extraordinarily high lead residues in its liver and kidney was clearly identified as lethally lead poisoned. Another bird from the same region was found still alive and died in a wildlife rehabilitation center, showing lead residues in its organs known for acute lead poisoning with detrimental physiological effects, such as nervous disorders and the inhibition of the hemoglobine synthesis. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury and lead residues in the organs of the other five free-ranging birds, and in the long-lived captive golden eagle, were low and represent the natural background levels in birds of prey of the terrestrial food web. This is the first published report of lead poisoning in golden eagles from Switzerland. Sources for lead poisoning in golden eagles in the Alpine region are discussed.
    Subject(s): Aquila chrysaetos ; Cadmium ; Golden eagle ; Lead poisoning ; Mercury
    ISSN: 0021-8375
    E-ISSN: 1439-0361
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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  • 5
    Language: German
    Subject(s): Saatkrähe ; Bayern
    Source: Münchener DigitalisierungsZentrum (Bayerische Staatsbibliothek)
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