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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of marketing research, 2011-01-01, Vol.48 (SPL), p.S23-S37
    Description: Many people fail to save what they will need for retirement. Research on excessive discounting of the future suggests that removing the lure of immediate rewards by precommitting to decisions or elaborating the value of future rewards both can make decisions more future oriented. The authors explore a third and complementary route, one that deals not with present and future rewards but with present and future selves. In line with research that shows that people may fail, because of a lack of belief or imagination, to identify with their future selves, the authors propose that allowing people to interact with age-progressed renderings of themselves will cause them to allocate more resources to the future. In four studies, participants interacted with realistic computer renderings of their future selves using immersive virtual reality hardware and interactive decision aids. In all cases, those who interacted with their virtual future selves exhibited an increased tendency to accept later monetary rewards over immediate ones.
    Subject(s): Age ; Age progression (Forensic science) ; Analytical forecasting ; Consumer behavior ; Discounting ; future self-continuity ; immersive virtual reality ; intertemporal choice ; Marketing ; Methods ; Photographs ; Research ; Retirement ; Retirement income ; Retirement planning ; Retirement saving ; Rewards ; Savings ; Self ; Self-evaluation ; Studies ; Technology application ; temporal discounting ; Usage ; Virtual avatars ; Virtual reality
    ISSN: 0022-2437
    E-ISSN: 1547-7193
    Source: Communication & Mass Media Complete
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences VII
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of advertising, 2011-07-01, Vol.40 (2), p.93-106
    Description: Self-endorsing—the portrayal of potential consumers using products—is a novel advertising strategy made possible by the development of virtual environments. Three experiments compared self-endorsing to endorsing by an unfamiliar other. In Experiment 1, self-endorsing in online advertisements led to higher brand attitude and purchase intention than other-endorsing. Moreover, photographs were a more effective persuasion channel than text. In Experiment 2, participants wore a brand of clothing in a high-immersive virtual environment and preferred the brand worn by their virtual self to the brand worn by others. Experiment 3 demonstrated that an additional mechanism behind self-endorsing was the interactivity of the virtual representation. Evidence for self-referencing as a mediator is presented.
    Subject(s): Advertising ; Advertising campaigns ; Advertising research ; Attitudes ; Brand equity ; Brands ; Comparative advertising ; Consumer attitudes ; Consumer psychology ; Consumers ; Endorsement advertising ; Endorsements ; Evaluation ; Experiments ; Influence ; Mathematical dependent variables ; Online advertising ; Research ; Self ; Social psychology ; Social research ; Studies ; Virtual avatars ; Virtual networks
    ISSN: 0091-3367
    E-ISSN: 1557-7805
    Source: Communication & Mass Media Complete
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences VI
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of the learning sciences, 2008-02-15, Vol.17 (1), p.102-141
    Description: This article illustrates the utility of using virtual environments to transform social interaction via behavior and context, with the goal of improving learning in digital environments. We first describe the technology and theories behind virtual environments and then report data from 4 empirical studies. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated that teachers with augmented social perception (i.e., receiving visual warnings alerting them to students not receiving enough teacher eye gaze) were able to spread their attention more equally among students than teachers without augmented perception. In Experiments 2 and 3, we demonstrated that by breaking the rules of spatial proximity that exist in physical space, students can learn more by being in the center of the teacher's field of view (compared to the periphery) and by being closer to the teacher (compared to farther away). In Experiment 4, we demonstrated that inserting virtual co-learners who were either model students or distracting students changed the learning abilities of experiment participants who conformed to the virtual co-learners. Results suggest that virtual environments will have a unique ability to alter the social dynamics of learning environments via transformed social interaction. We would like to thank Roy Pea, Byron Reeves, and the Stanford LIFE lab for helpful suggestions and Sandra Okita and Dan Schwartz for suggestions as well as for detailed comments on an earlier draft of this article. This work was supported in part by National Science Foundation Grant 0527377.
    Subject(s): Educational environment ; Fever ; Learning ; Learning disabilities ; Lectures ; Perceptions ; Pharmaceutical industry ; Prescription drugs ; School environment ; Science education ; Social interaction ; Studies ; Teachers ; Virtual reality ; Visual fixation
    ISSN: 1050-8406
    E-ISSN: 1532-7809
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences IV
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Scientific reports, 2021-01-13, Vol.11 (1), p.1022-1022
    Description: Research about vection (illusory self-motion) has investigated a wide range of sensory cues and employed various methods and equipment, including use of virtual reality (VR). However, there is currently no research in the field of vection on the impact of floating in water while experiencing VR. Aquatic immersion presents a new and interesting method to potentially enhance vection by reducing conflicting sensory information that is usually experienced when standing or sitting on a stable surface. This study compares vection, visually induced motion sickness, and presence among participants experiencing VR while standing on the ground or floating in water. Results show that vection was significantly enhanced for the participants in the Water condition, whose judgments of self-displacement were larger than those of participants in the Ground condition. No differences in visually induced motion sickness or presence were found between conditions. We discuss the implication of this new type of VR experience for the fields of VR and vection while also discussing future research questions that emerge from our findings.
    Subject(s): Computer applications ; Immersion ; Motion sickness ; Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) ; Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi) ; Virtual reality
    ISSN: 2045-2322
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
    Source: Nature Open Access
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Public opinion quarterly, 2008-12, Vol.72 (5), p.935-961
    Description: Social science research demonstrates that people are drawn to others perceived as similar. We extend this finding to political candidates by comparing the relative effects of candidate familiarity as well as partisan, issue, gender, and facial similarity on voters' evaluations of candidates. In Experiment 1, during the week of the 2006 Florida gubernatorial race, a national representative sample of voters viewed images of two unfamiliar candidates (Crist and Davis) morphed with either themselves or other voters. Results demonstrated a strong preference for facially similar candidates, despite no conscious awareness of the similarity manipulation. In Experiment 2, one week before the 2004 presidential election, a national representative sample of voters evaluated familiar candidates (Bush and Kerry). Strong partisans were unmoved by the facial similarity manipulation, but weak partisans and independents preferred the candidate with whom their own face had been morphed over the candidate morphed with another voter. In Experiment 3, we compared the effects of policy similarity and facial similarity using a set of prospective 2008 presidential candidates. Even though the effects of party and policy similarity dominated, facial similarity proved a significant cue for unfamiliar candidates. Thus, the evidence across the three studies suggests that even in high-profile elections, voters prefer candidates high in facial similarity, but most strongly with unfamiliar candidates.
    Subject(s): Candidates ; Congressional elections ; Crist, Charlie ; Election results ; Electioneering ; Experiment design ; Experiments ; Face ; Gender ; Influence ; Kerry, John ; Meta-analysis ; Partisanship ; Perceptual similarity ; Photographs ; Political campaigns ; Political candidates ; Political parties ; Political partisanship ; Preferences ; Presidential elections ; Public opinion surveys ; Social aspects ; Social psychology ; Studies ; U.S.A ; Voter behavior ; Voting
    ISSN: 0033-362X
    E-ISSN: 1537-5331
    Source: Communication & Mass Media Complete
    Source: International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS)
    Source: JSTOR Arts & Sciences I
    Source: Business Source Ultimate
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
    Source: Alma/SFX Local Collection
    Source: Sociological Abstracts
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Media psychology, 2016-04-02, Vol.19 (2), p.272-309
    Description: The concept of presence, or "being there" is a frequently emphasized factor in immersive mediated environments. It is often assumed that greater levels of immersive quality elicit higher levels of presence, in turn enhancing the effectiveness of a mediated experience. To investigate this assumption the current meta-analysis synthesizes decades of empirical research examining the effect of immersive system technology on user experiences of presence. Aggregating 115 effect sizes from 83 studies, it finds that technological immersion has a medium-sized effect on presence. Additionally, results show that increased levels of user-tracking, the use of stereoscopic visuals, and wider fields of view of visual displays are significantly more impactful than improvements to most other immersive system features, including quality of visual and auditory content. These findings are discussed in light of theoretical accounts of the presence construct as well as practical implications for design.
    Subject(s): Mass media ; Meta-analysis ; Technology ; Users
    ISSN: 1521-3269
    E-ISSN: 1532-785X
    Source: Communication & Mass Media Complete
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Media psychology, 2009-02-26, Vol.12 (1), p.1-25
    Description: Social cognitive theory is often implemented when researchers develop treatments and campaigns for health behavior change. Immersive virtual environment technology (IVET) enables novel explorations of health behavior modeling. In Study 1, participants were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: vicarious reinforcement, in which a virtual representation of the physical self (VRS) gained or lost weight in accordance with participants' physical exercise; an unchanging VRS; or no virtual representation. The reinforcement group performed significantly more exercise in a voluntary phase than those in other conditions. Study 2 separated reward (weight loss) from punishment (weight gain) and also explored model identification by contrasting the effects of a VRS with a VRO (virtual representation of an other); participants exercised significantly more when they viewed the VRS, regardless of whether reward or punishment was shown. In Study 3, participants were exposed to either a VRS running on a treadmill, a VRO running, or a VRS loitering, and we examined effects 24 hours after the experiment. Follow-up surveys revealed that participants in the VRS-running condition demonstrated significantly higher levels of exercise than those in other conditions. We discuss implications for media use and health communication.
    Subject(s): Cognition & reasoning ; Health behavior ; Role models ; Social psychology ; Studies
    ISSN: 1521-3269
    E-ISSN: 1532-785X
    Source: Communication & Mass Media Complete
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Water (Basel), 2021, Vol.13 (9), p.1142
    Description: As coastal communities around the globe contend with the impacts of climate change including coastal hazards such as sea level rise and more frequent coastal storms, educating stakeholders and the general public has become essential in order to adapt to and mitigate these risks. Communicating SLR and other coastal risks is not a simple task. First, SLR is a phenomenon that is abstract as it is physically distant from many people; second, the rise of the sea is a slow and temporally distant process which makes this issue psychologically distant from our everyday life. Virtual reality (VR) simulations may offer a way to overcome some of these challenges, enabling users to learn key principles related to climate change and coastal risks in an immersive, interactive, and safe learning environment. This article first presents the literature on environmental issues communication and engagement; second, it introduces VR technology evolution and expands the discussion on VR application for environmental literacy. We then provide an account of how three coastal communities have used VR experiences developed by multidisciplinary teams-including residents-to support communication and community outreach focused on SLR and discuss their implications.
    Subject(s): adaptation ; belief ; climate change ; coastal ; community outreach ; determinants ; environmental literacy ; Environmental Sciences & Ecology ; Long Beach ; ocean ; Oceanografi, hydrologi, vattenresurser ; Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources ; people ; perceptions ; Santa Cruz ; sea level rise ; temperature ; Turner Station ; virtual reality ; Water Resources
    ISSN: 2073-4441
    E-ISSN: 2073-4441
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
    Source: ProQuest Central
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2013, Vol.8 (1), p.e55003-e55003
    Description: Recent studies have shown that playing prosocial video games leads to greater subsequent prosocial behavior in the real world. However, immersive virtual reality allows people to occupy avatars that are different from them in a perceptually realistic manner. We examine how occupying an avatar with the superhero ability to fly increases helping behavior. Using a two-by-two design, participants were either given the power of flight (their arm movements were tracked to control their flight akin to Superman's flying ability) or rode as a passenger in a helicopter, and were assigned one of two tasks, either to help find a missing diabetic child in need of insulin or to tour a virtual city. Participants in the "super-flight" conditions helped the experimenter pick up spilled pens after their virtual experience significantly more than those who were virtual passengers in a helicopter. The results indicate that having the "superpower" of flight leads to greater helping behavior in the real world, regardless of how participants used that power. A possible mechanism for this result is that having the power of flight primed concepts and prototypes associated with superheroes (e.g., Superman). This research illustrates the potential of using experiences in virtual reality technology to increase prosocial behavior in the physical world.
    Subject(s): Aircraft ; Arm ; Avatars ; Aviation ; Behavior ; Child ; Child development ; Computer & video games ; Computer applications ; Diabetes mellitus ; Diabetics ; Empathy ; Engineering ; Environment ; Female ; Flight ; Flight behavior ; Helping Behavior ; Human behavior ; Humans ; Immersive virtual reality ; Insulin ; Male ; Medicine ; Movement ; Passengers ; Pens ; Prototypes ; Researchers ; Social and Behavioral Sciences ; Social psychology ; Studies ; Surveys and Questionnaires ; Time Factors ; User-Computer Interface ; Video Games ; Virtual reality
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Academic Search Ultimate
    Source: PubMed Central
    Source: DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals - Not for CDI Discovery
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Communication research, 2009-04, Vol.36 (2), p.285-312
    Description: Virtual environments allow individuals to dramatically alter their self-representation. More important, studies have shown that people infer their expected behaviors and attitudes from observing their avatar's appearance, a phenomenon known as the Proteus effect. For example, users given taller avatars negotiated more aggressively than users given shorter avatars. Two studies are reported here that extend our understanding of this effect. The first study extends the work beyond laboratory settings to an actual online community. It was found that both the height and attractiveness of an avatar in an online game were significant predictors of the player's performance. In the second study, it was found that the behavioral changes stemming from the virtual environment transferred to subsequent face-to-face interactions. Participants were placed in an immersive virtual environment and were given either shorter or taller avatars. They then interacted with a confederate for about 15 minutes. In addition to causing a behavioral difference within the virtual environment, the authors found that participants given taller avatars negotiated more aggressively in subsequent face-to-face interactions than participants given shorter avatars. Together, these two studies show that our virtual bodies can change how we interact with others in actual avatar-based online communities as well as in subsequent face-to-face interactions.
    Subject(s): Avatars ; Avatars (Computer graphics) ; Communication research ; Computer & video games ; Computer mediated communication ; Interpersonal relations ; Methods ; Observations ; Proteus ; Psychological aspects ; Social interaction ; Studies ; Technology application ; Usage ; Virtual communities ; Virtual environments ; Virtual worlds ; Virtualization
    ISSN: 0093-6502
    E-ISSN: 1552-3810
    Source: Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
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