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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of applied polymer science, 2018-07-20, Vol.135 (28), p.46488-n/a
    Description: ABSTRACT Investigation of crystallization behavior and kinetics of thermoplastic elastomer nanocomposites was the subject of limited works because of complexities associated with semiexperimental modeling of such phenomenon in a system containing components having completely different behavior in the molten state. Nonisothermal crystallization kinetics of dynamically vulcanized PA6/NBR/HNTs thermoplastic elastomer nanocomposites was mathematically modeled applying well‐known Avrami, Ozawa, and Mo theoretical models to the differential scanning calorimetry data gathered at various cooling rates. It was found that HNTs contribute as nucleating agents to the crystallization kinetics and cause acceleration of crystallization. Activation energy of the crystallization was calculated by correlating the crystallization peak temperature with the cooling rate using Kissinger model. It was found that Mo equation could properly describe nonisothermal crystallization kinetics of the PA6/NBR/HNTs thermoplastic elastomer nanocomposites. This was recognized from the obtained parameters of Mo equation in terms of HNTs loading level, which suggested a higher rate for dynamic crystallization. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2018, 135, 46488.
    Subject(s): crystallization ; thermal properties ; differential scanning calorimetry ; theory and modeling ; Thermal properties ; Calorimetry ; Thermoplastics ; Activation energy ; Analysis ; Elastomers ; Polymers ; Material chemistry ; Chemical Sciences
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    E-ISSN: 1097-4628
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Physical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics, 2009-10, Vol.80 (4 Pt 2), p.046106-046106
    Description: Spatial structure is known to have an impact on the evolution of cooperation, and so it has been intensively studied during recent years. Previous work has shown the relevance of some features, such as the synchronicity of the updating, the clustering of the network, or the influence of the update rule. This has been done, however, for concrete settings with particular games, networks, and update rules, with the consequence that some contradictions have arisen and a general understanding of these topics is missing in the broader context of the space of 2x2 games. To address this issue, we have performed a systematic and exhaustive simulation in the different degrees of freedom of the problem. In some cases, we generalize previous knowledge to the broader context of our study and explain the apparent contradictions. In other cases, however, our conclusions refute what seems to be established opinions in the field, as for example the robustness of the effect of spatial structure against changes in the update rule, or offer new insights into the subject, e.g., the relation between the intensity of selection and the asymmetry between the effects on games with mixed equilibria.
    Subject(s): Biological Evolution ; Genetics, Population ; Social Behavior ; Computer Simulation ; Humans ; Cooperative Behavior ; Models, Genetic ; Population Dynamics ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 1539-3755
    E-ISSN: 1550-2376
    Source: PROLA - Physical Review Online Archive
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    2006
    ISSN: 0031-9007 
    Language: English
    In: Physical review letters, 2006-10-13, Vol.97 (15), p.158701-158701
    Description: Evolutionary game theory has traditionally assumed that all individuals in a population interact with each other between reproduction events. We show that eliminating this restriction by explicitly considering the time scales of interaction and selection leads to dramatic changes in the outcome of evolution. Examples include the selection of the inefficient strategy in the Harmony and Stag-Hunt games, and the disappearance of the coexistence state in the Snowdrift game. Our results hold for any population size and in more general situations with additional factors influencing fitness.
    Subject(s): Biological Evolution ; Game Theory ; Models, Genetic ; Population Dynamics ; Index Medicus
    ISSN: 0031-9007
    E-ISSN: 1079-7114
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: PROLA - Physical Review Online Archive
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of economic surveys, 2020-02, Vol.34 (1), p.3-34
    Description: Adolescence constitutes the second and final window of human growth and a period of specific vulnerabilities, such as early pregnancy, early marriage, HIV infection, suicide, violence, alcohol, and drugs. Only a limited body of research investigates the effects of humanitarian crises on the human capital and well‐being of adolescents. The evidence focuses on the short‐term effects of conflict and, to a lesser extent, natural disasters on education, physical health, and nutrition, but not on mental health. Most analyses examine the situations of individuals exposed in utero and young childhood, but rarely during adolescence. Typically missing are robust empirical identification strategies and estimates on heterogeneous effects across age or gender. The lack of quality data and challenges in defining adolescence, establishing causality, or ensuring ethical research explain the knowledge gaps. Possible ways to expand the evidence base include mixing georeferenced data on individual location with georeferenced data on crises, sharpening quasi‐experimental analytical techniques, and reconsidering the current timing of demographic data collection, now spanning 4‐ or 5‐year intervals. The failure to make such adjustments will end by ignoring specific vulnerabilities among adolescents and render sustainable progress in well‐being globally, narrowing inequalities, and guaranteeing human rights to all more difficult to achieve.
    Subject(s): Adolescence ; Humanitarian crises ; Natural disaster ; Human capital ; Conflict ; Well‐being
    ISSN: 0950-0804
    E-ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 5
    Article
    Article
    2019
    ISSN: 0022-0388 
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of development studies, 2019-09-02, Vol.55 (9), p.2024-2045
    Description: This paper develops a simple econometric strategy to operationalise the United Nations Children's Fund's (UNICEF's) conceptual framework for nutrition. It estimates the extent to which child stunting correlates with investments in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) across population groups (poor and nonpoor) and residence (urban and rural). Moving away from estimating single intervention marginal returns, the empirical framework of intervention packages is tested in Tunisia, a country with notable but uneven progress in reducing stunting. A successful nutritional strategy will thereby require mapping the distinctive intervention packages by residence and socio-economic status, away from universal policies, that more strongly correlate with reduction in stunting.
    ISSN: 0022-0388
    E-ISSN: 1743-9140
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: Taylor & Francis Open Access
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of mathematical biology, 2018-01, Vol.76 (1), p.67-96
    Description: The Sheldon spectrum describes a remarkable regularity in aquatic ecosystems: the biomass density as a function of logarithmic body mass is approximately constant over many orders of magnitude. While size-spectrum models have explained this phenomenon for assemblages of multicellular organisms, this paper introduces a species-resolved size-spectrum model to explain the phenomenon in unicellular plankton. A Sheldon spectrum spanning the cell-size range of unicellular plankton necessarily consists of a large number of coexisting species covering a wide range of characteristic sizes. The coexistence of many phytoplankton species feeding on a small number of resources is known as the Paradox of the Plankton. Our model resolves the paradox by showing that coexistence is facilitated by the allometric scaling of four physiological rates. Two of the allometries have empirical support, the remaining two emerge from predator–prey interactions exactly when the abundances follow a Sheldon spectrum. Our plankton model is a scale-invariant trait-based size-spectrum model: it describes the abundance of phyto- and zooplankton cells as a function of both size and species trait (the maximal size before cell division). It incorporates growth due to resource consumption and predation on smaller cells, death due to predation, and a flexible cell division process. We give analytic solutions at steady state for both the within-species size distributions and the relative abundances across species.
    Subject(s): Scale-invariance ; Plankton ; 92D25 ; 92C37 ; Mathematical and Computational Biology ; Size-spectrum ; Cell division ; Mathematics ; Applications of Mathematics ; Coexistence ; Allometry ; 92D40
    ISSN: 0303-6812
    E-ISSN: 1432-1416
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 7
    Article
    Article
    2020
    ISSN: 0957-8811 
    Language: English
    In: European journal of development research, 2020-11-02, p.1-34
    ISSN: 0957-8811
    E-ISSN: 1743-9728
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Open biology, 2018-07, Vol.8 (7), p.180069
    Description: Evolutionary dynamics is often viewed as a subtle process of change accumulation that causes a divergence among organisms and their genomes. However, this interpretation is an inheritance of a gradualistic view that has been challenged at the macroevolutionary, ecological and molecular level. Actually, when the complex architecture of genotype spaces is taken into account, the evolutionary dynamics of molecular populations becomes intrinsically non-uniform, sharing deep qualitative and quantitative similarities with slowly driven physical systems: nonlinear responses analogous to critical transitions, sudden state changes or hysteresis, among others. Furthermore, the phenotypic plasticity inherent to genotypes transforms classical fitness landscapes into multiscapes where adaptation in response to an environmental change may be very fast. The quantitative nature of adaptive molecular processes is deeply dependent on a network-of-networks multilayered structure of the map from genotype to function that we begin to unveil.
    Subject(s): Models, Theoretical ; Genotype ; Genetic Fitness ; Evolution, Molecular ; Index Medicus ; adaptive multiscapes ; network-of-networks ; molecular promiscuity ; phenotypic plasticity ; punctuated dynamics ; genotype–phenotype map
    ISSN: 2046-2441
    E-ISSN: 2046-2441
    Source: HighWire Press (Free Journals)
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Child indicators research, 2021-04, Vol.14 (2), p.821-846
    Description: AbstractMultidimensional child poverty (MDCP) and well-being measures are increasingly developed in the literature. Much more effort has gone to highlight the differences across measurement approaches than to stress the multiple conceptual and practical similarities across measures. We propose a new framework, the Integrated Framework for Child Poverty—IFCP––that combines three main conceptual approaches, the Capability Approach, Human Rights, and Basic Needs into an integrated bio-ecological framework. This integrated approach aims to bring more clarity about the concept and dynamics of multidimensional poverty and well-being and to disentangle causes from effects, outcomes from opportunities, dynamic from static elements, and observed from assumed behaviours. Moreover, the IFCP explains the MDCP dynamics that link the resources (goods and services), to child capabilities (opportunities) and achieved functionings (outcomes), and describes how these are mediated by the individual, social and environmental conversion factors as specified in the capability approach. Access to safe water is taken as a conceptual illustrative case, while the extended measurement of child poverty and well-being among Egyptian children ages 0 to 5 as an empirical example using IFCP. The proposed framework marks a step forward in understanding child poverty and well-being multidimensional linkages and suggesting desirable features and data requirements of MDCP and well-being measures.
    ISSN: 1874-897X
    E-ISSN: 1874-8988
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 10
    Article
    Article
    2012
    ISSN: 0022-3433 
    Language: English
    In: Journal of peace research, 2012-11-01, Vol.49 (6), p.833-846
    Description: The allegedly complex relationship between trust and victimization has rarely been modeled and, when done, the effect of trust on victimization has been found not statistically significant. This study finds otherwise, estimating an instrumental model with community data from Cali, Colombia. Cali's dismal levels of victimization were only second to Medellin, the most violent city of the world in the 1990s. But Cali also pioneered a strategy of social capital formation as the backbone of a deliberate public policy to crack down on high levels of crime. This article first develops a model of victimization that includes interpersonal trust as determinant and then instruments interpersonal trust with district-level average trust. We argue that an individual-specific level of trust in his or her community members does not affect the community level of interpersonal trust in the margin. However, the levels - or perceived levels - of interpersonal trust in the community may affect the specific level of trust of an individual in other members ofthat community, along with personal characteristics and experience. Using GMM estimates, this study finds evidence of a relationship between interpersonal trust and victimization, statistically significant and negative in sign. The result is robust across specifications of trust, victimization, and estimating techniques. We conclude that increasing trust in trusting communities contributes to reducing victimization in its own right, although the effect is modest. Consequently, strengthening interpersonal trust is another bullet to combat victimization but it is not a silver bullet.
    Subject(s): Statistical significance ; Communities ; Criminal behavior ; Crime ; Instrumental variables estimation ; Violent crimes ; Criminal offenses ; Socioeconomics ; Social capital ; Crime victims ; Victim-offender relationship ; Analysis ; Trust (Psychology)
    ISSN: 0022-3433
    E-ISSN: 1460-3578
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences II
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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