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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Nature communications, 2019-10-08, Vol.10 (1), p.4501-9
    Description: Non-specific symptoms, as well as the lack of a cost-effective test to triage patients in primary care, has resulted in increased time-to-diagnosis and a poor prognosis for brain cancer patients. A rapid, cost-effective, triage test could significantly improve this patient pathway. A blood test using attenuated total reflection (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the detection of brain cancer, alongside machine learning technology, is advancing towards clinical translation. However, whilst the methodology is simple and does not require extensive sample preparation, the throughput of such an approach is limited. Here we describe the development of instrumentation for the analysis of serum that is able to differentiate cancer and control patients at a sensitivity and specificity of 93.2% and 92.8%. Furthermore, preliminary data from the first prospective clinical validation study of its kind are presented, demonstrating how this innovative technology can triage patients and allow rapid access to imaging.
    Subject(s): Adult ; Aged ; Biopsy ; Blood Chemical Analysis - economics ; Blood Chemical Analysis - methods ; Brain ; Brain - diagnostic imaging ; Brain - pathology ; Brain cancer ; Brain Neoplasms - blood ; Brain Neoplasms - diagnosis ; Brain Neoplasms - pathology ; Cancer ; Cost-Benefit Analysis ; Female ; Follow-Up Studies ; Fourier transforms ; Head and neck cancer ; Health care ; Humans ; Infrared reflection ; Infrared spectroscopy ; Instrumentation ; Laboratory techniques and procedures ; Learning algorithms ; Machine learning ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Multidisciplinary Sciences ; Neuroimaging ; Prospective Studies ; Retrospective Studies ; Sample preparation ; Science & Technology ; Science & Technology - Other Topics ; Sensitivity and Specificity ; Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared - economics ; Stability ; Technology ; Time Factors ; Translational research ; Triage - economics ; Triage - methods ; Young Adult
    ISSN: 2041-1723
    E-ISSN: 2041-1723
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: Web of Science - Science Citation Index Expanded - 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Analytical chemistry (Washington), 2019-10-01, Vol.91 (19), p.12117-12128
    Description: Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) represents an attractive molecular diagnostic modality for translation to the clinic, where comprehensive chemical profiling of biological samples may revolutionize a myriad of pathways in clinical settings. Principally, FT-IR provides a rapid, cost-effective platform to obtain a molecular fingerprint of clinical samples based on vibrational transitions of chemical bonds upon interaction with infrared light. To date, considerable research activities have demonstrated competitive to superior performance of FT-IR strategies in comparison to conventional techniques, with particular promise for earlier, accessible disease diagnostics, thereby improving patient outcomes. However, amidst the changing healthcare landscape in times of aging populations and increased prevalence of cancer and chronic disease, routine adoption of FT-IR within clinical laboratories has remained elusive. Hence, this perspective shall outline the significant clinical potential of FT-IR diagnostics and subsequently address current barriers to translation from the perspective of all stakeholders, in the context of biofluid, histopathology, cytology, microbiology, and biomarker discovery frameworks. Thereafter, future perspectives of FT-IR for healthcare will be discussed, with consideration of recent technological advances that may facilitate future clinical translation.
    Subject(s): Aging ; Biological properties ; Biological samples ; Biomarkers ; Business competition ; Chemical bonds ; Chemistry ; Chemistry, Analytical ; Cytology ; Diagnostic systems ; Fourier transforms ; Health care ; Histopathology ; Infrared radiation ; Infrared spectroscopy ; Microbiology ; Organic chemistry ; Physical Sciences ; Profiling ; Science & Technology ; Spectrum analysis ; Translation
    ISSN: 0003-2700
    E-ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: Web of Science - Science Citation Index Expanded - 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Nature protocols, 2014-08, Vol.9 (8), p.1771-1791
    Description: IR spectroscopy is an excellent method for biological analyses. It enables the nonperturbative, label-free extraction of biochemical information and images toward diagnosis and the assessment of cell functionality. Although not strictly microscopy in the conventional sense, it allows the construction of images of tissue or cell architecture by the passing of spectral data through a variety of computational algorithms. Because such images are constructed from fingerprint spectra, the notion is that they can be an objective reflection of the underlying health status of the analyzed sample. One of the major difficulties in the field has been determining a consensus on spectral pre-processing and data analysis. This manuscript brings together as coauthors some of the leaders in this field to allow the standardization of methods and procedures for adapting a multistage approach to a methodology that can be applied to a variety of cell biological questions or used within a clinical setting for disease screening or diagnosis. We describe a protocol for collecting IR spectra and images from biological samples (e.g., fixed cytology and tissue sections, live cells or biofluids) that assesses the instrumental options available, appropriate sample preparation, different sampling modes as well as important advances in spectral data acquisition. After acquisition, data processing consists of a sequence of steps including quality control, spectral pre-processing, feature extraction and classification of the supervised or unsupervised type. A typical experiment can be completed and analyzed within hours. Example results are presented on the use of IR spectra combined with multivariate data processing.
    Subject(s): Cells ; Colon - pathology ; Histocytological Preparation Techniques ; Humans ; Infrared spectroscopy ; Physiological aspects ; Software ; Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared - instrumentation ; Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared - methods ; Usage
    ISSN: 1754-2189
    E-ISSN: 1750-2799
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 4
    Article
    Article
    2018
    ISSN: 0003-2654 
    Language: English
    In: Analyst (London), 2018-12-03, Vol.143 (24), p.5872-5873
    Description: Welcome to the latest themed issue on the topic of Optical Diagnosis in Analyst , guest-edited by Dr. Matthew Baker.
    ISSN: 0003-2654
    E-ISSN: 1364-5528
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Analyst (London), 2018-04-16, Vol.143 (8), p.1735-1757
    Description: Vibrational spectroscopies, based on infrared absorption and/or Raman scattering provide a detailed fingerprint of a material, based on the chemical content. Diagnostic and prognostic tools based on these technologies have the potential to revolutionise our clinical systems leading to improved patient outcome, more efficient public services and significant economic savings. However, despite these strong drivers, there are many fundamental scientific and technological challenges which have limited the implementation of this technology in the clinical arena, although recent years have seen significant progress in addressing these challenges. This review examines (i) the state of the art of clinical applications of infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy, and (ii) the outstanding challenges, and progress towards translation, highlighting specific examples in the areas of in vivo , ex vivo and in vitro applications. In addition, the requirements of instrumentation suitable for use in the clinic, strategies for pre-processing and statistical analysis in clinical spectroscopy and data sharing protocols, will be discussed. Emerging consensus recommendations are presented, and the future perspectives of the field are assessed, particularly in the context of national and international collaborative research initiatives, such as the UK EPSRC Clinical Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Network, the EU COST Action Raman4Clinics, and the International Society for Clinical Spectroscopy. This review examines the state-of-the-art of clinical applications of infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy, outstanding challenges, and progress towards translation.
    Subject(s): Data retrieval ; Diagnostic software ; Diagnostic systems ; Infrared absorption ; Infrared spectroscopy ; Protocol (computers) ; R&D ; Raman spectra ; Raman spectroscopy ; Research & development ; Spectrum analysis ; State-of-the-art reviews ; Statistical analysis
    ISSN: 0003-2654
    E-ISSN: 1364-5528
    Source: Get It Now
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Analytical chemistry (Washington), 2019-10-01, Vol.91 (19), p.12369-12376
    Description: A major challenge within forensic science is the development of accurate and robust methodologies that can be utilized on-site for detection at crime scenes and can be used for analyzing multiple sample types. The recent expansion of electrochemical sensors to tackle this hurdle requires sensors that can undergo analysis without any pretreatment. Given the vast array of samples that are submitted for forensic analysis, this can pose a major challenge for all electrochemical sensors, including electrochemiluminescent (ECL)-based sensors. Within this contribution, we demonstrate the capacity for an ECL-based sensor to address this challenge and it is potential to detect and quantify atropine from a wide range of samples directly from herbal material to spiked solutions. This portable platform demonstrates satisfactory analytical parameters with linearity across a concentration range of 0.75 to 100 μM, reproducibility of 3.0%, repeatability of 9.2%, and a detection limit of ∼0.75 μM. The sensor displays good selectivity toward alkaloid species and, in particular, the hallucinogenic tropane alkaloid functionality within complex matrices. This portable sensor provides rapid detection alongside low cost and operational simplicity, thus, providing a basis for the exploitation of ECL-based sensors within the forensic arena.
    Subject(s): Atropine ; Chemical sensors ; Chemistry ; Chemistry, Analytical ; Crime ; Electrochemiluminescence ; Electrochemistry ; Exploitation ; Forensic science ; Linearity ; Mathematical analysis ; Physical Sciences ; Pretreatment ; Reproducibility ; Science & Technology ; Selectivity ; Sensors ; Tropane
    ISSN: 0003-2700
    E-ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: Web of Science - Science Citation Index Expanded - 2019〈img src="http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/fromwos-v2.jpg" /〉
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of neuro-oncology, 2016-02-13, Vol.127 (3), p.463-472
    Description: The ability to diagnose cancer rapidly with high sensitivity and specificity is essential to exploit advances in new treatments to lead significant reductions in mortality and morbidity. Current cancer diagnostic tests observing tissue architecture and specific protein expression for specific cancers suffer from inter-observer variability, poor detection rates and occur when the patient is symptomatic. A new method for the detection of cancer using 1 μl of human serum, attenuated total reflection—Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and pattern recognition algorithms is reported using a 433 patient dataset (3897 spectra). To the best of our knowledge, we present the largest study on serum mid-infrared spectroscopy for cancer research. We achieve optimum sensitivities and specificities using a Radial Basis Function Support Vector Machine of between 80.0 and 100 % for all strata and identify the major spectral features, hence biochemical components, responsible for the discrimination within each stratum. We assess feature fed-SVM analysis for our cancer versus non-cancer model and achieve 91.5 and 83.0 % sensitivity and specificity respectively. We demonstrate the use of infrared light to provide a spectral signature from human serum to detect, for the first time, cancer versus non-cancer, metastatic cancer versus organ confined, brain cancer severity and the organ of origin of metastatic disease from the same sample enabling stratified diagnostics depending upon the clinical question asked.
    Subject(s): Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Algorithms ; Analysis ; ATR-FTIR ; Biomarkers, Tumor - blood ; Brain Neoplasms - blood ; Brain Neoplasms - diagnosis ; Brain tumors ; Cancer ; Case-Control Studies ; Cell Differentiation ; Diagnosis ; Diagnostics ; Early Detection of Cancer ; Female ; Follow-Up Studies ; Glioma ; Gliomas ; Health aspects ; Humans ; Infrared spectroscopy ; Laboratory Investigation ; Male ; Medicine ; Medicine & Public Health ; Metastasis ; Middle Aged ; Mortality ; Neoplasm Grading ; Neurology ; Oncology ; Prognosis ; Rapid ; Serum ; Spectroscopy ; Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared - methods ; Support Vector Machine ; Young Adult
    ISSN: 0167-594X
    E-ISSN: 1573-7373
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 8
    Article
    Article
    2015
    ISSN: 0167-7799 
    Language: English
    In: Trends in biotechnology (Regular ed.), 2015, Vol.33 (10), p.557-558
    Description: Technological advances, namely the integration of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) within an infrared (IR) microscope, are enabling the development of valuable label-free biomedical-imaging tools capable of targeting and detecting salient chemical species within practical clinical timeframes.
    Subject(s): Acquisitions & mergers ; Biomedical research ; Biotechnology ; Diagnostic Imaging - instrumentation ; Diagnostic Imaging - methods ; Diagnostic Imaging - trends ; discrete frequency ; Equipment Design ; Fourier transforms ; Humans ; Imaging systems ; Infrared ; Infrared imaging ; Infrared Rays ; Internal Medicine ; Lasers ; Lasers, Semiconductor ; microscope ; Microscopes ; Microscopy ; Microscopy - instrumentation ; Microscopy - methods ; Microscopy - trends ; quantum ; Quantum cascade lasers ; Quantum Theory ; rapid ; Signal-To-Noise Ratio ; Spectrum allocation ; Trends
    ISSN: 0167-7799
    E-ISSN: 1879-3096
    Source: Backfile Package - All of Back Files EBS [ALLOFBCKF]
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  • 9
    Article
    Article
    2021
    ISSN: 2662-9992 
    Language: English
    In: Humanities & social sciences communications, 2021-12, Vol.8 (1), p.1-17
    Description: AbstractA useful tool in understanding the roots of the world geography of culture is the Age-Area-Hypothesis. The Age-Area Hypothesis (AAH) asserts that the point of geographical origin of a group of related cultures is most likely where the culture speaking the most divergent language is located. In spite of its widespread, multidisciplinary application, the hypothesis remains imprecisely stated, and has no theoretical underpinnings. This paper describes a model of the AAH based on an economic theory of mass migrations. The theory leads to a family of measures of cultural divergence, which can be referred to as Dyen divergence measures. One measure is used to develop an Age-Area Theorem, which links linguistic divergence and likelihood of geographical origin. The theory allows for computation of the likelihood different locations are origin points for a group of related cultures, and can be applied recursively to yield probabilities of different historical migratory paths. The theory yields an Occam’s-razor-like result: migratory paths that are the simplest are also the most likely; a key principle of the AAH. The paper concludes with an application to the geographical origins of the peoples speaking Semitic languages.
    Subject(s): Hypotheses
    ISSN: 2662-9992
    E-ISSN: 2662-9992
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
    Source: ProQuest Central
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: BMJ open, 2018-05, Vol.8 (5), p.e017593-e017593
    Description: ObjectivesTo determine the potential costs and health benefits of a serum-based spectroscopic triage tool for brain tumours, which could be developed to reduce diagnostic delays in the current clinical pathway.DesignA model-based health pre-trial economic assessment. Decision tree models were constructed based on simplified diagnostic pathways. Models were populated with parameters identified from rapid reviews of the literature and clinical expert opinion.SettingExplored as a test in both primary and secondary care (neuroimaging) in the UK health service, as well as application to the USA.ParticipantsCalculations based on an initial cohort of 10 000 patients. In primary care, it is estimated that the volume of tests would approach 75 000 per annum. The volume of tests in secondary care is estimated at 53 000 per annum.Main outcome measuresThe primary outcome measure was quality-adjusted life-years (QALY), which were employed to derive incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) in a cost-effectiveness analysis.ResultsResults indicate that using a blood-based spectroscopic test in both scenarios has the potential to be highly cost-effective in a health technology assessment agency decision-making process, as ICERs were well below standard threshold values of £20 000–£30 000 per QALY. This test may be cost-effective in both scenarios with test sensitivities and specificities as low as 80%; however, the price of the test would need to be lower (less than approximately £40).ConclusionUse of this test as triage tool in primary care has the potential to be both more effective and cost saving for the health service. In secondary care, this test would also be deemed more effective than the current diagnostic pathway.
    Subject(s): 1506 ; 1701 ; 747 ; adult oncology ; Algorithms ; Artificial intelligence ; Biomarkers ; biophysics ; Biopsy ; Blood tests ; Brain cancer ; Brain Neoplasms - blood ; Brain Neoplasms - diagnosis ; Clinical trials ; Continuity of Patient Care - economics ; Cost control ; Cost-Benefit Analysis - statistics & numerical data ; Critical Pathways ; Fourier transforms ; Headaches ; Health Economics ; Health services ; Hematologic Tests - economics ; Humans ; Medical diagnosis ; Medical imaging ; Models, Economic ; neurological oncology ; neurology ; Patients ; Primary care ; Primary Health Care - economics ; Quality-Adjusted Life Years ; Sensitivity and Specificity ; Spectrum analysis ; Technology Assessment, Biomedical - organization & administration ; Triage ; Tumors ; United Kingdom
    ISSN: 2044-6055
    E-ISSN: 2044-6055
    Source: HighWire Press (Free Journals)
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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