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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 2018-04, Vol.28 (3), p.1-6
    Description: Since 2010 to present, several subsize magnet assemblies, designed as test beds for the validation of impregnated Nb 3 Sn-based coil technology, have been tested at the Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (SM18) at CERN. These short model coils and racetrack model coils have been used to study two types of Rutherford cables foreseen for the coils of the Nb 3 Sn magnets in the framework of the HL-LHC upgrade and High Field Magnet program of CERN. During several test campaigns, the Rod Restack Process and the Powder-In-Tube conductors have been characterized in terms of performance and quench propagation velocity (QPV). Moreover, hot spot temperature (HST) increase during quenches has been estimated from the analysis of the registered voltage and current signals. In this paper, the multiphysics problem of quench propagation in Nb 3 Sn cables is addressed under adiabatic conditions by means of a set of analytical formulae and several finite element models with different level of complexity in ANSYS APDL, COMSOL Multiphysics, and MATLAB. These models are aimed at describing the conductor behavior in terms of HST and QPV observed during the training of racetrack coils at SM18.
    Subject(s): Coils ; Power cables ; Niobium-tin ; hot spot temperature ; superconducting coils ; Superconducting cables ; Geometry ; Finite element method ; numerical modelling ; Copper ; Mathematical model ; quench propagation velocity ; HL-LHC
    ISSN: 1051-8223
    E-ISSN: 1558-2515
    Source: IEEE Electronic Library (IEL)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Optics letters, 2015-10-01, Vol.40 (19), p.4424-4427
    Description: This contribution presents distributed and multipoint fiber-optic monitoring of cryogenic temperatures along a superconducting power transmission line down to 30 K and over 20 m distance. Multipoint measurements were conducted using fiber Bragg gratings sensors coated with two different functional overlays (epoxy and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)) demonstrating cryogenic operation in the range 300-4.2 K. Distributed measurements exploited optical frequency-domain reflectometry to analyze the Rayleigh scattering along two concatenated fibers with different coatings (acrylate and polyimide). The integrated system has been placed along the 20 m long cryostat of a superconducting power transmission line, which is currently being tested at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Cool-down events from 300-30 K have been successfully measured in space and time, confirming the viability of these approaches to the monitoring of cryogenic temperatures along a superconducting transmission line.
    ISSN: 0146-9592
    E-ISSN: 1539-4794
    Source: OSA Publishing
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 2020-06, Vol.30 (4), p.1-4
    Description: The first of series (FoS) multiplet built for the Super-FRS at GSI/FAIR was delivered to a dedicated magnet test facility at CERN. After a series of tests at room temperature, it was cooled down to 4.5 K and is now under cold powering test. The commissioning of the CERN test facility is performed in parallel with the magnet testing. The quadrupole and the sextupole magnet enclosed in the cryostat module are superferric magnets with a large aperture diameter of 380 mm. The yoke length of the quadrupole magnet and the sextupole magnet is 1200 mm and 500 mm, respectively. The features of the magnets are vacuum impregnated racetrack coils made of Nb-Ti conductor and a maximum integrated gradient of 11.4 T/m × m for the quadrupole magnet and 20 T/m 2 × m for the sextupole magnet, respectively. This paper presents the design issues of the magnets, especially of the quadrupole magnet, an overview of a qualification process of the multiplets, and preliminary test results.
    Subject(s): Coils ; magnetic design ; Magnetic separation ; Magnetomechanical effects ; quadrupole magnet ; Superconducting magnets ; Magnetic noise ; superferric magnet ; Accelerator magnets ; Saturation magnetization ; Magnetic shielding
    ISSN: 1051-8223
    E-ISSN: 1558-2515
    Source: IEEE Electronic Library (IEL)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 2018-06, Vol.28 (4), p.1-5
    Description: The replacement of the LHC Nb-Ti inner triplet magnets with more powerful quadrupole magnets based on Nb3 Sn superconductor, as foreseen by the HiLumi LHC Project, has pushed the technology advancement not only in the manufacturing process and tooling but also in the instrumentation. For the short model quadrupole magnet MQXFS-5, fabricated and tested at CERN, fiber optic sensors, based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology, have been proposed for monitoring the magnet mechanical behavior from its assembly to its operation in cryogenic conditions. After the experience gained with the FBG integration in short model racetrack coils, the paper deals with the first integration of 16 FBG sensors arranged into eight fibers and glued on the coils and on the support structure of the Nb3 Sn quadrupole. The advantages offered by the FBGs' multiplexing capability has allowed the integration improvement of the FBG-based measuring system in the magnet structure as well as in the test facility. Examples of strain measurements during magnet assembly, cool-down and powering are presented in the paper and compared with strain gauges data.
    Subject(s): Coils ; strain measurements ; Optical fiber sensors ; Superconducting magnets ; Fiber gratings ; Strain measurement ; FBG ; Nb〈inline-formula xmlns:ali="http://www.niso.org/schemas/ali/1.0/" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"〉 〈tex-math notation="LaTeX"〉 {_{3}}〈/tex-math〉 〈/inline-formula〉Sn quadrupole
    ISSN: 1051-8223
    E-ISSN: 1558-2515
    Source: IEEE Electronic Library (IEL)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 2018-06, Vol.28 (4), p.1-5
    Description: Within the 11T dipole magnet conductor development for the high-luminosity LHC upgrade, two types of Nb3 Sn cable based on the powder-in-tube (PIT) and the Rod and Restack processes (RRP) are tested in racetrack configuration in the short model coil (SMC) magnets. In 2016 and 2017, the performances of three different coils wound with 40-strand cables, one made of OST RRP 132/169 and two of PIT 120 strands have been measured using the SMC structure. This paper reports on the main design parameters of the SMC-11T-3 (RRP), and the SMC-11T-4 and SMC-11T-5 (PIT) magnets including details on the instrumentation, applied preload, maximum expected performances, residual resistivity ratio, splice resistances, and inductances. For SMC-11T-3, eight consecutive runs have been performed varying the azimuthal prestress from 150 to 200 MPa with the aim to study the impact of the transverse pressure on the magnet stability and degradation. Only two runs were done for SMC-11T-4 and SMC-11T-5. For the three magnets, the training behavior at both 4.2 and 1.9 K is analyzed in terms of training rate, quench location, maximum quench current and its dependence to the helium bath temperature, the level of transverse prestress, and current ramp rate. The main outcome of the tests on the coil performance is given as conclusion.
    Subject(s): Training ; High luminosity LHC ; Magnetic field measurement ; Magnetomechanical effects ; high field Nb〈sub xmlns:ali="http://www.niso.org/schemas/ali/1.0/" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"〉3 Sn magnets ; Superconducting magnets ; Conductors ; superconducting coils racetrack ; Stress ; Strain
    ISSN: 1051-8223
    E-ISSN: 1558-2515
    Source: IEEE Electronic Library (IEL)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 2019-08, Vol.29 (5), p.1-5
    Description: For the high luminosity upgrade of the CERN large hadron collider, lower β* quadrupole magnets based on advanced Nb 3 Sn conductors will be installed on each side of the ATLAS and compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment insertion zones. As part of the technological developments needed to achieve the required field gradient of 132.6 T/m within a 150-mm aperture, short length model magnets, named MQXFS, are tested both at the CERN SM18 and Fermilab test facilities. The model magnets rely on two types of Nb 3 Sn conductors (restack rod process (RRP) and powderin-tube (PIT)) and on an innovative bladders and keys design to provide mechanical support against the Lorentz forces. In 2016 and 2017, the powering tests of the first two models MQXFS3 (RRP) and MQXFS5 (PIT) proved that nominal performance (16.5 kA) could be reached with excellent memory of the quench current after thermal cycle. However both magnets showed a slow training behavior with clear observations of voltage disturbances before the quench. Besides, only MQXFS5 could reach ultimate current (17.9 kA) whereas erratic behavior was observed on MQXFS3 due to conductor local degradation at the head of one of the coils. In 2018, this limiting coil was changed and the applied azimuthal prestress increased. While ultimate current could then be reached, no stable current could be maintained due to identified defect on the outer layer of the new coil. Finally the outcome of the test of the new model MQXFS4, featuring the final RRP conductors that will be used for the series production and variation on the inner layer quench heater designs are here reported in details.
    Subject(s): Coils ; Training ; Heating systems ; Insulation ; quench ; Niobium-tin ; Superconducting magnets ; Conductors ; Nb〈inline-formula xmlns:ali="http://www.niso.org/schemas/ali/1.0/" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"〉 〈tex-math notation="LaTeX"〉 _\text{3}〈/tex-math〉 〈/inline-formula〉Sn ; low beta quadrupole ; PARTICLE ACCELERATORS
    ISSN: 1051-8223
    E-ISSN: 1558-2515
    Source: IEEE Electronic Library (IEL)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 2018-04, Vol.28 (3), p.1-10
    Description: The EuCARD2 collaboration aims at the development of a 10 kA-class superconducting, high current density cable suitable for accelerator magnets, to be tested in small coils and magnets capable to deliver 3-5 T when energized in stand-alone mode, and 15-18 T when inserted in a 12-13 T background magnet. REBCO tape, assembled in a Roebel cable, was selected as conductor. The developed REBCO tape has reached a record engineering critical current density, at 4.2 K and 18 T of 956 A/mm 2 . Roebel cable carried up to 13 kA at 20 K when tested in a small coil (FeatherM0.4). Then a first dipole magnet, wound with two low-grade Roebel cables of 25 m each, was assembled and tested. The dipole reached the short sample critical current of 6 kA generating more than 3 T central field at about 5.7 K, with indications of good current transfer among cable strands and of relatively soft transition. The construction of a costheta dipole is also discussed. Eucard2 is reaching its objective and is continuing with the H2020-ARIES program aiming at doubling the Je at 20 T to obtain 6 T as standalone and 18 T as insert in a high field facility.
    Subject(s): Coils ; High-temperature superconductors ; accelerator magnets ; Critical current density (superconductivity) ; Collaboration ; HTS dipoles ; Superconducting magnets ; Conductors ; HTS conductor ; Condensed Matter Physics ; Electrical and Electronic Engineering ; Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
    ISSN: 1051-8223
    E-ISSN: 1558-2515
    Source: IEEE Electronic Library (IEL)
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  • 8
  • 9
    Language: English
    In: IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity, 2019-02-04
    Description: For the High Luminosity Upgrade of the CERN Large Hadron Collider, lower * quadrupole magnets based on advanced Nb3Sn conductors will be installed on each side of the ATLAS and CMS experiment insertion zones. As part of the technological developments needed to achieve the required field gradient of 132.6 T/m within a 150-mm aperture, short length model magnets, named MQXFS, are tested both at the CERN SM18 and FERMI Lab test facilities. The model magnets rely on two types of Nb3Sn conductors (RRP and PIT) and on an innovative bladders and keys design to provide mechanical support against the Lorentz forces. In 2016 and 2017, the powering tests of the first two models MQXFS3 (RRP) and MQXFS5 (PIT) proved that nominal performance (16.5 kA) could be reached with excellent memory of the quench current after thermal cycle. However both magnets showed a slow training behavior with clear observations of voltage disturbances before the quench. Besides MQXFS5 only could reach ultimate current (17.9 kA) whereas erratic behavior was observed on MQXFS3 due to conductor local degradation at the head of one of the coil. In 2018, this limiting coil was changed and the applied azimuthal pre-stress increased. If ultimate current could then be reached, no stable current could be maintained due to identified defect on the outer layer of the new coil. Finally the outcome of the test of the new model MQXFS4, featuring the final RRP conductors that will be used for the series production and variation on the inner layer quench heater designs are here reported in details.
    Subject(s): PARTICLE ACCELERATORS
    ISSN: 1051-8223
    E-ISSN: 1558-2515
    Source: IEEE Electronic Library (IEL)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity (Print), 2019, Vol.29 (5)
    Description: For the high luminosity upgrade of the CERN large hadron collider, lower beta* quadrupole magnets based on advanced Nb3Sn conductors will be installed on each side of the ATLAS and compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment insertion zones. As part of the technological developments needed to achieve the required field gradient of 132.6 T/m within a 150-mm aperture, short length model magnets, named MQXFS, are tested both at the CERN SM18 and Fermilab test facilities. The model magnets rely on two types of Nb3Sn conductors (restack rod process (RRP) and powderin-tube (PIT)) and on an innovative bladders and keys design to provide mechanical support against the Lorentz forces. In 2016 and 2017, the powering tests of the first two models MQXFS3 (RRP) and MQXFS5 (PIT) proved that nominal performance (16.5 kA) could be reached with excellent memory of the quench current after thermal cycle. However both magnets showed a slow training behavior with clear observations of voltage disturbances before the quench. Besides, only MQXFS5 could reach ultimate current (17.9 kA) whereas erratic behavior was observed on MQXFS3 due to conductor local degradation at the head of one of the coils. In 2018, this limiting coil was changed and the applied azimuthal prestress increased. While ultimate current could then be reached, no stable current could be maintained due to identified defect on the outer layer of the new coil. Finally the outcome of the test of the new model MQXFS4, featuring the final RRP conductors that will be used for the series production and variation on the inner layer quench heater designs are here reported in details.
    Subject(s): Fysik ; quench ; Physical Sciences ; Subatomic Physics ; Nb3Sn ; Naturvetenskap ; Subatomär fysik ; Natural Sciences ; low beta quadrupole ; superconducting magnets
    ISSN: 1051-8223
    ISSN: 1558-2515
    E-ISSN: 1558-2515
    Source: IEEE Electronic Library (IEL)
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