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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Substance use & misuse, 2018-01-28, Vol.53 (2), p.311-322
    Description: Background: Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) in the United States (U.S.) has been undergoing a shift towards conceptualizing the program as recovery-based treatment. Although recovery is seen by some as a means to restore MMT to its rightful position as a medically-based treatment for addiction, it may not represent the experiences, or meet the needs of people who use drugs (PWUD), many of whom who use the program as a pragmatic means of reducing harms associated with criminalization. Objectives: To examine alternative constructions of MMT in order to produce a richer, more contextualized picture of the program and the reasons PWUD employ its services. Methods: This paper uses semi-structured interviews with 23 people on MMT (either currently or within the previous two years). Results: Most participants linked their use of MMT to the structural-legal context of prohibition/criminalization rather than through the narrative of the recovery model. Responses suggested the recovery model functions in part to obscure the role of criminalization in the harms PWUD experience in favor of a model based on individual pathology. Conclusions/Importance: In contrast to the recovery model, MMT cannot be understood outside of the structural context of criminalization and the War on Drugs which shape illegal drug use as a difficult and dangerous activity, and consequently position MMT as a way to moderate or escape from those harms.
    Subject(s): criminalization ; medicalization ; Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) ; abstinence ; recovery ; harm reduction ; disease model ; Humans ; Methadone - therapeutic use ; Drug Users - psychology ; Female ; Male ; Qualitative Research ; Criminal Law ; Opiate Substitution Treatment - psychology ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 1082-6084
    E-ISSN: 1532-2491
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: SPORTDiscus with Full Text
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Nature (London), 2013, Vol.500 (7462), p.287-295
    Description: The terrestrial biosphere is a key component of the global carbon cycle and its carbon balance is strongly influenced by climate. Continuing environmental changes are thought to increase global terrestrial carbon uptake. But evidence is mounting that climate extremes such as droughts or storms can lead to a decrease in regional ecosystem carbon stocks and therefore have the potential to negate an expected increase in terrestrial carbon uptake. Here we explore the mechanisms and impacts of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle, and propose a pathway to improve our understanding of present and future impacts of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon budget.
    Subject(s): Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Biological and medical sciences ; Synecology ; Terrestrial ecosystems ; Animal and plant ecology ; Animal, plant and microbial ecology ; Plants - metabolism ; Temperature ; Carbon Cycle ; Climate Change ; Ecosystem ; Index Medicus ; Continental interfaces, environment ; Sciences of the Universe ; Ocean, Atmosphere
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
    E-ISSN: 1476-4679
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    2019
    ISSN: 2535-3241 
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Extreme Anthropology, 2019-04-18, Vol.3 (2), p.1-20
    Description: Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) in the United States has recently adopted an approach based on the principles of the Recovery movement — a view of treatment informed by addiction-as-disease models but also incorporating social, psychological, and spiritual components. Although organizations that administer drug treatment services claim that the shift represents a more client-centered, individualistic approach, it may not meet the needs of the many individuals who use MMT to reduce the harms of drug use, like overdose, rather than as a way to become abstinent. In this article, I use interview data from treatment providers to argue against institutional claims of Recovery as an individualistic model. My research demonstrates how — despite the wide variety of treatment goals among people on MMT — the Recovery discourse positions and organizes treatment strictly as abstinence-based, self-help. Moreover, I show how the Recovery model serves as the justification for an expansion of clinics’ ability to surveil and intervene in aspects of people’s lives which had previously been seen as outside of MMT’s purview, including nutrition, public service, and spirituality. In conclusion, I argue that Recovery restricts MMT’s ability to reduce harms, like overdose, in the lives of people who use drugs, and recommend that MMT adopt a more open-ended, low-threshold approach to treatment.
    ISSN: 2535-3241
    E-ISSN: 2535-3241
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 4
    Article
    Article
    2015
    ISSN: 0014-1704 
    Language: English
    In: Ethics, 2015-01-01, Vol.125 (2), p.559-561
    Subject(s): Feminist economics ; Demographic economics ; Income inequality ; Economic value ; Welfare economics ; Economic policy ; Economic research ; Economic hardship ; Marxian economics ; Normativity ; Economics ; Practice ; Spengler, Joseph ; Economists ; Ethical aspects
    ISSN: 0014-1704
    E-ISSN: 1539-297X
    Source: University of Chicago Press Journals (Full run)
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences I
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
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  • 5
    Article
    Article
    2017
    ISSN: 0700-3862  ISSN: 1911-4842 
    Language: English
    In: Labour / Le Travail, 2017-04-01, Vol.79 (79), p.9-52
    Description: The paper examines the experience of C.B. Wade (1906-1982), a chartered accountant and university instructor who was recruited to work for organized labour during the period of transition from wartime mobilization to postwar reconstruction at the end of the Second World War. In hiring Wade in 1944, District 26 of the United Mine Workers of America became one of the first Canadian unions to employ a research director to help address the challenges of the new age of industrial legality and advance their social democratic agenda. The paper discusses Wade's background, including his involvement in the Workers' Educational Association, and documents his contributions to the work of the coal miners' union, including the efforts to promote public ownership of the industry. In addition, the paper discusses Wade's unpublished history of the union, a manuscript that has had a long life as an underground classic. While the negotiation of the postwar compromises between labour, capital and the state gave union staff such as Wade an increasingly central role in labour relations, this was not a stable context, and the paper also considers the deepening Cold War conditions that led to the end of his employment in 1950. In the context of labour and working-class history, Wade can be associated with a relatively small cohort of politically engaged intellectuals who made lasting contributions to the research capacity of unions and to the field of labour studies. L'article examine l'expérience de C.B. Wade (1906-1982), comptable agréé et professeur d'université qui a été recruté pour travailler pour le mouvement ouvrier organisé pendant la période de transition de la mobilisation de guerre à la reconstruction d'après-guerre à la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. En embauchant Wade en 1944, le district 26 des United Mine Workers of America est devenu l'un des premiers syndicats canadiens à employer un directeur de recherche pour relever les défis de la nouvelle ère de la légalité industrielle et promouvoir leur programme social-démocrate. L'article discute les antécédents de Wade, y compris sa participation à l'Association pour l'éducation des travailleurs, et souligne ses contributions aux travaux du syndicat des mineurs du charbon, y compris les efforts visant à promouvoir la nationalisation de l'industrie. En outre, l'article discute l'histoire inédite de Wade du syndicat, un manuscrit qui a eu une longue vie comme un classique souterrain. Tandis que la négociation des compromis d'après-guerre entre le travail, le capital et l'État a donné au personnel de syndicat comme Wade un rôle central croissant dans les relations de travail, ce n'était pas un contexte stable, et l'article considère également l'approfondissement de la guerre froide qui a mené à la fin de son emploi en 1950. Dans le contexte de l'histoire du travail et de la classe ouvrière, Wade peut être associé à une cohorte relativement restreinte d'intellectuels politiquement engagés qui ont apporté une contribution durable à la capacité de recherche des syndicats et au domaine des études du travail.
    Subject(s): Canada ; Wade, C. B ; Historiography ; Labor movement ; Labor unions ; 1906–1982 ; Social aspects ; History ; Historians ; Coal miners ; Wade, C.B
    ISSN: 0700-3862
    ISSN: 1911-4842
    E-ISSN: 1911-4842
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences V
    Source: Project MUSE - Premium Collection
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Global ecology and biogeography, 2018-11, Vol.27 (11), p.1352-1365
    Description: Aim Radial growth and foliage dynamics of trees both play a significant role in the terrestrial carbon cycle. Yet, crucial knowledge gaps exist in how these two growth components are linked. Our goal is to help bridge these gaps by providing a Northern Hemispheric survey of the connections between, and drivers of, inter‐annual wood and canopy–landscape dynamics and phenology. Location Northern (〉30° N) forest ecosystems. Methods We compared a multispecies network of ca. 700 annually resolved radial tree‐growth records with the global inventory modelling and mapping studies‐normalized difference vegetation index (GIMMS‐NDVI) estimates of foliage greenness between 1982 and 2012. Tree‐ring data were assimilated into the simple process‐based Vaganov–Shashkin Lite model to derive xylem phenology on a monthly basis and were contrasted against NDVI estimates of canopy phenology. We additionally determined the response of all these vegetation measures to temperature and precipitation. Results We found broad‐scale agreement in the phenology and growing season climate response between radial tree growth and seasonally integrated canopy–landscape dynamics. On a monthly basis, however, a temporal asynchrony in the climate signals at mid‐ and high latitudes was observed, where the strongest climate response of the NDVI record occurred around leaf flush, whereas an early‐ to mid‐growing season signal dominated the tree‐ring growth. Main conclusions Our comprehensive study helps to elucidate the unique contributions of foliar and radial growth to terrestrial carbon cycling and the time‐scales at which they operate. Although we observed that both measures have similar overall climate constraints, these two growth components are sensitive to distinct seasonal windows. Our study suggests that joint assessment of both leaf and stem growth is required to address productivity of forests and demonstrates that these seasonal sensitivities must be considered before combining and interpreting these two metrics.
    Subject(s): xylem ; canopy ; productivity ; growth dynamics ; phenology ; tree‐rings ; NDVI ; Vaganov–Shashkin Lite ; Automobile drivers ; Climate ; Ecosystems ; Analysis ; Inventory control ; Forests and forestry ; Dendrochronology ; Carbon cycle (Biogeochemistry) ; Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap ; Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 1466-822X
    ISSN: 1466-8238
    E-ISSN: 1466-8238
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Nature (London), 2014, Vol.509 (7502), p.600-603
    Description: The land and ocean act as a sink for fossil-fuel emissions, thereby slowing the rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Although the uptake of carbon by oceanic and terrestrial processes has kept pace with accelerating carbon dioxide emissions until now, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations exhibit a large variability on interannual timescales, considered to be driven primarily by terrestrial ecosystem processes dominated by tropical rainforests. We use a terrestrial biogeochemical model, atmospheric carbon dioxide inversion and global carbon budget accounting methods to investigate the evolution of the terrestrial carbon sink over the past 30 years, with a focus on the underlying mechanisms responsible for the exceptionally large land carbon sink reported in 2011 (ref. 2). Here we show that our three terrestrial carbon sink estimates are in good agreement and support the finding of a 2011 record land carbon sink. Surprisingly, we find that the global carbon sink anomaly was driven by growth of semi-arid vegetation in the Southern Hemisphere, with almost 60 per cent of carbon uptake attributed to Australian ecosystems, where prevalent La Niña conditions caused up to six consecutive seasons of increased precipitation. In addition, since 1981, a six per cent expansion of vegetation cover over Australia was associated with a fourfold increase in the sensitivity of continental net carbon uptake to precipitation. Our findings suggest that the higher turnover rates of carbon pools in semi-arid biomes are an increasingly important driver of global carbon cycle inter-annual variability and that tropical rainforests may become less relevant drivers in the future. More research is needed to identify to what extent the carbon stocks accumulated during wet years are vulnerable to rapid decomposition or loss through fire in subsequent years. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
    Subject(s): Models, Theoretical ; Rain ; Uncertainty ; Ecosystem ; El Nino-Southern Oscillation ; Fires ; Atmosphere - chemistry ; Seasons ; Australia ; Carbon Dioxide - analysis ; Carbon Sequestration ; Desert Climate ; Carbon cycle (Biogeochemistry) ; Research ; Atmospheric carbon dioxide ; Index Medicus ; Continental interfaces, environment ; Sciences of the Universe ; Ocean, Atmosphere
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
    E-ISSN: 1476-4679
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Oecologia, 2013-12-01, Vol.173 (4), p.1587-1600
    Description: Environment and genetics combine to influence tree growth and should therefore be jointly considered when evaluating forest responses in a warming climate. Here, we combine dendroclimatology and population genetic approaches with the aim of attributing climatic influences on growth of European larch (Larix decidua) and Norway spruce (Picea abies). Increment cores and genomic DNA samples were collected from populations along a ~900-m elevational transect where the air temperature gradient encompasses a ~4 °C temperature difference. We found that low genetic differentiation among populations indicates gene flow is high, suggesting that migration rate is high enough to counteract the selective pressures of local environmental variation. We observed lower growth rates towards higher elevations and a transition from negative to positive correlations with growing season temperature upward along the elevational transect. With increasing elevation there was also a clear increase in the explained variance of growth due to summer temperatures. Comparisons between climate sensitivity patterns observed along this elevational transect with those from Larix and Picea sites distributed across the Alps reveal good agreement, and suggest that tree-ring width (TRW) variations are more climate-driven than genetics-driven at regional and larger scales. We conclude that elevational transects are an extremely valuable platform for understanding climatic-driven changes over time and can be especially powerful when working within an assessed genetic framework.
    Subject(s): Growing seasons ; Climate change ; Dendroclimatology ; Gene flow ; Tree growth ; Genetic variation ; Correlations ; Climate models ; GLOBAL CHANGE ECOLOGY ; Population genetics ; Growth rings ; Life Sciences ; Alps ; Climate impact ; Forest productivity ; Ecology ; Plant Sciences ; Dendrochronology ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; General forest ecology ; General aspects ; Animal, plant and microbial ecology ; Forestry ; Biological and medical sciences ; Animal and plant ecology ; Generalities. Production, biomass. Quality of wood and forest products. General forest ecology ; Genetics, Population ; Climate ; Temperature ; Gene Flow ; Trees - growth & development ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Switzerland ; Larix - genetics ; Picea - growth & development ; Picea - genetics ; Larix - growth & development ; Seasons ; DNA, Plant - genetics ; Altitude ; Trees - genetics ; Climate sensitivity ; Growth ; Analysis ; DNA ; Archaeological dating ; Genetics ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0029-8549
    E-ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: American sociological review, 2010-12-01, Vol.75 (6), p.867-893
    Description: Between 1945 and 2005, nation-states around the world revised their criminal laws on sexual activities. This global reform wave—across countries and domains of sexual activity—followed from the reconstitution of world models of society around individuals rather than corporate bodies. During the post-World War II period, this process rearranged the global cultural and organizational underpinnings of sex, eroding world-level support for criminal laws aimed at protecting collective entities—especially the family and the nation—and strengthening world support for laws aimed at protecting individualized persons. To make our case, we use unique cross-national and longitudinal data on the criminal regulation of rape, adultery, sodomy, and child sexual abuse. The data reveal striking counter-directional trends in sex-law reforms, which simultaneously elaborated regulations protecting individuals and dissolved laws protecting collective entities. World-level negative-binomial regression analyses and country-level event-history analyses confirm our main propositions. The findings demonstrate a sweeping revolution in criminal-sex laws, rooted in the intensified global celebration of free-standing personhood.
    Subject(s): International law ; Individualization ; Human sexual behavior ; Rape ; Law reform ; Child molestation ; Adultery ; Criminals ; Criminal law ; Sodomy ; Criminal sociology. Police. Delinquency. Deviance. Suicide ; Sociology ; Sociology of law and criminology ; Nationalism ; Child sexual abuse ; Rites, ceremonies and celebrations ; Laws, regulations and rules ; Analysis
    ISSN: 0003-1224
    E-ISSN: 1939-8271
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences I
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Global change biology, 2015-08, Vol.21 (8), p.2861-2880
    Description: Extreme droughts, heat waves, frosts, precipitation, wind storms and other climate extremes may impact the structure, composition and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and thus carbon cycling and its feedbacks to the climate system. Yet, the interconnected avenues through which climate extremes drive ecological and physiological processes and alter the carbon balance are poorly understood. Here, we review the literature on carbon cycle relevant responses of ecosystems to extreme climatic events. Given that impacts of climate extremes are considered disturbances, we assume the respective general disturbance‐induced mechanisms and processes to also operate in an extreme context. The paucity of well‐defined studies currently renders a quantitative meta‐analysis impossible, but permits us to develop a deductive framework for identifying the main mechanisms (and coupling thereof) through which climate extremes may act on the carbon cycle. We find that ecosystem responses can exceed the duration of the climate impacts via lagged effects on the carbon cycle. The expected regional impacts of future climate extremes will depend on changes in the probability and severity of their occurrence, on the compound effects and timing of different climate extremes, and on the vulnerability of each land‐cover type modulated by management. Although processes and sensitivities differ among biomes, based on expert opinion, we expect forests to exhibit the largest net effect of extremes due to their large carbon pools and fluxes, potentially large indirect and lagged impacts, and long recovery time to regain previous stocks. At the global scale, we presume that droughts have the strongest and most widespread effects on terrestrial carbon cycling. Comparing impacts of climate extremes identified via remote sensing vs. ground‐based observational case studies reveals that many regions in the (sub‐)tropics are understudied. Hence, regional investigations are needed to allow a global upscaling of the impacts of climate extremes on global carbon–climate feedbacks.
    Subject(s): disturbance ; climate variability ; carbon cycle ; terrestrial ecosystems ; climate change ; climate extremes ; Climate Change ; Ecosystem ; Carbon Cycle ; Index Medicus ; Biodiversity and Ecology ; Environmental Sciences ; Research Reviews
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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