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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of development effectiveness, 2017-10-02, Vol.9 (4), p.519-542
    Description: Each year billions of US-dollars of humanitarian assistance are mobilised in response to man-made emergencies and natural disasters. Yet, rigorous evidence for how best to intervene remains scant. This dearth reflects that rigorous impact evaluations of humanitarian assistance pose major methodological, practical and ethical challenges. While theory-based impact evaluations can crucially inform humanitarian programming, popular methods, such as orthodox RCTs, are less suitable. Instead, factorial designs and quasi-experimental designs can be ethical and robust, answering questions about how to improve the delivery of assistance. We argue that it helps to be prepared, planning impact evaluations before the onset of emergencies.
    Subject(s): development ; research design ; Impact evaluation ; humanitarian assistance ; humanitarian emergency ; reconstruction ; aid ; methodology ; violent conflict ; statistics ; disaster
    ISSN: 1943-9342
    E-ISSN: 1943-9407
    Source: Taylor & Francis Open Access
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: International journal of psychology, 2020-02, Vol.55 (1), p.42-51
    Description: As the discourse around societal cohesion grows and policy makers increasingly turn their attention towards improving cohesion, understanding its role for the lives of individuals becomes ever more important. Our study examines whether the social cohesion of the immediate living context is related to the strength of Big Five personality traits among individuals. Using data from a community survey of 6252 adults living in 30 rural sub‐districts in the Kyrgyz Republic, where social cohesion is a sizable policy concern, we conduct a multilevel analysis of the relationship between sub‐district cohesion and individual personality. Results indicate that higher levels of cohesion are significantly related to higher individual levels of agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness. However, no relationship is found with extraversion or neuroticism. Thus, where a social entity has higher cohesion, this entity will also have inhabitants with a greater prosocial and communal orientation towards others, greater conscientiousness and more openness to experience. These findings imply that social cohesion may be one geographical social indicator related to variation in personality traits. Moreover, the findings suggest that understanding social cohesion requires both macro‐ and micro‐perspectives and that its connection to these particular personality traits should be taken into consideration.
    Subject(s): Kyrgyz Republic ; Big Five ; Social cohesion ; Personality traits ; Humans ; Adult ; Female ; Male ; Personality - physiology ; Interpersonal Relations ; Kyrgyzstan ; Index Medicus ; Regular Empirical
    ISSN: 0020-7594
    E-ISSN: 1464-066X
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: SPORTDiscus with Full Text
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Food security, 2019-12, Vol.11 (6), p.1217-1230
    Description: Integrated home garden interventions combine training in gardening practices with education about nutrition knowledge. Such interventions have been shown to improve nutrition behaviour in low income countries. However, to date rigorous evidence is lacking for their long-term impact. We test the impact of an integrated home garden intervention on vegetable production and consumption three years after the intervention ended. We analyse three rounds of survey data for 224 control and 395 intervention households in rural Bangladesh. Three years after the intervention, the average impact on vegetable production per household was 43 kg/year (+ 49% over baseline levels; p 〈 0.01), and the effect was not statistically different from the impact one year after the intervention, which demonstrates that impact was maintained in the long-term. The impact on the micronutrient supply for iron, zinc, folate and pro-vitamin A from home gardens was maintained in the long-term. These impacts may have been driven by the long-term improvements in women’s nutrition knowledge and gardening practices, explaining the sustainability of the behavioural nutrition change. We also identify positive impacts on women’s empowerment and women’s output market participation, highlighting how integrated programs, even if modest in scope, can be drivers of social change.
    Subject(s): Intervention ; Women ; Vegetables ; Nutrition ; Households ; Iron ; Folic acid ; Zinc ; Gardens & gardening ; Empowerment ; Vitamin A ; Social interactions ; Sustainability ; Gardening ; Social change
    ISSN: 1876-4517
    E-ISSN: 1876-4525
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 4
    Language: English
    Description: This book presents an innovative new analytical framework for understanding the dynamics of violent conflict and its impact on people and communities living in contexts of violence. Bringing together the findings of MICROCON, an influential five-year research programme funded by the European Commission, it provides readers with the most current and comprehensive evidence available on violent conflict from a micro-level perspective. Whilst traditional studies into conflict have been through an international/regional lens, with the state as the primary unit of analysis, the micro-level perspective offered by this volume places the individuals, households, groups, and communities affected by conflict at the centre of analysis. Studying how people behave in groups and communities, and how they interact with the formal and informal institutions that manage local tensions, is crucial to understanding the conflict cycle. These micro-foundations therefore provide a more in-depth analysis of the causes and consequences of violent conflict. By challenging the ways we think about conflict, this book bridges the gap in evidence, allowing for more specific and accurate policy interventions for conflict resolution and development processes to help reduce poverty in the lives of those affected by conflict. This volume is divided into four parts. Part I introduces the conceptual framework of MICROCON. Part II focuses on individual and group motivations in conflict processes. Part III highlights the micro-level consequences of violent conflict. The final section of this volume focuses on policy implications and future research agenda.
    Subject(s): International Relations and International Political Economy ; Economic Development and Growth ; Violence ; Economic development ; Social conflict ; War victims ; Intergroup relations ; War ; Victims of violent crimes
    ISBN: 0199664595
    ISBN: 9780199664597
    Source: Oxford Scholarship Online
    Source: © ProQuest LLC All rights reserved〈img src="https://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/PQ_Logo.jpg" style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the European Economic Association, 2019-10-01, Vol.17 (5), p.1502-1537
    Description: Abstract We study the effect of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict on various education outcomes for Palestinian high school students in the West Bank during the Second Intifada (2000–2006). Exploiting within-school variation in the number of conflict-related Palestinian fatalities during the academic year, we show that the conflict reduces the probability of passing the final exam, the total test score, and the probability of being admitted to university. The effect of conflict varies with the type and the timing of the violent events the student is exposed to and it is not significant for students in the upper tail of the test score distribution. We discuss various possible transmission mechanisms explaining our main result. Evidence suggests a role for both the conflict-induced deterioration of school infrastructures and the worsening in the student's psychological well-being due to direct exposure to violent events.
    ISSN: 1542-4766
    E-ISSN: 1542-4774
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Oxford Journals A-Z Collection
    Source: Oxford Journals 2017 Current Collection
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Demography, 2019-06-15, Vol.56 (3), p.935-968
    Description: Our study analyzes the fertility effects of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. We study the effects of violence on both the duration time to the first birth in the early post-genocide period and on the total number of post-genocide births per woman up to 15 years following the conflict. We use individual-level data from Demographic and Health Surveys, estimating survival and count data models. This article contributes to the literature on the demographic effects of violent conflict by testing two channels through which conflict influences fertility: (1) the type of violence exposure as measured by the death of a child or sibling, and (2) the conflict-induced change in local demographic conditions as captured by the change in the district-level sex ratio. Results indicate the genocide had heterogeneous effects on fertility, depending on the type of violence experienced by the woman, her age cohort, parity, and the time horizon (5, 10, and 15 years after the genocide). There is strong evidence of a child replacement effect. Having experienced the death of a child during the genocide increases both the hazard of having a child in the five years following the genocide and the total number of post-genocide births. Experiencing sibling death during the genocide significantly lowers post-genocide fertility in both the short-run and the long-run. Finally, a reduction in the local sex ratio negatively impacts the hazard of having a child in the five years following the genocide, especially for older women.
    Subject(s): Sex ratio ; Population Economics ; Social Sciences ; Demography ; Fertility ; Rwanda ; Geography, general ; Child death ; Sociology, general ; Medicine/Public Health, general ; Genocide ; Age Factors ; Genocide - statistics & numerical data ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Socioeconomic Factors ; Sex Ratio ; Pregnancy ; Young Adult ; Family Characteristics ; Adolescent ; Adult ; Death ; Female ; Parity
    ISSN: 0070-3370
    E-ISSN: 1533-7790
    Source: Project MUSE - Premium Collection
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of development studies, 2019-12-13, Vol.55, p.1-6
    Description: Effective social protection is increasingly as essential to supporting affected populations in situations of protracted instability and displacement. Despite the growing use of social protection in these settings, there is comparatively little rigorous research on what works, for whom, and why. This special issue contributes by adding seven high-quality studies that raise substantially our understanding of the role of social protection in fragile contexts and in settings of forced displacement and migration. Together, these studies fill knowledge gaps, help support informed decision-making by policy-makers and practitioners, and demonstrate that impact evaluation and the analysis of social protection in challenging humanitarian settings are possible. The studies provide evidence that design choices in implementation, such as which population to target, choice of transfer modality or which messages are delivered with programmes, can make a substantial difference in the realisation of positive benefits among vulnerable populations. Furthermore, the findings of the studies underline the relevance of tailoring programme components to populations, which may benefit more or less from traditional programme implementation models.
    ISSN: 0022-0388
    E-ISSN: 1743-9140
    Source: Taylor & Francis Open Access
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of economic surveys, 2015-02, Vol.29 (1), p.131-157
    Description: We provide a review of theoretical and empirical contributions on the economic analysis of terrorism and counterterrorism. We argue that simple rational‐choice models of terrorist behavior – in the form of cost‐benefit models – already provide a well‐founded theoretical framework for the study of terrorism and counterterrorism. We also hint at their limitations which relate to the failure of accounting for the dynamics between terrorism and counterterrorism that may produce unintended second‐order effects as well as for the costs associated with counterterrorism and its international dimension. We reevaluate previously proposed counterterrorism strategies accordingly. Finally, in the light of our findings, we discuss interesting areas of future research.
    Subject(s): Backlash ; Rational‐choice models ; Counterterrorism ; Terrorism
    ISSN: 0950-0804
    E-ISSN: 1467-6419
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: EconLit with Full Text
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of conflict resolution, 2013-02-01, Vol.57 (1), p.3-19
    Description: In this article, we provide an introduction to the Special Issue of the Journal of Conflict Resolution devoted to the impact of violent conflict on entrepreneurship in developing countries. First we note that there is insufficient attention in the literature on the impact of violent conflict on the firm or entrepreneur level. Then, after we define entrepreneurship and violent conflict, we provide a summary of the existing literature and give an overview of the contributions in this Special Issue. We conclude by noting policy implications and areas for further research.
    Subject(s): Self employment ; Civil wars ; Household consumption ; Violence ; Conflict resolution ; Entrepreneurship ; Entrepreneurs ; Developing countries ; War conflict ; Violent crimes ; ECONOMIC-PERFORMANCE ; development ; CIVIL-WAR ; POVERTY ; MICROLEVEL PERSPECTIVE ; GROWTH ; RWANDA ; entrepreneurship ; firms ; conflict ; violence ; Social conflict ; Influence ; Forecasts and trends ; Analysis
    ISSN: 0022-0027
    E-ISSN: 1552-8766
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences II
    Source: HeinOnline Law Journal Library
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 10
    Article
    Article
    2013
    ISSN: 0022-0027 
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of conflict resolution, 2013-02-01, Vol.57 (1), p.117-142
    Description: Many Colombians are confronted with the ongoing conflict that influences their decision making in everyday life, including their behavior in labor markets. This study focuses on the impact of violent conflict on self-employment, enlarging the usual determinants with a set of conflict variables. Our estimation strategy compares three different estimates: one from fixed-effects panel data (OLS-FE), estimates using lagged conflict indicators instead of contemporaneous regressors, and instrumental variables (IV-FE) estimates. Our results show that a one standard deviation increase in net displacement rates increases the rate of self-employment by about 7 percent points. Dividing the self-employed into different sectors (services and agriculture), we find that net displacement increases self-employment in the services sector but has no effect in agriculture that is affected by attacks by rebel and paramilitary groups, instead. Looking at the income of self-employed individuals, an influx of displaced reduces sharply hourly income in the self-employment sector.
    Subject(s): Self employment ; Datasets ; Employment ; Violence ; Entrepreneurship ; Labor markets ; Labor demand ; Instrumental variables estimation ; Wages ; Unemployment ; Social conflict ; Influence ; Analysis
    ISSN: 0022-0027
    E-ISSN: 1552-8766
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences II
    Source: HeinOnline Law Journal Library
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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