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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Sports biomechanics, 2019-05-11, p.1-16
    Description: The changes in running biomechanics induced by an increased longitudinal bending stiffness (stiff plates added into the shoes) have been well investigated, but little is known concerning the effects of the stiff plate location into the shoe on running biomechanics. Fourteen male recreational runners ran at two participant-specific running speeds (3.28 +/- 0.28 m/s and 4.01 +/- 0.27 m/s) with two shoe conditions where a stiff plate was added either in high (under the insole) or low location (between the midsole and outsole). Ground reaction forces, lower limb joint angles, net joint torques and work, as well as alignment between the resultant ground reaction force and the leg were analysed. Among the running speeds performed by the runners, the high location significantly decreased propulsive ground reaction forces, increased metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion and ankle plantarflexion, induced an increased alignment between the resultant ground reaction force and the runner's leg, thus decreasing all the lower limb joint torques and the positive work at the knee joint compared to the low location. The results suggested that the high stiff plate location into the shoe should be considered for running performance perspectives, but care should be taken to not alter the perceived comfort and/or increase injury risks.
    Subject(s): Engineering ; Engineering, Biomedical ; Life Sciences ; Life Sciences & Biomedicine ; Other ; Science & Technology ; Sport Sciences ; Technology
    ISSN: 1476-3141
    E-ISSN: 1752-6116
    Source: Web of Science - Science Citation Index Expanded - 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
    Source: SPORTDiscus with Full Text
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: European journal of applied physiology, 2018-11-23, Vol.119 (2), p.429-439
    Description: Purpose This study focused on the effects of shoe energy return and shoe longitudinal bending stiffness on the energetic cost and biomechanics of running. Methods The energetic cost of running and biomechanical variables altering running economy (ground contact times, stride frequency, vertical and leg stiffness, ground reaction force impulses, alignment between the resultant ground reaction force and the leg) were measured for nineteen male recreational runners. Participants ran overground under their ventilatory anaerobic threshold (10.8 ± 1.1 km h −1 on average) using four shoe prototypes with features combining low or high magnitudes of energy return and longitudinal bending stiffness. Results Neither the energy return, nor the longitudinal bending stiffness, or the interaction of these shoe features altered the energetic cost of running. High energy return shoes induced significant increased ground contact time from 274.5 ± 18.3 to 277.1 ± 18.7 ms, and significant decreased stride frequency from 1.34 ± 0.05 to 1.33 ± 0.05 Hz. High bending stiffness shoes induced significant increased ground contact time from 273.8 ± 18.2 to 277.9 ± 18.7 ms, significant increased vertical stiffness from 23.2 ± 3.4 to 23.8 ± 3.0 kN m −1 , and significant decreased net vertical impulse from 245.4 ± 17.2 to 241.7 ± 17.5 BW ms. Conclusions Increased energy return and longitudinal bending stiffness induced subtle changes in the running biomechanics, but did not induce any decrease in the energetic cost of running.
    Subject(s): Adolescent ; Adult ; Anaerobic threshold ; Animal behavior ; Biomechanical Phenomena - physiology ; Biomechanics ; Biomedical and Life Sciences ; Biomedicine ; Clothing ; Energy ; Energy Metabolism - physiology ; Engineering Sciences ; Footwear ; Ground reaction force ; Human health and pathology ; Human Physiology ; Humans ; Leg ; Life Sciences ; Life Sciences & Biomedicine ; Male ; Mechanics ; Occupational Medicine/Industrial Medicine ; Original Article ; Physiology ; Running - physiology ; Running economy ; Science & Technology ; Shoes ; Sport Sciences ; Sports Medicine ; Tissues and Organs ; Young Adult
    ISSN: 1439-6319
    E-ISSN: 1439-6327
    Source: Web of Science - Science Citation Index Expanded - 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The European journal of neuroscience, 2017-08, Vol.46 (4), p.1991-2000
    Description: After spinal cord injury (SCI), the reorganization of the neuromuscular system leads to increased antagonist muscles’ co‐activation—that is, increased antagonist vs. agonist muscles activation ratio—during voluntary contractions. Increased muscle co‐activation is supposed to result from reduced cortical influences on spinal mechanisms inhibiting antagonist muscles. The assessment of the residual interactions between cortical and muscles activity with corticomuscular coherence (CMC) in participants with SCI producing different force levels may shed new lights on the regulation of muscle co‐activation. To achieve this aim, we compared the net joint torque, the muscle co‐activation and the CMC ~ 10 and ~ 20 Hz with both agonist and antagonist muscles in participants with SCI and healthy participants performing actual isometric elbow flexion contractions at three force levels. For all participants, overall CMC and muscle co‐activation decreased with the increase in the net joint torque, but only CMC ~ 10 Hz was correlated with muscle co‐activation. Participants with SCI had greater muscle co‐activation and lower CMC ~ 10 Hz, at the highest force levels. These results emphasize the importance of CMC as a mechanism that could take part in the modulation of muscle co‐activation to maintain a specific force level. Lower CMC ~ 10 Hz in SCI participants may reflect the decreased cortical influence on spinal mechanisms, leading to increased muscle co‐activation, although plasticity of the corticomuscular coupling seems to be preserved after SCI to modulate the force level. Clinically, the CMC may efficiently evaluate the residual integrity of the neuromuscular system after SCI and the effects of rehabilitation. Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) with agonist and antagonist muscles was investigated in participants with SCI and able‐bodied participants performing actual isometric elbow flexion contractions. SCI participants revealed lower CMC and increased muscle co‐activation, which may reflect the decreased cortical influence on inhibitory spinal mechanisms. Clinically, CMC may efficiently evaluate the residual integrity of the neuromuscular system after SCI and the effects of rehabilitation.
    Subject(s): actual contractions ; Adult ; Cervical Cord ; EEG ; Elbow - physiopathology ; Electroencephalography - methods ; Electromyography - methods ; EMG ; Engineering Sciences ; Female ; force level ; Humans ; Isometric Contraction - physiology ; Life Sciences ; Male ; Motor Cortex - physiopathology ; Muscle, Skeletal - physiopathology ; SCI ; Spinal cord injuries ; Spinal Cord Injuries - diagnosis ; Spinal Cord Injuries - physiopathology
    ISSN: 0953-816X
    E-ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: International journal of molecular sciences, 2021-03-16, Vol.22 (6), p.3003
    Description: Stroke-induced cognitive impairments affect the long-term quality of life. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is now considered a promising strategy to enhance cognitive functions. This review is designed to examine the role of HIIT in promoting neuroplasticity processes and/or cognitive functions after stroke. The various methodological limitations related to the clinical relevance of studies on the exercise recommendations in individuals with stroke are first discussed. Then, the relevance of HIIT in improving neurotrophic factors expression, neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity is debated in both stroke and healthy individuals (humans and rodents). Moreover, HIIT may have a preventive role on stroke severity, as found in rodents. The potential role of HIIT in stroke rehabilitation is reinforced by findings showing its powerful neurogenic effect that might potentiate cognitive benefits induced by cognitive tasks. In addition, the clinical role of neuroplasticity observed in each hemisphere needs to be clarified by coupling more frequently to cellular/molecular measurements and behavioral testing.
    Subject(s): angiogenesis ; cerebral ischemia ; cognition ; Cognition - physiology ; endurance exercise ; High-Intensity Interval Training ; Humans ; Life Sciences ; neurogenesis ; Neuronal Plasticity - physiology ; Neurons and Cognition ; neurotrophic factors ; Physical Endurance ; rat and human model ; Recovery of Function ; Review ; Stroke - physiopathology ; Stroke - therapy ; stroke rehabilitation
    ISSN: 1422-0067
    ISSN: 1661-6596
    E-ISSN: 1422-0067
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: European journal of applied physiology, 2014-12-11, Vol.115 (5), p.911-918
    Description: Purpose Minimalist running shoes are designed to induce a foot strike made more with the forepart of the foot. The main changes made on minimalist shoe consist in decreasing the height difference between fore and rear parts of the sole (drop). Barefoot and shod running have been widely compared on overground or treadmill these last years, but the key characteristic effects of minimalist shoes have been yet little studied. The purpose of this study is to find whether the shoe drop has the same effect regardless of the task: overground or treadmill running. Methods Twelve healthy male subjects ran with three shoes of different drops (0, 4, 8 mm) and barefoot on a treadmill and overground. Vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) (transient peak and loading rate) and lower limb kinematics (foot, ankle and knee joint flexion angles) were observed. Results Opposite footwear effects on loading rate between the tasks were observed. Barefoot running induced higher loading rates during overground running than the highest drop condition, while it was the opposite during treadmill running. Ankle plantar flexion and knee flexion angles at touchdown were higher during treadmill than overground running for all conditions, except for barefoot which did not show any difference between the tasks. Conclusions Shoe drop appears to be a key parameter influencing running pattern, but its effects on vGRF differ depending on the task (treadmill vs. overground running) and must be considered with caution. Unlike shod conditions, kinematics of barefoot condition was not altered by treadmill running explaining opposite conclusions between the tasks.
    Subject(s): Ankle Joint - physiology ; Barefoot ; Biomechanical Phenomena - physiology ; Biomechanics ; Biomedical and Life Sciences ; Biomedicine ; Engineering Sciences ; Exercise Test ; Foot - physiology ; Foot strike ; Footwear ; Gait - physiology ; Ground reaction force ; Human Physiology ; Humans ; Kinematics ; Male ; Mechanics ; Occupational Medicine/Industrial Medicine ; Original Article ; Running - physiology ; Shoes ; Sports Medicine ; Young Adult
    ISSN: 1439-6319
    E-ISSN: 1439-6327
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Medical & biological engineering & computing, 2020-08-17, Vol.58 (10), p.2531-2549
    Description: The wrist and finger extensors play a crucial role in the muscle coordination during grasping tasks. Nevertheless, few data are available regarding their force-generating capacities. The objective of this study was to provide a model of the force-length-activation relationships of the hand extensors using non-invasive methods. The extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) were studied as representative of wrist and finger extensors. Ten participants performed isometric extension force-varying contractions in different postures on an ergometer recording resultant moment. The joint angle, the myotendinous junction displacement and activation were synchronously tracked using motion capture, ultrasound and electromyography. Muscle force was estimated via a musculoskeletal model using the measured joint angle and moment. The force-length-activation relationship was then obtained by fitting a force-length model at different activation levels to the measured data. The obtained relationships agreed with previously reported data regarding muscle architecture, sarcomere length and activation-dependent shift of optimal length. Muscle forces estimated from kinematics and electromyography using the force-length-activation relationships were comparable, below 15% differences, to those estimated from moment via the musculoskeletal model. The obtained quantitative data provides a new insight into the different muscle mechanics of finger and wrist extensors. Graphical abstract By combining in vivo data (kinematics, dynamometry, electromyography, ultrasonography) during isometric force-varying contractions with musculoskeletal modelling, the force-length-activation relationships of both finger and wrist extensors were obtained. The results provided a new insight into the role of hand extensors in the generation and control of hand movements.
    Subject(s): Biomechanics ; Biomedical and Life Sciences ; Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering ; Biomedicine ; Computer Applications ; Engineering Sciences ; Human Physiology ; Imaging ; Mechanics ; Original Article ; Radiology
    ISSN: 0140-0118
    E-ISSN: 1741-0444
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of sports sciences, 2017-08-18, Vol.35 (16), p.1643-1651
    Description: This paper investigates how tennis players control stroke-induced vibration. Its aim is to characterise how a tennis player deals with entering vibration waves or how he/she has the ability to finely adjust them. A specific experimental procedure was designed, based on simultaneously collecting sets of kinematic, vibration and electromyographic data during forehand strokes using various commercial rackets and stroke intensities. Using 14 expert players, a wide range of excitations at spectral and temporal levels were investigated. Energetic and spectral descriptors of stroke-induced vibration occurring at the racket handle and at the player's wrist and elbow were computed. Results indicated that vibrational characteristics are strongly governed by grip force and to a lower extent by the racket properties. Grip force management drives the amount of energy, as well as its distribution, into the forearm. Furthermore, hand-grip can be assimilated to an adaptive filter which can significantly modify the spectral parameters propagating into the player's upper limb. A significant outcome is that these spectral characteristics are as much dependent on the player as on the racket. This contribution opens up new perspectives in equipment manufacture by underlining the need to account for player/racket interaction in the design process.
    Subject(s): Biomechanical Phenomena ; Biomechanics ; Elbow - physiology ; Electromyography ; Engineering Sciences ; Equipment Design ; Forearm - physiology ; grip force ; Hand Strength - physiology ; Hand-tool interaction ; high-resolution method ; Humans ; Male ; Man-Machine Systems ; Mechanics ; shock propagation ; Sports Equipment ; Tennis ; Tennis - physiology ; Vibration ; Wrist - physiology ; Young Adult
    ISSN: 0264-0414
    E-ISSN: 1466-447X
    Source: SPORTDiscus with Full Text
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of sports sciences, 2019-04-18, Vol.37 (8), p.886-894
    Description: Pull-ups are often used by sport-climbers and other athletes to train their arm and back muscle capabilities. Sport-climbers use different types of holds to reinforce finger strength concomitantly. However, the effect of grip types on pull-up performance had not previously been investigated. A vertical force platform sensor measured the force exerted by climbers when performing pull-ups under six different grip conditions (gym-bar, large climbing hold, and four small climbing holds: 22mm, 18mm, 14mm, and 10mm). The electromyography of finger flexors and extensor muscles were recorded simultaneously. The maximal arm power and summed mechanical work were computed. The results revealed that the number of pull-ups, maximal power, and summed mechanical work decreased significantly with the size of the climbing hold used, even if no differences were found between a large climbing hold and a gym-bar. Electromyography of the forearm muscles revealed that the use of a climbing hold generated finger flexor fatigue and that the level of cocontraction was impacted by the different segment coordination strategies generated during the pull-ups. These findings are likely to be useful for quantifying training loads more accurately and designing training exercises and programs.
    Subject(s): Arm - physiology ; arm power ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Biomechanics ; Electromyography ; Fingers - physiology ; grip types ; Hand Strength - physiology ; Humans ; Life Sciences & Biomedicine ; Male ; Mechanics ; Mountaineering - physiology ; Muscle Contraction - physiology ; Muscle Fatigue - physiology ; Muscle, Skeletal - physiology ; Physics ; Pull-up training ; Resistance Training ; Science & Technology ; Sport Sciences ; sport-climbing ; Task Performance and Analysis ; Young Adult
    ISSN: 0264-0414
    E-ISSN: 1466-447X
    Source: Web of Science - Science Citation Index Expanded - 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
    Source: SPORTDiscus with Full Text
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The American journal of sports medicine, 2013-10, Vol.41 (10), p.2375-2383
    Description: Background: Performing a single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction within the femoral footprint is important to obtain a functional graft and a stable knee. Hypothesis: There will be a significant difference in the ability of 3 ACL reconstruction techniques to reach and cover the native femoral footprint. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: The percentage of the ACL footprint covered by the femoral tunnel was compared after 3 different techniques to target the footprint: transtibial (TT), inside-out/anteromedial (IO), and outside-in/transfemoral (OI). Fourteen cadaveric knee specimens with a mean age of 67.5 years were used. For each knee, the TT technique utilized a 7.5-mm offset guide, the IO technique was performed through an accessory anteromedial portal, and the OI technique was carried out through the femur from the external wall of the lateral condyle. Entry points in the footprint were spotted with markers, and orientations (sagittal and frontal) of each drill guide were noted. The distal femurs were sawed and scanned, and 3-dimensional image reconstructions were analyzed. The virtual drilled area (reamer diameter, 8 mm) depending on the entry point and the sagittal/frontal orientation of the drill guide was calculated and reported for each of the 3 techniques. The distance from the tunnel center to the ACL center, percentage of the femoral tunnel within the ACL footprint, and percentage of the ACL footprint covered by the tunnel were calculated and statistically compared (analysis of variance and t test). Results: The average distance to the native femoral footprint center was 6.8 ± 2.68 mm for the TT, 2.84 ± 1.26 mm for the IO, and 2.56 ± 1.39 mm for the OI techniques. Average percentages of the femoral tunnel within the ACL footprint were 32%, 76%, and 78%, and average percentages of the ACL footprint covered by the tunnel were 35%, 54%, and 47%, for the TT, IO, and OI techniques, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the IO and OI techniques (P = .11). The TT approach gave less satisfactory coverage on all testing criteria. Conclusion: The IO and OI techniques allowed for creation of a tunnel closest to the ACL femoral footprint center. Despite this fact and even if the average percentage of the drilled area included in the femoral footprint was close to 80% for these 2 techniques, the average percentage of the ACL footprint covered by the tunnels was 〈55% for all 3 techniques. Coverage of the ACL footprint depended on the entry point, orientation, and diameter of the drilling but also on the size of the footprint. Clinical Relevance: To improve the coverage of the native femoral footprint with a single-bundle graft, in addition to the entry point it may also be necessary to consider the orientation of the drilling to increase the dimensions of the area while respecting the anatomic constraints of the femoral bone and graft geometry.
    Subject(s): Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Anterior Cruciate Ligament - diagnostic imaging ; Anterior Cruciate Ligament - surgery ; Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction - methods ; CT imaging ; Femur - diagnostic imaging ; Femur - surgery ; Humans ; Life Sciences ; Middle Aged ; Tomography, X-Ray Computed ; Usage
    ISSN: 0363-5465
    E-ISSN: 1552-3365
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2012, Vol.7 (8), p.e44406-e44406
    Description: Neuromusculoskeletal models are a common method to estimate muscle forces. Developing accurate neuromusculoskeletal models is a challenging task due to the complexity of the system and large inter-subject variability. The estimation of muscles force is based on the mechanical properties of tendon-aponeurosis complex. Most neuromusculoskeletal models use a generic definition of the tendon-aponeurosis complex based on in vitro test, perhaps limiting their validity. Ultrasonography allows subject-specific estimates of the tendon-aponeurosis complex's mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of subject-specific mechanical properties of the tendon-aponeurosis complex on a neuromusculoskeletal model of the ankle joint. Seven subjects performed isometric contractions from which the tendon-aponeurosis force-strain relationship was estimated. Hopping and running tasks were performed and muscle forces were estimated using subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis and generic tendon properties. Two ultrasound probes positioned over the muscle-tendon junction and the mid-belly were combined with motion capture to estimate the in vivo tendon and aponeurosis strain of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle. The tendon-aponeurosis force-strain relationship was scaled for the other ankle muscles based on tendon and aponeurosis length of each muscle measured by ultrasonography. The EMG-driven model was calibrated twice - using the generic tendon definition and a subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis force-strain definition. The use of subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis definition leads to a higher muscle force estimate for the soleus muscle and the plantar-flexor group, and to a better model prediction of the ankle joint moment compared to the model estimate which used a generic definition. Furthermore, the subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis definition leads to a decoupling behaviour between the muscle fibre and muscle-tendon unit in agreement with previous experiments using ultrasonography. These results indicate the use of subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis definitions in a neuromusculoskeletal model produce better agreement with measured external loads and more physiological model behaviour.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Ankle ; Biology ; Biomechanical Phenomena - physiology ; Biomechanics ; Calibration ; Complexity ; Decoupling ; Electromyography ; Engineering Sciences ; Exercise ; Gastrocnemius muscle ; Genetic aspects ; Humans ; In vitro methods and tests ; In vivo methods and tests ; Life Sciences ; Male ; Mathematical models ; Mechanical properties ; Medicine ; Models ; Models, Biological ; Motion perception ; Muscle contraction ; Muscle Fibers, Skeletal - diagnostic imaging ; Muscle Fibers, Skeletal - physiology ; Muscle, Skeletal - diagnostic imaging ; Muscle, Skeletal - physiology ; Muscles ; Musculoskeletal system ; Physical fitness ; Physiological aspects ; Physiology ; Research ; Soleus muscle ; Strain ; Task Performance and Analysis ; Tendons ; Tendons - physiology ; Ultrasonic imaging ; Ultrasonography ; Ultrasound ; Ultrasound imaging ; Usage
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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