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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    2019
    ISSN: 0013-0133  ISSN: 1468-0297 
    Language: English
    In: The Economic journal (London), 2019-01-01, Vol.129 (617), p.172-208
    Description: We study a Chilean programme that combines home visits to households in extreme poverty with guaranteed access to social services. Its goal was to connect marginalised families to the social system to improve their living conditions. Programme impacts are identified using regression discontinuity exploring the fact that eligibility is a discontinuous function of an index of family income and assets. There is no evidence of short or long-term effects on employment or housing. However, we find short and medium-term impacts on the take-up of subsidies and employment services among families without access to the welfare system prior to the intervention.
    Subject(s): Economics ; Samhällsvetenskap ; Economics and Business ; Social Sciences ; Nationalekonomi ; Ekonomi och näringsliv
    ISSN: 0013-0133
    ISSN: 1468-0297
    E-ISSN: 1468-0297
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Oxford Journals A-Z Collection
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Diversity & distributions, 2019-02-01, Vol.25 (2), p.255-268
    Description: Aim This study reviews recent research on the South Atlantic Mesophotic ecosystems (MEs) and the pressures threatening them, and offers suggestions for their management and conservation. Location The South Atlantic Ocean. Methods A comprehensive compilation of the scientific literature was performed to examine the distribution, human impacts and conservation status of the South Atlantic MEs. Results Our review indicated that the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) is one of the major MEs areas in the world's oceans. The South Atlantic MEs are composed of a mosaic of distinct seascapes, mainly rhodolith beds, mesophotic reefs (i.e., rocky and biogenic) and marine animal forests (e.g., sponge aggregations, octocoral and black coral forests) that occur along the East South American and West African coasts, seamounts and oceanic islands. Throughout the SAO, the distinct seascapes of MEs are usually formed on the middle and outer continental shelves, shelf‐edge, seamounts, submarine canyons, incised valleys and paleochannels, reef structures and insular shelves. We highlighted sea temperature anomalies, ocean acidification, extreme floods and droughts, fisheries, invasive species, marine debris, mining, and oil and gas exploitation as major threats to these ecosystems. Main conclusions Given the threats to the South Atlantic MEs, growing human pressures may degrade these ecosystems in the next years and undermine their unique biodiversity as well as their potential to provide connectivity between regions and depths. Our review revealed the existence of some extensive and unprotected formations, which urgently demand in‐depth investigations and conservation action.
    Subject(s): BIODIVERSITY REVIEW ; marine conservation ; deep‐sea refugia ; coral reef ; rhodolith bed ; marine biogeography ; climate change
    ISSN: 1366-9516
    E-ISSN: 1472-4642
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: ProQuest Central
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    2016
    ISSN: 0013-0133 
    Language: English
    In: The Economic journal (London), 2016-10, Vol.126 (596), p.F66-F95
    Description: This article studies the impact of permanent and transitory shocks to income on parental investments in children. We use panel data on family income and an index of investments in children, from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. We find that there is partial insurance of parental investments against permanent income shocks but the magnitude of the estimated responses is small. We cannot reject the hypothesis of full insurance against temporary shocks. Another interpretation of our findings is that insurance possibilities are limited but the fact that skill is a non‐separable function of parental investments over time results in small reactions of these investments to income shocks, especially at later ages.
    Subject(s): Parenting ; Investments ; Parent and child
    ISSN: 0013-0133
    E-ISSN: 1468-0297
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Oxford Journals A-Z Collection
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Quarterly journal of economics, 2016-08-01, Vol.131 (3), p.1415-1453
    Description: Abstract We assigned two cohorts of kindergarten students, totaling more than 24,000 children, to teachers within schools with a rule that is as good as random. We collected data on children at the beginning of the school year and applied 12 tests of math, language, and executive function (EF) at the end of the year. All teachers were filmed teaching for a full day, and the videos were coded using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (or CLASS). We find substantial classroom effects: A 1 standard deviation increase in classroom quality results in 0.11, 0.11, and 0.07 standard deviation higher test scores in language, math, and EF, respectively. Teacher behaviors, as measured by the CLASS, are associated with higher test scores. Parents recognize better teachers, but do not change their behaviors appreciably to take account of differences in teacher quality.
    Subject(s): Teachers, Rating of ; Academic achievement ; Influence ; Social aspects ; Education ; Methods
    ISSN: 0033-5533
    E-ISSN: 1531-4650
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Oxford Journals 2016 Current and Archive A-Z Collection
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The American economic review, 2011, Vol.101 (6), p.2309-2349
    Description: This paper presents new evidence that increases in college enrollment lead to a decline in the average quality of college graduates between 1960 and 2000, resulting in a decrease of 6 percentage points in the college premium. A standard demand and supply framework can qualitatively account for the trend in the college and age premia over this period, but substantial quantitative adjustments are needed to account for changes in quality.
    Subject(s): Arbeitskräftebedarf ; Arbeitskräfteangebot ; Regionaler Vergleich ; USA ; Bildungsbeteiligung ; Bildungsniveau ; Akademiker ; Lohn ; Bildungsertrag ; Hochschulabsolvent ; Lohnentwicklung ; Qualifikationsniveau ; Altersabhängigkeit ; Bildungsverhalten ; Hochschulbildung ; Labor supply ; Standardized tests ; College graduates ; Labor markets ; Labor demand ; Census regions ; Wages ; School enrollment ; Written composition ; Age groups ; Evaluation ; Growth ; Educational aspects ; College attendance ; Quality control
    ISSN: 0002-8282
    E-ISSN: 1944-7981
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences I
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The American economic review, 2011, Vol.101 (6), p.2754-2781
    Description: This paper estimates marginal returns to college for individuals induced to enroll in college by different marginal policy changes. The recent instrumental variables literature seeks to estimate this parameter, but in general it does so only under strong assumptions that are tested and found wanting. We show how to utilize economic theory and local instrumental variables estimators to estimate the effect of marginal policy changes. Our empirical analysis shows that returns are higher for individuals with values of unobservables that make them more likely to attend college. We contrast our estimates with IV estimates of the return to schooling. JEL: I23, J24, J31
    Subject(s): Bildungswesen ; Bildungspolitik ; Bildungsertrag ; USA ; Politische Reform ; Schätzung ; Outcomes of education ; Economic models ; P values ; Instrumental variables estimation ; Standard error ; Polynomials ; Shorter Papers ; Tuition ; Public colleges ; Unemployment ; Estimation methods ; Economics ; Usage ; Research ; College attendance ; Returns to Schooling ; Marginal Return ; Average Return ; Marginal Treatment Effect
    ISSN: 0002-8282
    E-ISSN: 1944-7981
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences I
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: American economic journal. Economic policy, 2014-11-01, Vol.6 (4), p.135-173
    Description: This paper provides new estimates of the medium- and long-term impacts of Head Start on health and behavioral problems. We identify these impacts using discontinuities in the probability of participation induced by program eligibility rules. Our strategy allows us to identify the effect of Head Start for the individuals in the neighborhoods of multiple discontinuities. Participation in the program reduces the incidence of behavioral problems, health problems, and obesity of male children at ages 12 and 13. It lowers depression and obesity among adolescents, and it reduces engagement in criminal activities and idleness for young adults.
    Subject(s): Preschool education ; Entitlement programs ; Family size ; Preschool children ; Standard deviation ; Children ; Child care ; Age ; Age groups ; Overweight
    ISSN: 1945-7731
    E-ISSN: 1945-774X
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences VI
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  • 8
    Article
    Article
    2015
    ISSN: 0047-2697  ISSN: 1537-534X  ISSN: 0022-3808 
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of political economy, 2015-04-01, Vol.123 (2), p.365-412
    Description: We study a change in maternity leave entitlements in Norway. Mothers giving birth before July 1, 1977, were eligible for 12 weeks of unpaid leave, while those giving birth after that date were entitled to 4 months of paid leave and 12 months of unpaid leave. The increased time spent with the child led to a 2 percentage point decline in high school dropout rates and a 5 percent increase in wages at age 30. These effects were larger for the children of mothers who, in the absence of the reform, would have taken very low levels of unpaid leave.
    Subject(s): Abbruch ; Bildungsbeteiligung ; Reformpolitik ; Einkommenseffekt ; Norwegen ; Sekundarbereich ; Studium ; Mutterschaft ; Schule ; Mutterschaftsurlaub ; Erziehungsurlaub ; Lohnhöhe ; Kind ; Auswirkung ; Elternzeit ; Schulleistung ; Hochschulbildung ; Women ; School dropouts ; Linear regression ; Maternity leave ; Standard error ; Children ; Mothers ; Child care ; Childbirth ; College attendance ; Maternity benefits ; Economic aspects ; Planning ; Family leave
    ISSN: 0047-2697
    ISSN: 1537-534X
    ISSN: 0022-3808
    E-ISSN: 1537-534X
    Source: University of Chicago Press Journals (Full run)
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences I
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: NORA - Norwegian Open Research Archives
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
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  • 9
    Article
    Article
    2012
    ISSN: 1945-7782 
    Language: English
    In: American economic journal. Applied economics, 2012-07-01, Vol.4 (3), p.64-89
    Description: Enforcement of labor regulations in the formal sector may drive workers to informality because they increase the costs of formal labor. But better compliance with mandated benefits makes it attractive to be a formal employee. We show that, in locations with frequent inspections, workers pay for mandated benefits by receiving lower wages. Wage rigidity prevents downward adjustment at the bottom of the wage distribution. As a result, lower paid formal sector jobs become attractive to some informal workers, inducing them to want to move to the formal sector.
    Subject(s): Self employment ; Labor regulations ; Capital cities ; Employment ; Informal sector ; Labor markets ; Cities ; City politics ; Wages ; Labor ; wage level and structure ; labor law ; economic development ; human resources ; layoffs ; income distribution ; labor turnover ; public policy ; vacancies ; labor standards ; human development ; migration ; wage differentials
    ISSN: 1945-7782
    E-ISSN: 1945-7790
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences VI
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Euphytica, 2017-07, Vol.213 (7), p.1-12
    Description: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (Fop) is a soil pathogen that causes wilt in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and is one of the most important diseases of this crop. The use of resistant cultivars is the most effective method of controlling losses from this pathogen, and studying the inheritance of Fop resistance could provide useful insights for developing cultivars with resistance. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the inheritance of resistance to fusarium wilt in common bean. The parents, F1 and F2 plants from seven crosses between resistant and susceptible parents of a partial diallel scheme 3 × 5 were inoculated with the isolate FOP UFV 01. During each generation, the plants were individually evaluated to determine disease severity. Among the eight parents, five were resistant, and three were susceptible to fusarium wilt. Only two phenotypic classes were observed in the parents (resistant and susceptible). Based on the performance of the F1 generation, all the individuals were resistant, indicating that resistance is dominant over susceptibility. Different results were obtained for the segregation of plants from the F2 generation based on the methods applied to determine the inheritance of resistance. However, the maximum likelihood estimator method, which was the most suitable methodology, showed that Fop resistance in common bean is a dominant trait governed by few major genes plus polygenes. These findings can support breeding programs in obtaining Fop-resistant cultivars.
    Subject(s): Life Sciences ; Plant Pathology ; Biotechnology ; Genetic control ; Plant Genetics and Genomics ; Diallel crosses ; Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli ; Plant Physiology ; Plant Sciences ; Phaseolus vulgaris L ; Drug resistance in microorganisms ; Legumes ; Beans ; Plants ; Herbicide resistance ; Mimosaceae
    ISSN: 0014-2336
    E-ISSN: 1573-5060
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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