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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: American journal of botany, 2015-10-01, Vol.102 (10), p.1599-1609
    Description: PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Climate change has resulted in major changes in the phenology of some species but not others. Long-term field observational records provide the best assessment of these changes, but geographic and taxonomie biases limit their utility. Plant specimens in herbaria have been hypothesized to provide a wealth of additional data for studying phenological responses to climatic change. However, no study to our knowledge has comprehensively addressed whether herbarium data are accurate measures of phenological response and thus applicable to addressing such questions. METHODS: We compared flowering phenology determined from field observations (years 1852-1858,1875,1878-1908,2003-2006,2011 -2013) and herbarium records (1852-2013) of 20 species from New England, United States. KEY RESULTS: Earliest flowering date estimated from herbarium records faithfully reflected field observations of first flowering date and substantially increased the sampling range across climatic conditions. Additionally, although most species demonstrated a response to interannual temperature variation, long-term temporal changes in phenological response were not detectable. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the use of herbarium records for understanding plant phenological responses to changes in temperature, and also importantly establish a new use of herbarium collections: inferring primary phenological cueing mechanisms of individual species (e.g., temperature, winter chilling, photoperiod). These latter data are lacking from most investigations of phenological change, but are vital for understanding differential responses of individual species to ongoing climate change.
    Subject(s): Botany ; Climate Change ; climate variability ; Flowers & plants ; Flowers - growth & development ; herbarium specimens ; Massachusetts ; museum collections ; Phenology ; Plant Development ; Sampling ; Seasons ; Species Specificity ; Temperature ; Time Factors
    ISSN: 0002-9122
    E-ISSN: 1537-2197
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Wiley Online Library All Journals
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The New phytologist, 2018-01-01, Vol.217 (2), p.939-955
    Description: Nonrandom collecting practices may bias conclusions drawn from analyses of herbarium records. Recent efforts to fully digitize and mobilize regional floras online offer a timely opportunity to assess commonalities and differences in herbarium sampling biases. We determined spatial, temporal, trait, phylogenetic, and collector biases in . 5 million herbarium records, representing three of the most complete digitized floras of the world: Australia (AU), South Africa (SA), and New England, USA (NE). We identified numerous shared and unique biases among these regions. Shared biases included specimens collected close to roads and herbaria; specimens collected more frequently during biological spring and summer; specimens of threatened species collected less frequently; and specimens of close relatives collected in similar numbers. Regional differences included overrepresentation of graminoids in SA and AU and of annuals in AU; and peak collection during the 1910s in NE, 1980s in SA, and 1990s in AU. Finally, in all regions, a disproportionately large percentage of specimens were collected by very few individuals. We hypothesize that these mega-collectors, with their associated preferences and idiosyncrasies, shaped patterns of collection bias via ‘founder effects’. Studies using herbarium collections should account for sampling biases, and future collecting efforts should avoid compounding these biases to the extent possible.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; Australia ; collector bias ; Digitization ; Endangered species ; Full papers ; geographic bias ; Geography ; herbarium ; Models, Theoretical ; Phylogeny ; Plants ; Plants - anatomy & histology ; Quantitative Trait, Heritable ; regional flora ; Regression Analysis ; sampling bias ; Selection Bias ; temporal bias ; Time Factors ; trait bias ; Wildlife conservation
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    2012
    ISSN: 1541-132X  ISSN: 1541-1338 
    Language: English
    In: The Review of policy research, 2012-03, Vol.29 (2), p.177-191
    Description: This article focuses on the politics of regulating natural gas fracking operations in Colorado and Texas. Between‐state differences in the economic importance of natural gas production, political traditions, environmental impacts of drilling activities, and local governmental responses to risk reduction, and entrepreneurial activities are discussed in relation to policy‐making initiatives. In the concluding section, I suggest that Colorado's regulatory approach offers a greater degree of environmental protection than Texas. Key reforms adopted in 2007–8 can be largely attributed to electoral victories that ensured unified party control over state government and the determined efforts of the proenvironmental governor to make changes in both the regulatory commission and in the substance of natural gas drilling policies.
    Subject(s): Colorado ; Commissions ; Drilling ; Drilling and boring ; economic importance ; energy policy ; entrepreneurship ; Environmental impact ; Environmental Protection ; Governors ; Natural gas ; Natural gas exploration ; Policy Making ; Political aspects ; Political Parties ; Politics ; Reform ; Regulated industries ; regulation ; Reserves ; Reviews ; Risk reduction ; state environmental policies ; Texas ; Traditions
    ISSN: 1541-132X
    ISSN: 1541-1338
    E-ISSN: 1541-1338
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 2014-08-05, Vol.48 (15), p.8397-8403
    Description: State officials responsible for the regulation of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations used in the production of oil and gas resources will inevitably confront a key policy issue; that is, to what extent can statewide regulations be developed without reducing land use autonomy typically exercised by local officials? Most state regulators have historically recognized the economic importance of industry jobs and favor the adoption of uniform regulatory requirements even if these rules preempt local policymaking authority. Conversely, many local officials seek to preserve land use autonomy to provide a greater measure of protection for public health and environmental quality goals. This paper examines how public officials in three statesColorado, Pennsylvania, and Texasaddress the question of state control versus local autonomy through their efforts to shape fracking policy decisions. While local officials within Texas have succeeded in developing fracking ordinances with relatively little interference from state regulators, Colorado and Pennsylvania have adopted a tougher policy stance favoring the retention of preemptive oil and gas statutes. Key factors that account for between state differences in fracking policy decisions include the strength of home rule provisions, gubernatorial involvement, and the degree of local experience with industrial economic activities.
    Subject(s): Colorado ; Decision Making ; Environmental policy ; Environmental quality ; Environmental science ; Extraction and Processing Industry - legislation & jurisprudence ; Government Regulation ; Home rule ; Hydraulic fracturing ; Land use ; Local Government ; Natural Gas ; Pennsylvania ; Policy Making ; Public health ; Public Policy ; State Government ; Texas
    ISSN: 0013-936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2010-01-26, Vol.5 (1), p.e8878
    Description: Invasive species have tremendous detrimental ecological and economic impacts. Climate change may exacerbate species invasions across communities if non-native species are better able to respond to climate changes than native species. Recent evidence indicates that species that respond to climate change by adjusting their phenology (i.e., the timing of seasonal activities, such as flowering) have historically increased in abundance. The extent to which non-native species success is similarly linked to a favorable climate change response, however, remains untested. We analyzed a dataset initiated by the conservationist Henry David Thoreau that documents the long-term phenological response of native and non-native plant species over the last 150 years from Concord, Massachusetts (USA). Our results demonstrate that non-native species, and invasive species in particular, have been far better able to respond to recent climate change by adjusting their flowering time. This demonstrates that climate change has likely played, and may continue to play, an important role in facilitating non-native species naturalization and invasion at the community level.
    Subject(s): Analysis ; Biodiversity ; Climate ; Climate change ; Community Ecology and Biodiversity ; Conservation of Natural Resources ; Databases ; Datasets ; Ecology ; Economic impact ; Ecosystem biology ; Ecosystems ; Environmentalists ; Evolution ; Evolutionary Biology ; Evolutionary Ecology ; Flowering ; Flowers & plants ; Global Change Ecology ; Global temperature changes ; Historical account ; Indigenous plants ; Indigenous species ; Introduced species ; Invasive species ; Massachusetts ; Native species ; Nonnative species ; Phenology ; Phylogenetics ; Plant reproduction ; Plants - classification ; Seeds ; Success
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet (British edition), 2016, Vol.388 (10062), p.2873-2884
    Description: Summary Background Leuco-methylthioninium bis(hydromethanesulfonate; LMTM), a stable reduced form of the methylthioninium moiety, acts as a selective inhibitor of tau protein aggregation both in vitro and in transgenic mouse models. Methylthioninium chloride has previously shown potential efficacy as monotherapy in patients with Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to determine whether LMTM was safe and effective in modifying disease progression in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Methods We did a 15-month, randomised, controlled double-blind, parallel-group trial at 115 academic centres and private research clinics in 16 countries in Europe, North America, Asia, and Russia with patients younger than 90 years with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Patients concomitantly using other medicines for Alzheimer's disease were permitted to be included because we considered it infeasible not to allow their inclusion; however, patients using medicines carrying warnings of methaemoglobinaemia were excluded because the oxidised form of methylthioninium in high doses has been shown to induce this condition. We randomly assigned participants (3:3:4) to 75 mg LMTM twice a day, 125 mg LMTM twice a day, or control (4 mg LMTM twice a day to maintain blinding with respect to urine or faecal discolouration) administered as oral tablets. We did the randomisation with an interactive web response system using 600 blocks of length ten, and stratified patients by severity of disease, global region, whether they were concomitantly using Alzheimer's disease-labelled medications, and site PET capability. Participants, their study partners (generally carers), and all assessors were masked to treatment assignment throughout the study. The coprimary outcomes were progression on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale–Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) and the Alzheimer's Disease Co-operative Study–Activities of Daily Living Inventory (ADCS-ADL) scales from baseline assessed at week 65 in the modified intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT01689246 ) and the European Union Clinical Trials Registry (2012-002866-11). Findings Between Jan 29, 2013, and June 26, 2014, we recruited and randomly assigned 891 participants to treatment (357 to control, 268 to 75 mg LMTM twice a day, and 266 to 125 mg LMTM twice a day). The prespecified primary analyses did not show any treatment benefit at either of the doses tested for the coprimary outcomes (change in ADAS-Cog score compared with control [n=354, 6·32, 95% CI 5·31−7·34]: 75 mg LMTM twice a day [n=257] −0·02, −1·60 to 1·56, p=0·9834, 125 mg LMTM twice a day [n=250] −0·43, −2·06 to 1·20, p=0·9323; change in ADCS-ADL score compared with control [−8·22, 95% CI −9·63 to −6·82]: 75 mg LMTM twice a day −0·93, −3·12 to 1·26, p=0·8659; 125 mg LMTM twice a day −0·34, −2·61 to 1·93, p=0·9479). Gastrointestinal and urinary effects were the most common adverse events with both high doses of LMTM, and the most common causes for discontinuation. Non-clinically significant dose-dependent reductions in haemoglobin concentrations were the most common laboratory abnormality. Amyloid-related imaging abnormalities were noted in less than 1% (8/885) of participants. Interpretation The primary analysis for this study was negative, and the results do not suggest benefit of LMTM as an add-on treatment for patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. Findings from a recently completed 18-month trial of patients with mild Alzheimer's disease will be reported soon. Funding TauRx Therapeutics.
    Subject(s): Abridged Index Medicus ; Activities of Daily Living ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Alzheimer Disease - drug therapy ; Alzheimer Disease - physiopathology ; Alzheimer's disease ; Alzheimers disease ; Analysis ; Animals ; Brain - drug effects ; California ; Care and treatment ; Clinical trials ; Dementia ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Double-Blind Method ; Drug therapy ; Female ; Genetic engineering ; Gerontology ; Hospitals ; Humans ; Inhibitor drugs ; Internal Medicine ; Male ; Medical colleges ; Mice ; Middle Aged ; Neurosciences ; Pathology ; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - statistics & numerical data ; tau Proteins - antagonists & inhibitors ; tau Proteins - metabolism ; Treatment Failure ; United Kingdom
    ISSN: 0140-6736
    E-ISSN: 1474-547X
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect (DFG Nationallizenzen)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The New phytologist, 2016-06-01, Vol.210 (4), p.1430-1442
    Description: The tropical Andes of South America, the world's richest biodiversity hotspot, are home to many rapid radiations. While geological, climatic, and ecological processes collectively explain such radiations, their relative contributions are seldom examined within a single clade. We explore the contribution of these factors by applying a series of diversification models that incorporate mountain building, climate change, and trait evolution to the first dated phylogeny of Andean bellflowers (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae). Our framework is novel for its direct incorporation of geological data on Andean uplift into a macroevolutionary model. We show that speciation and extinction are differentially influenced by abiotic factors: speciation rates rose concurrently with Andean elevation, while extinction rates decreased during global cooling. Pollination syndrome and fruit type, both biotic traits known to facilitate mutualisms, played an additional role in driving diversification. These abiotic and biotic factors resulted in one of the fastest radiations reported to date: the centropogonids, whose 550 species arose in the last 5 million yr. Our study represents a significant advance in our understanding of plant evolution in Andean cloud forests. It further highlights the power of combining phylogenetic and Earth science models to explore the interplay of geology, climate, and ecology in generating the world's biodiversity.
    Subject(s): adaptive radiation ; Analysis ; Andes ; Automobile drivers ; Biodiversity ; biodiversity hotspot ; Biological diversity ; Biological Evolution ; Climate ; Climate Change ; Codonopsis - anatomy & histology ; Codonopsis - genetics ; Codonopsis - radiation effects ; diversification ; Earth and Related Environmental Sciences ; Ecology ; Ecosystem components ; Evolution ; floral isolation ; Flowers - anatomy & histology ; Flowers - genetics ; Flowers - radiation effects ; Full Paper ; Full Papers ; Geology ; Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap ; Global temperature changes ; historical biogeography ; isotope evidence ; Life Sciences ; Lobelioideae ; molecular phylogenies ; Neotropics ; northern andes ; Phylogeny ; Plant Sciences ; Plants ; Pollination ; pollination syndromes ; Radiation ; rapid radiation ; Research ; South America ; species diversification ; surface uplift ; vascular plant diversity
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
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  • 8
    Article
    Article
    2019
    ISSN: 1522-8517 
    Language: English
    In: Neuro-oncology (Charlottesville, Va.), 2019-10-12, Vol.21 (Supplement_4), p.iv16-iv17
    Description: Abstract Radiotherapy is the most effective treatment of glioblastoma, radical surgery and chemotherapy will help some patients. Tumour Treating Fields (TTF) is used in many countries in the developed world. Thousands of patients have been treated. Methods A survey at a neuro-oncology meeting of clinicians, scientists and charity members asking them about TTF. Results 1. 7 out of 8 clinicians did not discuss TTF with patients.: 2. The reasons being “not available”, “very expensive”, “don’t know enough”.: 3. Out of 17 non clinicians, 14 stated that TTF should be discussed with all patients.: 4. Out of 22 clinicians and non clinicians, 16 said they would consider trying to raise £200.000 for treatment from crowd funding. Discussion The report of the chief scientific officer of the department of health on brain tumours, the report of the Tessa Jowell funding, BNOS, do not discuss TTF.?why. NICE guidelines for NHS patients state “Do not offer TTF” but do not say “Do not discuss”. Conclusion Sadly, clinicians are not telling the patients about options for treatment. TTF is controversial and expensive and is now being used in several cancer treatments. The UK is one of the few developed countries that is not researching or discussing this treatment.
    Subject(s): Abstracts
    ISSN: 1522-8517
    E-ISSN: 1523-5866
    Source: PubMed Central
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: American journal of botany, 2010-12-01, Vol.97 (12), p.2031-2048
    Description: Premise of the study: The Malpighiaceae include ∼1300 tropical flowering plant species in which generic definitions and intergeneric relationships have long been problematic. The goals of our study were to resolve relationships among the 11 generic segregates from the New World genus Mascagnia, test the monophyly of the largest remaining Malpighiaceae genera, and clarify the placement of Old World Malpighiaceae. Methods: We combined DNA sequence data for four genes (plastid ndhF, matK, and rbcL and nuclear PHYC) from 338 ingroup accessions that represented all 77 currently recognized genera with morphological data from 144 ingroup species to produce a complete generic phylogeny of the family. Key results and conclusions: The genera are distributed among 14 mostly well-supported clades. The interrelationships of these major subclades have strong support, except for the clade comprising the wing-fruited genera (i.e., the malpighioid+Amorimia, Ectopopterys, hiraeoid, stigmaphylloid, and tetrapteroid clades). These results resolve numerous systematic problems, while others have emerged and constitute opportunities for future study. Malpighiaceae migrated from the New to Old World nine times, with two of those migrants being very recent arrivals from the New World. The seven other Old World clades dispersed much earlier, likely during the Tertiary. Comparison of floral morphology in Old World Malpighiaceae with their closest New World relatives suggests that morphological stasis in the New World likely results from selection by neotropical oil-bee pollinators and that the morphological diversity found in Old World flowers has evolved following their release from selection by those bees.
    Subject(s): Biogeography ; Biological taxonomies ; Calyx ; Deoxyribonucleic acid ; DNA ; Evolution ; floral symmetry ; Flowers & plants ; Genera ; Herbaria ; Malpighiaceae ; matK ; Morphology ; mutualism ; ndhF ; Petals ; PHYC ; Phylogenetics ; Phylogeny ; Plant morphology ; Plant populations ; Pollination ; pollination biology ; rbcL ; Research ; systematics ; Systematics and Phytogeography ; Taxa
    ISSN: 0002-9122
    E-ISSN: 1537-2197
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Wiley Online Library All Journals
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Ecological monographs, 2018-11-01, Vol.88 (4), p.505-525
    Description: Plant and fungal specimens in herbaria are becoming primary resources for investigating how plant phenology and geographic distributions shift with climate change, greatly expanding inferences across spatial, temporal, and phylogenetic dimensions. However, these specimens contain a wealth of additional data, including nutrients, defensive compounds, herbivore damage, disease lesions, and signatures of physiological processes, that capture ecological and evolutionary responses to the Anthropocene but which are less frequently utilized. Here, we outline the diversity of herbarium data, global change topics to which they have been applied, and new hypotheses they could inform. We find that herbarium data have been used extensively to study impacts of climate change and invasive species, but that such data are less commonly used to address other drivers of biodiversity loss, including habitat conversion, pollution, and overexploitation. In addition, we note that fungal specimens are under-explored relative to vascular plants. To facilitate broader application of plant and fungal specimens in global change research, we consider the limitations of these data and modern sampling and statistical tools that may be applied to surmount challenges they present. Using a case study of insect herbivory, we illustrate how novel herbarium data may be employed to test hypotheses for which few data exist. With the goal of positioning herbaria as hubs for global change research, we suggest future research directions and curation priorities.
    Subject(s): Anthropocene ; Biodiversity ; Biological diversity ; Case studies ; Climate change ; Data processing ; Environmental impact ; extinction ; Fungi ; Geographical distribution ; global change ; Global temperature changes ; habitat conversion ; herbarium ; Herbivory ; historical data ; Hypotheses ; Insects ; Introduced species ; Invasive species ; Lesions ; museum specimens ; Nutrients ; Overexploitation ; Phylogeny ; Physiological aspects ; Plants ; Reviews
    ISSN: 0012-9615
    E-ISSN: 1557-7015
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences I
    Source: Wiley Online Library All Journals
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