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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    2012
    ISSN: 1543-5008 
    Language: English
    In: Annual review of plant biology, 2012, Vol.63 (1), p.431-450
    Description: Plants have evolved a plethora of different chemical defenses covering nearly all classes of (secondary) metabolites that represent a major barrier to herbivory: Some are constitutive; others are induced after attack. Many compounds act directly on the herbivore, whereas others act indirectly via the attraction of organisms from other trophic levels that, in turn, protect the plant. An enormous diversity of plant (bio)chemicals are toxic, repellent, or antinutritive for herbivores of all types. Examples include cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, alkaloids, and terpenoids; others are macromolecules and comprise latex or proteinase inhibitors. Their modes of action include membrane disruption, inhibition of nutrient and ion transport, inhibition of signal transduction processes, inhibition of metabolism, or disruption of the hormonal control of physiological processes. Recognizing the herbivore challenge and precise timing of plant activities as well as the adaptive modulation of the plants' metabolism is important so that metabolites and energy may be efficiently allocated to defensive activities.
    Subject(s): Adaptation, Physiological ; Host-Parasite Interactions - physiology ; Herbivory - physiology ; Latex - chemistry ; Glucosinolates - metabolism ; Plants - microbiology ; Glucosinolates - chemistry ; Food Chain ; Terpenes - chemistry ; Plants - metabolism ; Animals ; Terpenes - metabolism ; Glycosides - metabolism ; Insecta - physiology ; Alkaloids - metabolism ; Latex - metabolism ; Plants - chemistry ; Glycosides - chemistry ; Alkaloids - chemistry ; Plant defenses ; Phytochemistry ; Physiological aspects ; Environmental aspects ; Herbivores ; Research ; Health aspects ; Plant metabolites ; Plant-animal interactions
    ISSN: 1543-5008
    E-ISSN: 1545-2123
    Source: Annual Reviews Complete A-Z List
    Source: Electronic Back Volume Collection (EBVC)
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    2008
    ISSN: 0032-0889  ISSN: 1532-2548 
    Language: English
    In: Plant physiology (Bethesda), 2008-03-01, Vol.146 (3), p.825-831
    Subject(s): Pathogens ; Receptors ; Peas ; Insect larvae ; Amino acids ; Herbivores ; Plants ; Phytophagous insects ; Fatty acids ; Update on Recognition of Herbivory ; Plant cells ; Adaptation, Physiological ; Food Chain ; Plants - metabolism ; Animals ; Host-Parasite Interactions - physiology ; Plants - parasitology ; Insecta - physiology ; Signal Transduction - physiology ; Feeding Behavior - physiology ; Physiological aspects ; Evolution ; Focus Issue on Plant-Herbivore Interactions
    ISSN: 0032-0889
    ISSN: 1532-2548
    E-ISSN: 1532-2548
    Source: American Society of Plant Biologists
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: JSTOR Ecology & Botany II
    Source: PubMed Central
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Plant physiology (Bethesda), 2012-07-01, Vol.159 (3), p.1159-1175
    Description: In the interaction between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the generalist herbivorous insect Spodoptera littoralis, little is known about early events in defense signaling and their link to downstream phytohormone pathways. S. littoralis oral secretions induced both Ca²⁺ and phytohormone elevation in Arabidopsis. Plant gene expression induced by oral secretions revealed upregulation of a gene encoding a calmodulin-like protein, CML42. Functional analysis of cml42 plants revealed more resistance to herbivory than in the wild type, because caterpillars gain less weight on the mutant, indicating that CML42 negatively regulates plant defense; cml42 also showed increased aliphatic glucosinolate content and hyperactivated transcript accumulation of the jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes VSP2 and Thi2.1 upon herbivory, which might contribute to increased resistance. CML42 up-regulation is negatively regulated by the jasmonate receptor Coronatine Insensitivel (COI1), as loss of functional COI1 resulted in prolonged CML42 activation. CML42 thus acts as a negative regulator of plant defense by decreasing COI1-mediated JA sensitivity and the expression of JA-responsive genes and is independent of herbivory-induced JA biosynthesis. JA-induced Ca²⁺ elevation and root growth inhibition were more sensitive in cml42, also indicating higher JA perception. Our results indicate that CML42 acts as a crucial signaling component connecting Ca²⁺ and JA signaling. CML42 is localized to cytosol and nucleus. CML42 is also involved in abiotic stress responses, as kaempferol glycosides were down-regulated in cml42, and impaired in ultraviolet B resistance. Under drought stress, the level of abscisic acid accumulation was higher in cml42 plants. Thus, CML42 might serve as a Ca²⁺ sensor having multiple functions in insect herbivory defense and abiotic stress responses.
    Subject(s): Leaves ; Insect larvae ; Calcium ; Plant growth regulators ; Genes ; Gene expression regulation ; Trichomes ; Plants ; Herbivores ; Phytophagous insects ; PLANTS INTERACTING WITH OTHER ORGANISMS ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Biological and medical sciences ; Plant physiology and development ; Arabidopsis - physiology ; Intracellular Calcium-Sensing Proteins - genetics ; Calcium - metabolism ; Herbivory - physiology ; Cytosol - drug effects ; Glucosinolates - metabolism ; Protein Transport - drug effects ; RNA, Messenger - metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins - metabolism ; Cell Nucleus - metabolism ; Spodoptera - drug effects ; Stress, Physiological - drug effects ; Arabidopsis Proteins - genetics ; Arabidopsis - drug effects ; Spodoptera - physiology ; Subcellular Fractions - drug effects ; RNA, Messenger - genetics ; Signal Transduction - genetics ; Cyclopentanes - pharmacology ; Intracellular Calcium-Sensing Proteins - metabolism ; Mutation - genetics ; Herbivory - drug effects ; Subcellular Fractions - metabolism ; Arabidopsis - genetics ; Oxylipins - metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant - drug effects ; Animals ; Signal Transduction - drug effects ; Calcium Signaling - drug effects ; Oxylipins - pharmacology ; Arabidopsis - parasitology ; Cyclopentanes - metabolism ; Cytosol - metabolism ; Cell Nucleus - drug effects ; Arabidopsis thaliana ; Arabidopsis ; Plant genetics ; Genetic aspects ; Instrument industry ; Chemical properties ; Gene expression
    ISSN: 0032-0889
    ISSN: 1532-2548
    E-ISSN: 1532-2548
    Source: American Society of Plant Biologists
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: JSTOR Ecology & Botany II
    Source: PubMed Central
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Scientific reports, 2016-07-08, Vol.6 (1), p.29505-29505
    Description: Microbes that live inside insects play critical roles in host nutrition, physiology, and behavior. Although Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) are one of the most diverse insect taxa, their microbial symbionts are little-studied, particularly during metamorphosis. Here, using ribosomal tag pyrosequencing of DNA and RNA, we investigated biodiversity and activity of gut microbiotas across the holometabolous life cycle of Spodoptera littoralis, a notorious agricultural pest worldwide. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominate but undergo a structural "metamorphosis" in tandem with its host. Enterococcus, Pantoea and Citrobacter were abundant and active in early-instar, while Clostridia increased in late-instar. Interestingly, only enterococci persisted through metamorphosis. Female adults harbored high proportions of Enterococcus, Klebsiella and Pantoea, whereas males largely shifted to Klebsiella. Comparative functional analysis with PICRUSt indicated that early-instar larval microbiome was more enriched for genes involved in cell motility and carbohydrate metabolism, whereas in late-instar amino acid, cofactor and vitamin metabolism increased. Genes involved in energy and nucleotide metabolism were abundant in pupae. Female adult microbiome was enriched for genes relevant to energy metabolism, while an increase in the replication and repair pathway was observed in male. Understanding the metabolic activity of these herbivore-associated microbial symbionts may assist the development of novel pest-management strategies.
    Subject(s): Spodoptera - physiology ; Gastrointestinal Microbiome ; Spodoptera - microbiology ; Insect Proteins - genetics ; Male ; Herbivory ; Phylogeny ; Biodiversity ; Bacteria - genetics ; Sequence Analysis, RNA - methods ; Metamorphosis, Biological ; Bacteria - isolation & purification ; Animals ; Energy Metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Bacteria - classification ; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics ; Female ; Larva - genetics ; Larva - microbiology ; Larva - physiology ; Sequence Analysis, DNA - methods ; Spodoptera - genetics
    ISSN: 2045-2322
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Plant physiology (Bethesda), 2005-03-01, Vol.137 (3), p.1160-1168
    Description: Herbivore feeding elicits defense responses in infested plants, including the emission of volatile organic compounds that can serve as indirect defense signals. Until now, the contribution of plant tissue wounding during the feeding process in the elicitation of defense responses has not been clear. For example, in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), the composition of the volatiles induced by both the insect caterpillar Spodoptera littoralis and the snail Cepaea hortensis is very similar. Thus, a mechanical caterpillar, MecWorm, has been designed and used in this study, which very closely resembles the herbivore-caused tissue damage in terms of similar physical appearance and long-lasting wounding period on defined leaf areas. This mode of treatment was sufficient to induce the emission of a volatile organic compound blend qualitatively similar to that as known from real herbivore feeding, although there were significant quantitative differences for a number of compounds. Moreover, both the duration and the area that has been mechanically damaged contribute to the induction of the whole volatile response. Based on those two parameters, time and area, which can replace each other to some extent, a damage level can be defined. That damage level exhibits a close linear relationship with the accumulation of fatty acid-derived volatiles and monoterpenes, while other terpenoid volatiles and methyl salicylate respond in a nonlinear manner. The results strongly suggest that the impact of mechanical wounding on the induction of defense responses during herbivore feeding was until now underestimated. Controlled and reproducible mechanical damage that strongly resembles the insect's feeding process represents a valuable tool for analyzing the role of the various signals involved in the induction of plant defense reactions against herbivory.
    Subject(s): Volatile organic compounds ; Leaves ; Mesas ; Insect larvae ; Snails ; Caterpillars ; Herbivores ; Plants ; Infestation ; Phytophagous insects ; Plants Interacting with Other Organisms ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Photosynthesis, respiration. Anabolism, catabolism ; Biological and medical sciences ; Metabolism ; Plant physiology and development ; Snails - physiology ; Phaseolus - metabolism ; Phaseolus - physiology ; Animals ; Spodoptera - physiology ; Volatilization ; Feeding Behavior ; Larva - physiology ; Plant Leaves - physiology ; Plant Leaves - ultrastructure ; Lima bean ; Diseases and pests ; Physiological aspects ; Chemical properties ; Food and nutrition
    ISSN: 0032-0889
    E-ISSN: 1532-2548
    Source: American Society of Plant Biologists
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: JSTOR Ecology & Botany II
    Source: PubMed Central
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Organic & biomolecular chemistry, 2018-01-17, Vol.16 (3), p.348-362
    Description: The enormous diversity of terpenes found in nature is generated by enzymes known as terpene synthases, or cyclases. Some are also known for their ability to convert a single substrate into multiple products. This review comprises monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases that are multiproduct in nature along with the regulation factors that can alter the product specificity of multiproduct terpene synthases without genetic mutations. Variations in specific assay conditions with focus on shifts in product specificity based on change in metal cofactors, assay pH and substrate geometry are described. Alterations in these simple cellular conditions provide the organism with enhanced chemodiversity without investing into new enzymatic architecture. This versatility to modulate product diversity grants organisms, especially immobile ones like plants with access to an enhanced defensive repertoire by simply altering cofactors, pH level and substrate geometry. Terpenoid structural diversity is enhanced by multiproduct enzymes. Biosynthesis can be altered by switch in substrates, cofactors and pH.
    ISSN: 1477-0520
    E-ISSN: 1477-0539
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The New phytologist, 2015-09-01, Vol.207 (4), p.996-1004
    Description: Calcium ion (Ca ) signalling triggered by insect herbivory is an intricate network withmultiple components, involving positive and negative regulators. Real-time, noninvasive imaging of entire Arabidopsis thaliana rosettes was employed to monitor cytosolic free calcium ([Ca ] ) elevations in local and systemic leaves in response to wounding and feeding. Luminescence emitted by the cytosol-localized Ca reporter aequorin was imaged using a high-resolution photon-counting camera system. feeding on Arabidopsis induced both local and systemic [Ca ] elevations. Systemic [Ca ] signals were found predominantly in adjacent leaves with direct vascular connections to the treated leaf and appeared with a delay of 1 to 2 min. Simulated herbivory by wounding always induced a local [Ca ] response, but a systemic one only when the midrib was wounded. This systemic [Ca ] response was suppressed by the presence of insect-derived oral secretions as well as in a mutant of the vacuolar cation channel, Two Pore Channel 1 (TPC1). Our results provide evidence that in Arabidopsis insect herbivory induces both local and systemic [Ca ] signals that distribute within the vascular system. The systemic [Ca ] signal could play an important signalling role in systemic plant defence.
    Subject(s): Leaves ; Calcium ; Secretion ; Photographs ; Signals ; Herbivores ; Movies ; Plants ; Phytophagous insects ; Mechanical systems ; Rapid reports ; Arabidopsis thaliana ; calcium ; plant defence ; herbivory ; Two Pore Channel 1 (TPC1) ; systemic signalling ; wounding ; aequorin
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek - Frei zugängliche E-Journals
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Plant, cell and environment, 2018-01, Vol.41 (1), p.39-49
    Description: During the process of terpene biosynthesis, C–C bond breaking and forming steps are subjected to kinetic carbon isotope effects, leading to distinct carbon isotopic signatures of the products. Accordingly, carbon isotopic signatures could be used to reveal the ‘biosynthetic history’ of the produced terpenoids. Five known sesquiterpene cyclases, regulating three different pathways, representing simple to complex biosynthetic sequences, were heterologously expressed and used for in vitro assays with farnesyl diphosphate as substrate. Compound specific isotope ratio mass spectrometry measurements of the enzyme substrate farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) and the products of all the five cyclases were performed. The calculated δ13C value for FDP, based on δ13C values and relative amounts of the products, was identical with its measured δ13C value, confirming the reliability of the approach and the precision of measurements. The different carbon isotope ratios of the products reflect the complexity of their structure and are correlated with the frequency of carbon–carbon bond forming and breaking steps on their individual biosynthetic pathways. Thus, the analysis of carbon isotopic signatures of terpenes at natural abundance can be used as a powerful tool in elucidation of associated biosynthetic mechanisms of terpene synthases and in future in vivo studies even without ‘touching’ the plant. In the current work, we use five known sesquiterpene cyclases, representing simple to complex biosynthetic sequences yielding in the simplest case (1) blends of (E)‐β‐caryophyllene and α‐humulene, in a more complex example (2) (E)‐β‐caryophyllene, α‐humulene and germacrene D, or in the most complex system (3) (E)‐β‐caryophyllene and α‐humulene together with several triquinanes from farnesyl diphosphate as substrate. Compound specific isotope ratio mass spectrometry measurements of the enzyme substrate FDP and the products of all the five cyclases were performed. The calculated δ13C value for FDP, based on δ13C values and the relative amounts of the products, was in full agreement with its measured δ13C value. Accordingly, sesquiterpenes requiring more C–C bond formations and cleavages during biosynthesis showed more negative δ13C values than those with a lower number of bond formations or cleavages. The different carbon isotope ratios of the products reflect the complexity of their structure and are correlated with the frequency of carbon–carbon bond forming and breaking steps on their individual biosynthetic pathways. Thus, the analysis of carbon isotopic signatures of terpenes at natural abundance can be used as a powerful tool in the elucidation of the biosynthetic sequences, even without ‘touching’ the plant, if emitted volatiles are analysed.
    Subject(s): gas chromatography‐combustion‐isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC‐C‐IRMS) ; carbon isotope effect ; terpene cyclase ; biosynthetic pathway ; carbon isotopic signatures ; sesquiterpene ; δ13C value ; gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) ; Reproducibility of Results ; Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry ; Sesquiterpenes - chemistry ; Sesquiterpenes - metabolism ; Substrate Specificity ; Biosynthetic Pathways ; Carbon-Carbon Lyases - metabolism ; Carbon Isotopes - metabolism ; Polyisoprenyl Phosphates - metabolism ; Enzymes ; Biological products ; Analysis ; Physiological aspects ; Combustion ; Terpenes ; Mass spectrometry ; Chromatography
    ISSN: 0140-7791
    E-ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: eLife, 2013-12-03, Vol.2, p.e01096-e01096
    Description: Plant-herbivore interactions dominate the planet's terrestrial ecology. When it comes to host-plant specialization, insects are among the most versatile evolutionary innovators, able to disarm multiple chemical plant defenses. Sequestration is a widespread strategy to detoxify noxious metabolites, frequently for the insect's own benefit against predation. In this study, we describe the broad-spectrum ATP-binding cassette transporter CpMRP of the poplar leaf beetle, Chrysomela populi as the first candidate involved in the sequestration of phytochemicals in insects. CpMRP acts in the defensive glands of the larvae as a pacemaker for the irreversible shuttling of pre-selected metabolites from the hemolymph into defensive secretions. Silencing CpMRP in vivo creates a defenseless phenotype, indicating its role in the secretion process is crucial. In the defensive glands of related leaf beetle species, we identified sequences similar to CpMRP and assume therefore that exocrine gland-based defensive strategies, evolved by these insects to repel their enemies, rely on ABC transporters as a key element. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01096.001.
    Subject(s): Coleoptera - metabolism ; Animals ; ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters - physiology ; Glucosides - metabolism ; Secretion ; Glands ; Hemolymph ; Biosynthesis ; Secretions ; Exocrine glands ; Proteins ; Leaves ; Specialization ; Metabolites ; Insects ; Host plants ; Morphology ; Phylogenetics ; ABC transporters ; Predation ; ABC transporter ; Glucosides ; chemical defense ; RNA interference ; Chrysomela lapponica ; Phaedon cochleariae ; Chrysomela populi ; Biochemistry ; Ecology ; fluorescence microscopy ; Other
    ISSN: 2050-084X
    E-ISSN: 2050-084X
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Plant physiology (Bethesda), 2009-03-01, Vol.149 (3), p.1593-1600
    Description: Systemic signaling was investigated in both a dicot (Viciafaba) and a monocot (Hordeum vulgare) plant. Stimuli were applied to one leaf (S-leaf), and apoplastic responses were monitored on a distant leaf (target; T-leaf) with microelectrodes positioned in substomatal cavities of open stomata. Leaves that had been injured by cutting and to which a variety of cations were subsequently added caused voltage transients at the T-leaf, which are neither action potentials nor variation potentials: with respect to the cell interior, the initial polarity of these voltage transients is hyperpolarizing; they do not obey the all-or-none rule but depend on both the concentration and the type of substance added and propagate at 5 to 10 cm min⁻¹. This response is thought to be due to the stimulation of the plasma membrane H⁺-ATPase, a notion supported by the action of fusicoccin, which also causes such voltage transients to appear on the T-leaf, whereas orthovanadate prevents their propagation. Moreover, apoplastic ion flux analysis reveals that, in contrast to action or variation potentials, all of the investigated ion movements (Ca²⁺, K⁺, H⁺, and Cl⁻) occur after the voltage change begins. We suggest that these wound-induced "system potentials" represent a new type of electrical long-distance signaling in higher plants.
    Subject(s): Electrodes ; Depolarization ; Electric potential ; Pumps ; Vanadates ; Ions ; Environmental Stress and Adaptation to Stress ; Cell membranes ; Plants ; Membrane potential ; Fundamental and applied biological sciences. Psychology ; Biological and medical sciences ; Plant physiology and development ; Hordeum - drug effects ; Intracellular Space - drug effects ; Vicia faba - drug effects ; Calcium - metabolism ; Vicia faba - physiology ; Extracellular Space - drug effects ; Glycosides - pharmacology ; Proton Pumps - metabolism ; Extracellular Space - metabolism ; Hordeum - physiology ; Electricity ; Signal Transduction - drug effects ; Intracellular Space - metabolism ; Vanadates - pharmacology ; Ion Transport - drug effects ; Plant Leaves - drug effects ; Action Potentials - drug effects ; Plant Leaves - physiology ; Research ; Observations ; Electrophysiology of plants ; Action potentials (Electrophysiology)
    ISSN: 0032-0889
    ISSN: 1532-2548
    E-ISSN: 1532-2548
    Source: American Society of Plant Biologists
    Source: JSTOR Life Sciences
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: JSTOR Ecology & Botany II
    Source: PubMed Central
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