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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Plant, cell and environment, 2016-06, Vol.39 (6), p.1338-1352
    Description: Because of global warming, high‐latitude ecosystems are expected to experience increases in temperature and drought events. Wood formation will have to adjust to these new climatic constraints to maintain tree mechanical stability and long‐distance water transport. The aim of this study is to understand the dynamic processes involved in wood formation under warming and drought. Xylogenesis, gas exchange, water relations and wood anatomy of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.] saplings were monitored during a greenhouse experiment where temperature was increased during daytime or night‐time (+6 °C) combined with a drought period. The kinetics of tracheid development expressed as rate and duration of the xylogenesis sub‐processes were quantified using generalized additive models. Drought and warming had a strong influence on cell production, but little effect on wood anatomy. The increase in cell production rate under warmer temperatures, and especially during the night‐time warming at the end of the growing season, resulted in wider tree‐rings. However, the strong compensation between rates and durations of cell differentiation processes mitigates warming and drought effects on tree‐ring structure. Our results allowed quantification of how wood formation kinetics is regulated when water and heat stress increase, allowing trees to adapt to future environmental conditions. Global warming in high‐latitude ecosystems will affect wood formation. This work focuses on the dynamic processes involved in wood formation under experimental drought and warming treatments. Our study demonstrates that drought and warming have a strong impact on cell production, but a weak influence on xylem anatomy. Using innovative analysis of kinetics of tracheid development, we quantified how the compensation mechanisms between rates and durations of the xylogenesis sub‐processes strongly mitigate negative effects of multistress on wood structure.
    Subject(s): xylogenesis ; water deficit ; global warming ; tree‐ring structure ; wood anatomy ; Xylem - physiology ; Picea - physiology ; Wood - physiology ; Adaptation, Physiological - physiology ; Trees - growth & development ; Trees - anatomy & histology ; Global Warming ; Trees - physiology ; Wood - anatomy & histology ; Picea - anatomy & histology ; Picea - growth & development ; Xylem - growth & development ; Dehydration - physiopathology ; Wood - growth & development ; Global warming ; Erythromycin ; Droughts ; Analysis ; Index Medicus ; Life Sciences ; Vegetal Biology ; Environmental Sciences ; Global Changes
    ISSN: 0140-7791
    E-ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Global change biology, 2016-11, Vol.22 (11), p.3804-3813
    Description: The interaction between xylem phenology and climate assesses forest growth and productivity and carbon storage across biomes under changing environmental conditions. We tested the hypothesis that patterns of wood formation are maintained unaltered despite the temperature changes across cold ecosystems. Wood microcores were collected weekly or biweekly throughout the growing season for periods varying between 1 and 13 years during 1998–2014 and cut in transverse sections for assessing the onset and ending of the phases of xylem differentiation. The data set represented 1321 trees belonging to 10 conifer species from 39 sites in the Northern Hemisphere and covering an interval of mean annual temperature exceeding 14 K. The phenological events and mean annual temperature of the sites were related linearly, with spring and autumnal events being separated by constant intervals across the range of temperature analysed. At increasing temperature, first enlarging, wall‐thickening and mature tracheids appeared earlier, and last enlarging and wall‐thickening tracheids occurred later. Overall, the period of wood formation lengthened linearly with the mean annual temperature, from 83.7 days at −2 °C to 178.1 days at 12 °C, at a rate of 6.5 days °C−1. April–May temperatures produced the best models predicting the dates of wood formation. Our findings demonstrated the uniformity of the process of wood formation and the importance of the environmental conditions occurring at the time of growth resumption. Under warming scenarios, the period of wood formation might lengthen synchronously in the cold biomes of the Northern Hemisphere.
    Subject(s): cell production ; cell differentiation ; secondary wall formation ; cambium ; conifers ; meristem ; growth ; climate change ; Trees ; Cold Temperature ; Plant Development ; Xylem ; Ecosystem ; Coniferophyta ; Seasons ; Biomes ; Environmental aspects ; Global temperature changes ; Cell differentiation ; Ecosystems ; Analysis ; Index Medicus ; Life Sciences ; Vegetal Biology
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The New phytologist, 2014-09-01, Vol.203 (4), p.1231-1241
    Description: Conifer tree rings are generally composed of large, thin-walled cells of light earlywood followed by narrow, thick-walled cells of dense latewood. Yet, how wood formation processes and the associated kinetics create this typical pattern remains poorly understood. We monitored tree-ring formation weekly over 3 yr in 45 trees of three conifer species in France. Data were used to model cell development kinetics, and to attribute the relative importance of the duration and rate of cell enlargement and cell wall deposition on tree-ring structure. Cell enlargement duration contributed to 75% of changes in cell diameter along the tree rings. Remarkably, the amount of wall material per cell was quite constant along the rings. Consequently, and in contrast with widespread belief, changes in cell wall thickness were not principally attributed to the duration and rate of wall deposition (33%), but rather to the changes in cell size (67%). Cell enlargement duration, as the main driver of cell size and wall thickness, contributed to 56% of wood density variation along the rings. This mechanistic framework now forms the basis for unraveling how environmental stresses trigger deviations (e.g. false rings) from the normal tree-ring structure.
    Subject(s): Full papers ; Cell growth ; Tracheids ; Cell walls ; Conifers ; Pine trees ; Kinetics ; Wood density ; Growth rings ; Modeling ; Latewood ; xylogenesis ; cambial activity ; conifers ; generalized additive models (GAMs) ; tree‐ring structure ; wood density ; kinetics of tracheid development ; quantitative wood anatomy ; Wood - anatomy & histology ; Coniferophyta - growth & development ; Models, Biological ; Coniferophyta - anatomy & histology ; Xylem - growth & development ; Trees - growth & development ; France ; Wood - growth & development ; Trees - anatomy & histology ; Index Medicus ; Life Sciences ; Agricultural sciences ; Vegetal Biology
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Annals of botany, 2011-09-01, Vol.108 (3), p.429-438
    Description: • Background and Aims Our knowledge about the influences of environmental factors on tree growth is principally based on the study of dominant trees. However, tree social status may influence intra-annual dynamics of growth, leading to differential responses to environmental conditions. The aim was to determine whether withinstand differences in stem diameters of trees belonging to different crown classes resulted from variations in the length of the growing period or in the rate of cell production. • Methods Cambial activity was monitored weekly in 2006 for three crown classes in a 40-year-old silver-fir (Abies alba) plantation near Nancy (France). Timings, duration and rate of tracheid production were assessed from anatomical observations of the developing xylem. • Key Results Cambial activity started earlier, stopped later and lasted longer in dominant trees than in intermediate and suppressed ones. The onset of cambial activity was estimated to have taken 3 weeks to spread to 90 % of the trees in the stand, while the cessation needed 6 weeks. Cambial activity was more intense in dominant trees than in intermediate and suppressed ones. It was estimated that about 75 % of tree-ring width variability was attributable to the rate of cell production and only 25 % to its duration. Moreover, growth duration was correlated to tree height, while growth rate was better correlated to crown area. • Conclusions These results show that, in a closed conifer forest, stem diameter variations resulted principally from differences in the rate of xylem cell production rather than in its duration. Tree size interacts with environmental factors to control the timings, duration and rate of cambial activity through functional processes involving source-sink relationships principally, but also hormonal controls.
    Subject(s): Trees ; Growing seasons ; Social classes ; Xylem ; Tree growth ; Tracheids ; Cell walls ; Tree crowns ; Climate models ; Growth rings ; Abies - cytology ; Xylem - cytology ; Ecosystem ; Abies - growth & development ; Xylem - growth & development ; Trees - growth & development ; France ; Cambium - physiology ; Index Medicus ; Life Sciences ; Botanics ; Vegetal Biology ; tree-ring formation ; social status ; tree-to-tree competition ; xylem cell differentiation ; silver fir (Abies alba) ; forest-stand structure ; Original ; wood anatomy ; Cambial activity
    ISSN: 0305-7364
    E-ISSN: 1095-8290
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Oxford Journals 2016 Current and Archive A-Z Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Global ecology and biogeography, 2008-11-01, Vol.17 (6), p.696-707
    Description: Aim: To identify temperatures at which cell division and differentiation are active in order to verify the existence of a common critical temperature determining growth in conifers of cold climates. Location: Ten European and Canadian sites at different latitudes and altitudes. Methods: The periods of cambial activity and cell differentiation were assessed on a weekly time-scale on histological sections of cambium and wood tissue collected over 2 to 5 years per site from 1998 to 2005 from the stems of seven conifer species. All data were compared with daily air temperatures recorded from weather stations located close to the sites. Logistic regressions were used to calculate the probability of xylogenesis and of cambium being active at a given temperature. Results: Xylogenesis lasted from May to October, with a growing period varying from 3 to 5 months depending on location and elevation. Despite the wide geographical range of the monitored sites, temperatures for onset and ending of xylogenesis converged towards narrow ranges with average values around 4-5, 8-9 and 13-14 °C for daily minimum, mean and maximum temperature, respectively. On the contrary, cell division in the cambium stopped in July-August, when temperatures were still high. Main conclusions: Wood formation in conifers occurred when specific critical temperatures were reached. Although the timing and duration of xylogenesis varied among species, sites and years, the estimated temperatures were stable for all trees studied. These results provide biologically based evidence that temperature is a critical factor limiting production and differentiation of xylem cells in cold climates. Although daily temperatures below 4-5 °C are still favourable for photosynthesis, thermal conditions below these values could inhibit the allocation of assimilated carbon to structural investment, i.e. xylem growth.
    Subject(s): Trees ; Xylem ; Tracheids ; Plant ecology ; Conifers ; Biogeography ; Timberlines ; Critical temperature ; Cambium ; Stems ; xylem ; Boreal forest ; microcoring ; pinning ; cambium ; wood formation ; growing period ; tree line ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; General forest ecology ; General aspects ; Synecology ; Animal, plant and microbial ecology ; Forestry ; Biological and medical sciences ; Animal and plant ecology ; Generalities. Production, biomass. Quality of wood and forest products. General forest ecology ; Climate ; Life Sciences
    ISSN: 1466-822X
    E-ISSN: 1466-8238
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of experimental botany, 2013-01-01, Vol.64 (7), p.1983-1994
    Description: The intra-annual dynamics of wood formation, which involves the passage of newly produced cells through three successive differentiation phases (division, enlargement, and wall thickening) to reach the final functional mature state, has traditionally been described in conifers as three delayed bell-shaped curves followed by an S-shaped curve. Here the classical view represented by the 'Gompertz function (GF) approach' was challenged using two novel approaches based on parametric generalized linear models (GLMs) and 'data-driven' generalized additive models (GAMs). These three approaches (GFs, GLMs, and GAMs) were used to describe seasonal changes in cell numbers in each of the xylem differentiation phases and to calculate the timing of cell development in three conifer species [Picea abies (L.), Pinus sylvestris L., and Abies alba Mill.]. GAMs outperformed GFs and GLMs in describing intra-annual wood formation dynamics, showing two left-skewed bell-shaped curves for division and enlargement, and a right-skewed bimodal curve for thickening. Cell residence times progressively decreased through the season for enlargement, whilst increasing late but rapidly for thickening. These patterns match changes in cell anatomical features within a tree ring, which allows the separation of earlywood and latewood into two distinct cell populations. A novel statistical approach is presented which renews our understanding of xylogenesis, a dynamic biological process in which the rate of cell production interplays with cell residence times in each developmental phase to create complex seasonal patterns.
    Subject(s): Growing seasons ; Xylem ; Tracheids ; Cell walls ; Conifers ; Wood anatomy ; Growth rings ; Parametric models ; Latewood ; Species ; RESEARCH PAPER ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Biological and medical sciences ; Plant physiology and development ; Models, Theoretical ; Pinus - growth & development ; Pinus - metabolism ; Picea - growth & development ; Abies - growth & development ; Abies - metabolism ; Wood - metabolism ; Picea - metabolism ; Wood - growth & development ; Index Medicus ; Life Sciences ; Cambial activity, Conifers, Generalized linear and additive models (GLMs and GAMs), Gompertz functions (GFs), Timing of cell development, Tree ring, Wood formation, Xylogenesis ; xylogenesis ; generalized linear and additive models (GLMs and GAMs) ; timing of cell development ; conifers ; wood formation ; Gompertz functions (GFs) ; Research Paper ; tree ring ; Cambial activity
    ISSN: 0022-0957
    E-ISSN: 1460-2431
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Oxford Journals 2016 Current and Archive A-Z Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Plant, cell and environment, 2019-04, Vol.42 (4), p.1222-1232
    Description: Conifer trees possess a typical anatomical tree‐ring structure characterized by a transition from large and thin‐walled earlywood tracheids to narrow and thick‐walled latewood tracheids. However, little is known on how this characteristic structure is maintained across contrasting environmental conditions, due to its crucial role to ensure sap ascent and mechanical support. In this study, we monitored weekly wood cell formation for up to 7 years in two temperate conifer species (i.e., Picea abies (L.) Karst and Larix decidua Mill.) across an 8°C thermal gradient from 800 to 2,200 m a.s.l. in central Europe to investigate the impact of air temperature on rate and duration of wood cell formation. Results indicated that towards colder sites, forming tracheids compensate a decreased rate of differentiation (cell enlarging and wall thickening) by an extended duration, except for the last cells of the latewood in the wall‐thickening phase. This compensation allows conifer trees to mitigate the influence of air temperature on the final tree‐ring structure, with important implications for the functioning and resilience of the xylem to varying environmental conditions. The disappearing compensation in the thickening latewood cells might also explain the higher climatic sensitivity usually found in maximum latewood density. The structure of conifer wood cells depends on the speed and duration of processes shaping their formation. In this study, we show for the first time that cells growing at colder sites increase their duration of their processes to compensate for a speed reduction. This compensation allows conifers to mitigate the effect of air temperature to maintain a more similar tree‐ring structure despite contrasting conditions.
    Subject(s): temperature response ; xylogenesis ; quantitative wood anatomy ; wood formation dynamics ; tree ring ; conifer ; Temperature ; Picea - physiology ; Wood - cytology ; Wood - anatomy & histology ; Picea - anatomy & histology ; Picea - growth & development ; Larix - physiology ; Xylem - growth & development ; Kinetics ; Larix - growth & development ; Wood - growth & development ; Cell Differentiation - physiology ; Larix - anatomy & histology ; Cell differentiation ; Analysis ; Index Medicus ; Life Sciences
    ISSN: 0140-7791
    E-ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of experimental botany, 2015-01-01, Vol.66 (1), p.377-389
    Description: Warming and drought will occur with increased frequency and intensity at high latitudes in the future. How heat and water stress can influence tree mortality is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate how carbon resources, stem hydraulics, and wood anatomy and density determine the ability of black spruce saplings to survive daytime or night-time warming (+ 6 °C in comparison with control) in combination with a drought period. Plant water relations, the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates and starch, mortality rate, and wood anatomy and density of saplings were monitored. Warming, in conjunction with 25 d of water deficit, increased sapling mortality (10% and 20% in night-time and daytime warming, respectively) compared with the control conditions (0.8%). Drought substantially decreased gas exchange, and also pre-dawn and mid-day leaf water potential to values close to –3 MPa which probably induced xylem embolism (xylem air entry point, P12, being on average around –3 MPa for this species). In addition, the recovery of gas exchange never reached the initial pre-stress levels, suggesting a possible loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity associated with cavitation. Consequently, mortality may be due to xylem hydraulic failure. Warmer temperatures limited the replenishment of starch reserves after their seasonal minimum. Lighter wood was formed during the drought period, reflecting a lower carbon allocation to cell wall formation, preventing the adaptation of the hydraulic system to drought. Saplings of black spruce experienced difficulty in adapting under climate change conditions, which might compromise their survival in the future.
    Subject(s): RESEARCH PAPER ; Adaptation, Physiological ; Wood - anatomy & histology ; Climate Change ; Plant Stems - metabolism ; Droughts ; Picea - anatomy & histology ; Picea - growth & development ; Wood - physiology ; Carbohydrate Metabolism ; Starch - metabolism ; Water - metabolism ; Index Medicus ; Life Sciences ; drought ; survival ; wood density ; warming ; Research Paper ; wood anatomy ; Carbon balance ; climate change
    ISSN: 0022-0957
    E-ISSN: 1460-2431
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Oxford Journals 2016 Current and Archive A-Z Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Annals of botany, 2013-12-01, Vol.112 (9), p.1911-1920
    Description: • Background and Aims Ongoing global warming has been implicated in shifting phenological patterns such as the timing and duration of the growing season across a wide variety of ecosystems. Linear models are routiriely used to extrapolate these observed shifts in phenology into the future and to estimate changes in associated ecosystem properties such as net primary productivity. Yet, in nature, linear relationships may be special cases. Biological processes frequently follow more complex, non-linear patterns according to limiting factors that generate shifts and discontinuities, or contain thresholds beyond which responses change abruptly. This study investigates to what extent cambium phenology is associated with xylem growth and differentiation across conifer species of the northern hemisphere. • Methods Xylem cell production is compared with the periods of cambial activity and cell differentiation assessed on a weekly time scale on histological sections of cambium and wood tissue collected from the stems of nine species in Canada and Europe over 1-9 years per site from 1998 to 2011. • Key Results The dynamics of xylogenesis were surprisingly homogeneous among conifer species, although dispersions from the average were obviously observed. Within the range analysed, the relationships between the phenological timings were linear, with several slopes showing values close to or not statistically different from 1. The relationships between the phenological timings and cell production were distinctly non-linear, and involved an exponential pattern • Conclusions The trees adjust their phenological timings according to linear patterns. Thus, shifts of one phenological phase are associated with synchronous and comparable shifts of the successive phases. However, small increases in the duration of xylogenesis could correspond to a substantial increase in cell production. The findings suggest that the length of the growing season and the resulting amount of growth could respond differently to changes in environmental conditions.
    Subject(s): Climate change ; Cell growth ; Xylem ; Tracheids ; Phenology ; Cell walls ; Conifers ; Cambium ; Cellular differentiation ; Species ; Cambium - growth & development ; Canada ; Xylem - cytology ; Climate Change ; Coniferophyta - growth & development ; Europe ; Xylem - growth & development ; Cell Differentiation ; Index Medicus ; Life Sciences ; xylogenesis ; cell production ; cell differentiation ; secondary wall formation ; conifers ; meristem ; productivity ; phenology ; growth ; Original ; climate change
    ISSN: 0305-7364
    E-ISSN: 1095-8290
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Oxford Journals 2016 Current and Archive A-Z Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in plant science, 2021, Vol.12, p.595258-595258
    Description: Knowledge about past climates, especially at a seasonal time scale, is important as it allows informed decisions to be made to mitigate future climate change. However, globally, and especially in semi-arid Tropics, instrumental climatic data are scarce. A dendroclimatic approach may fill this gap, but tropical dendrochronological data are rare and do not yet provide fine resolution intra-annual information about past climates. Unlike in the Tropics, in the Mediterranean, temperate, alpine, and arctic regions, dendroanatomy and quantitative wood anatomy (QWA) are progressing fast attaining an intra-annual resolution, which allows a better understanding of seasonal climate dynamics and climate-growth relationships. The existing dendroanatomical and QWA methods aren't suitable for tropical trees because they do not consider the high variation in tree ring width and the frequent occurrence of micro-rings containing only a few tracheids per radial file. The available tracheid analysis programs generally fail to provide multiple sectors for micro-rings and they are unable to compute most of the useful dendroanatomical parameters at fine temporal resolutions. Here, we present a program (SabaTracheid) that addresses the three main standard tasks that are necessary for QWA and dendroanatomy before running a climate analysis: (1) tracheidogram standardization, (2) sectoring, and (3) computing QWA and dendroanatomical variables. SabaTracheid is demonstrated on African Juniper ( Hochst. ex Endl), but it is potentially able to provide fine-resolution QWA and dendroanatomic data that could be used for dendroanatomical studies in all regions of the world. is a freeware that quickly and accurately standardizes tracheidograms, divides tree rings into multiple regular sectors, computes useful dendroanatomic and QWA variables for the whole tree rings, early- and latewood portions, and each sector separately. This program is particularly adapted to deal with high inter-annual growth variations observed in tropical trees so that it assures the provision of complete sectoral QWA and dendroanatomical data for micro-rings as well. We demonstrate using a dataset of 30 tree rings from the Blue Nile basin, in Ethiopia. 's ability to provide fine resolution QWA and dendroanatomic data will help the discipline develop in tropical as well as in the Mediterranean and temperate regions.
    Subject(s): Climatic changes ; earlywood and latewood anatomy ; Plant Science ; quantitative wood anatomy (QWA) ; dendroanatomy ; tracheidogram methods ; tropical conifers
    ISSN: 1664-462X
    E-ISSN: 1664-462X
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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